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fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

fE. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. fW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, L.H.D. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soc. 











First printed 1913 
Eeprinted 1921, 1927, 1953, 1961 

Printed in Great Britain 








n 21 

HIPPIAS, OR THE BATH [Hippias) 33 

DIONYSUS (Bacchus) 47 

HERACLES (Nercuks) 61 

AMBER, OR THE SWANS (De ehctro) • 73 

THE FLY {Muscae laudatio) 81 

"nigrinus 97 


THE HALL [De (lomo) 175 

MY NATIVE LAND (Patriae laxidatio) 209 

OCTOGENARIANS (Lojigaevi) 221 

A TRUE STORY ( Verae Historiae) i 247 

" ') >> >> ir 303 

SLANDER (Calumniae non temert credendum) ..... 359 

THE CONSONANTS AT LAW (ludicium vocalium) .... 395 

THE CAROUSAL, OR THE LAPITHS (Convivium) . . . • 411 



Volume I 

Phalaris I and II — Hippias or the Bath — Dionysus — 
Heracles — Amber or The Swans — The Fly — Xigrinus — 
Demonax — The Hall — My Native Land — Octogenarians — A 
True Story I and II — Slander — The Consonants at Law — The 
Carousal or The Lapiths. 

Volume II 

The Downward Journey or The Tyrant — Zeus Catechized 
— Zeus Rants — The Dream or The Cock — Prometheus — 
Icaromenippus or The Sky-man — Timon or The Misanthrope 
— Charon or The Inspector — Philoso phies for Sale. 

Volume III 

The Dead Come to Life or The Fisherman — The Double 
Indictment or Trials by Jury — On Sacrifices — The Ignorant 
Book Collector — The Dream or Lucian's Career — The Parasite 
■=;:The Lover of Lies — The Judgement of the Goddesses — On 
Salaried Posts in Great Houses. 

Volume IV 

Anacharsis or Athletics — Menippus or The Descent into 
Hades — On Fimerals — A Professor of Public Speaking — 
Alexander the False Prophet — Essays in Portraiture — Essays 
in Portraiture Defended — The Goddess of Surrye. 




The Passing of Peregrinus — The Runaways — Toxaris or 
Friendship — The Dance — Lexiphanes — The Eunuch — Astro- 
logy — The Mistaken Critic — The Parliament of the Gods — 
The Tyrannicide — Disowned. 

Volume VI 

Historia — Dipsades — Saturnalia — Herodolus — Zeuxis — Pro 
Lapsu — Apologia — Harmonides — Hesiodus — Scytha — Hermo- 
timus — Prometheus Es — ^Navigium. 

Dialogues of the Dead — Dialogues of the Sea-Gods — 
Dialogues of the Gods (exc. Deorum Judicium of. Vol. Ill) — 
Dialogues of the Courtesans. 

Volume VIII 

Soloecista — Lucius or the Ass — Amores — Halcyon — Demos- 
thenes — Podagra — Ocypus — Cyniscus — PhilopatrLs — Chari- 
demus — Nero. 



LuciAN was born at Saniosata in Commagene and 
calls himself a Syrian ; he may or may not have 
been of Semitic stock. The exact duration of his 
life is unknown, but it is probable that he was bom 
not long before 125 a.d. and died not long after 180. 
Something of his life-history is given us in his own 
writings, notably in the Dream, the Doubly Indicted, 
the Fisher, and the Apology. If what he tells us in 
the Dream is to be taken seriously (and it is usually 
so taken), he began his career as apprentice to his 
uncle, a sculptor, but soon became disgusted with 
his prospects in that calling and gave it up for 
Rhetoric, the branch of the literary profession then 
most in favour. Theoretically the vocation of a 
rhetorician was to plead in court, to compose pleas 
for others and to teach the art of pleading ; but in 
practice his vocation was far less important in his 
own eyes and those of the public than his avocation, 
which consisted in going about from place to place 



and often from country to country displaynig his 
ability as a speaker before the educated classes. In 
this way Lucian travelled through Ionia and Greece, 
to Italy and even to Gaul, and won much wealth and 
fame. Samples of his repertory are still extant among 
his works — declamations like the Phalaris, essays on 
abstract themes like Slander, descriptions, apprecia- 
tions, and depreciations. But although a field like this 
afforded ample scope for the ordinary rhetorician, it 
could not display the full talent of a Lucian. His 
bent for satire, which crops out even in his writings 
of this period, had to find expression, and ultimately 
found it in the satiric dialogue. In a sense, then, 
what he says is true, that he abandoned Rhetoric : 
but only in a very limited sense. In reality he 
changed only his repei'tory, not his profession, for 
his productions continued to be presented in the 
same manner and for the same purpose as of old — 
from a lecture-platform to entertain an audience. 

Rightly to understand and appreciate Lucian, one 
must recognise that he was not a philosopher nor 
even a moralist, but a rhetorician, that his mission in 
life was not to reform society nor to chastise it, but 
simply to amuse it. He himself admits on every 
page that he is serious only in his desire to please, 
and he would answer all charges but that of dullness 


with an ov <^poi'Tts Ttttto/cXci'St/. Judged from his 
own stand-point, he is successful ; not only in his 
own times but in all the ensuing ages his witty, well- 
phrased comments on life, more akin to comedy than 
to true satire, have brought him the applause that 
he craved. 

Among the eighty-two pieces that have come 
down CO us under the name of Lucian, there are not 
a few of which his authorship has been disputed. 
Certainly spurious are Halcyon, Nero, Philopatris, 
and Astrology ; and to these, it seems to me, the 
Consonants at Law should be added. Furthermore, 
Demosthenes, Charidemus, Cynic, Love, Octogenaiians, 
Hippias, Ungrammatical Man, Swiftfoot, and the 
epigrams are generally considered spurious, and there 
are several others (^Disowned and My Cotmiry in 
particular) which, to say the least, are of doubtful 

Beside satiric dialogues, which form the bulk of 
his work, and early rhetorical writings, we have from 
the pen of Lucian two romances, A True Story and 
Lucius, or the Ass (if indeed the latter is his), some 
introductions to readings and a number of mis- 
cellaneous treatises. Very few of his writings can 
be dated with any accuracy. An effort to group 
them on a chronological basis has been made by 



M. Croisetj but it cannot be called entirely successful. 
The order in which they are to be presented in this 
edition is that of the best manuscript (Vaticanus 90), 
which, through its adoption in Rabe's edition of the 
scholia to Lucian and in Nilen's edition of the text, 
bids fair to become standard. 

There are a hundred and fifty manuscripts of 
Lucian, more or less, which give us a tradition that 
is none too good. There is no satisfactory critical 
edition of Lucian except Nilen's, which is now in 
progress. His text has been followed, as far as it 
was available, through the True Story. Beyond this 
point it has been necessary to make a new text 
for this edition. In order that text and 
translation may as far as possible correspond, con- 
jectures have been admitted with considerable 
freedom : for the fact that a good many of them 
bear the initials of the translator he need not 
apologize if they are good ; if they are not no 
apology will avail him. He is deeply indebted to 
Professor Edward Capps for reviewing his translation 
in the proof. 



It has not seemed necessarj' or advisable, in reprinting 
this vohmie, to revise the Greek text and critical notes in 
order to bring them into complete conformity with the plan 
announced in the second volume. For mistakes and infelici- 
ties that have been brought to my attention, I am especially 
indebted to Professor Paul Shorey and to Professor Frank 
Cole Babbitt. 


Chief manuscripts : — 
7 group— 

Vaticanus 90 (r), 9/lOth century. 
Harleianus 5694 (E), 9/lOth century. 
Laurentianus C. S. 77 (*), 10th century. 
Marcianus 434 (n), 10/1 1th century. 
Mutinensis 193 (S), 10th century. 
Laurentianus 57, 51 (L), Uth century- (?). 

fi group — 

Vindobonensis 123 (B), 11th century (?). 
Vaticanus 1324 (U), 11 /12th century, 
Vaticanus 76 (P). 
Vaticanus 1323 (Z). 
Parisinus 2957 (N). 

Principal editions : — 

Florentine, of 1496, the first edition by J. Lascaris, 
from the press of L. de Alopa. 

Hemsterhuys-Reitz, Amsterdam 1743, containing a 
Latin translation by Gesner, critical notes, variorum 
commentary and a word-index (C. C. Reitz, 1746). 



Lehmann, Leipzig 1822-1831, a convenient variorum 
edition which contains Gesner's translation but lacks 
Reitz's index. 

Jacobitz, Leipzig 1836-1841, with critical notes, a 
subject-index and a word-index ; it contains the scholia. 

Jacobitz, Leipzig 1851, in the Teubner series of 
classical texts. 

Bekker, Leipzig 1853. 

Dindorf, Leipzig 1858, in the Tauchnitz series. 

Fritzsche, Rostock 1860-1882, an incomplete edition 
containing only thirty pieces ; excellent critical notes 
and prolegomena. 

Sommerbrodt, Berlin 1886-1899, also incomplete, but 
lacking onlj' fifteen pieces ; with critical appendices. 

Nil6n, Leipzig 1906- , the new Teubner text, with 
very full critical notes, and part of the Prolegomena in 
a separate gathering ; the text is to appear in eight 
parts, of which the first is out and the second in press. 

Noteworthy English Translations : — 
Francklin, London 1780. 
Tooke, London 1820. 
Fowler (H. W.) and Fowler (F. G.), Oxford 1905. 

Scholia : edited by Rabe, Leipzig 1906. 

Mras, Die Ueberlieferung Imcians, Vienna, 1911. 

Croiset, Essai sur la Vie et les (Euvres de Lucian, Paris 1882. 

Foerster, Lucian in dtr Renaissance, Kiel 1886 

Helm, Lucian und Menipp, Leipzig 1906. 

There are also very numerous editions and translations of 
selections from Lucian, of which no mention has been made, 
besides dissertations and essays. A survey of the Lucian 
literature for ten years back may be found in Bursiana 
Jahreshericht 129 (1906), pp. 237-252, and 149 (1910), 
pp. 44-95. 




This piece and its fellow should not be taken as a serious 
attempt to whitewash Phalaris and to excuse Delphi for 
accepting a tainted gift. They are good specimens of the 
stock of a rhetorician, and something more. To put yourself 
in another man's shoes and say what he would have said was 
a regular exercise of the schools, but to laugh in your sleeve 
as you said it was not the way of the ordinary rhetorician. 



^FiTre fxyfrev rj/ia^, o) Ae\(f)oi, 6 ij/xerepo? Svvda- 1 
Tr)<i ^aX.apt'i a^ovTa<; tm Oew rov ravpov tovtov koI 
vfxlv hiaXe^oiJjh'ou^ ra ecKora vTvep re avrov eKelvov 
Kol virep rov dvadi^/xaro^. wv fiev ovu eveKa 
i]KO/xev, Tavra iariv a Se je tt/^o? vpd<i eVe- 
crreiXev rdSe'^ 

'E7&), (f)r}aiv, CO AeX</)Ot, koL irapd irdai fxev Tol<; 

'EWi/crt rotovTo<i vTrdX-afx^dvecrOaL oirolo'i elfii, 

dWa fir) oTTOiov rj rrapa rcov fiLcrovvTcov Kol (f)0o- 

vnvvTcov (f)>']firj rai^ twv d<yvoovvrcov uKoal^ irapa- 

heZoiKSv, dvrl rcov travrtov dWa^alfirjv dv, /jidXcara 

8e rrap vfiiv, ocrw lepoi re eare koL irdpehpot rov 

Ylvdiov Kai fxovov ov crvvoiKOi kclI o/u-copocficoi, rov 

060V. Tjynvfiai jdp, el vfilv diroXoyrjcrai/Liyv koI 

Treicrai/xi fidrrjv 0)^09 vrr6i\,rj<^6ai, kol rol<i dX\.()C<; 

d'TTaai ht v/j,cov drro\e\o'yrjixevo<; eaecrdai. KoXoi 

he cjv ipcb rov 6eov avrov fidprupa, ov ovk evi 

hi] rrov TrapdkoyLaacrOac koI ylreuhei X07&) rrapa- 

' Td5e Ilerweiden : not in MSS, Lacuna noted by 
K. t^chwartz, Nil6n. 



Men of Deljihi, we have been sent by our ruler 
Phalaris to bring your god this bull, and to say to 
you what should be said about Phalaris himself and 
about his gift. That is why we are here, then ; and 
what he told us to tell you is this : 

' For my part, men of Delphi, to have all the 
Greeks think me the sort of man I am, and not the 
sort that I'umour, coming from those who hate and 
envy me, has made me out to the eai's of strangers, 
would please me better than anything else in the 
world ; above all, to have you think me what I am, 
as you are priests and associates of Apollo, and 
(one might almost say) live in his house and under 
his roof-tree. I feel that if I clear myself before you 
and convince you that there was no reason to think 
me cruel, I shall have cleared myself through you 
before the rest of the Greeks. And I call your god 
himself to witness what I am about to say. Of 


ya'yelv av9 poiirovi; fxev yap tcrw? e^wiraTrjcrai 
pdhiov, 6eov Si, Kol fidXiara tovtov, SiaXaOelv 

'Eycb <yap ov ro)v d^avoiv ev AKpdyavTi cov, 2 
dX>C el KaC Tf? dWo'i ev yeyovwq koI Tpa(f>el<i 
e\,ev0epio}<i koI TraiSela 7rpoae(TXV'^^'>> ^^ ^ Sce'reXovv 
rfi fiev iroXei SyjfioTiKov ifxavrov Trape-)(wv, Tot<? he 
a-VfM7ro\cTevop,evoi,<i efTieiKrj koI /xerpiov, ^laiov he 
rj (TKaiov i) v^piariKOV i) avOifcaarov ovSel^ ovBev 
eireKuXei fxov r<p irporeptp eKelv(p /3t&). eTreihrj he 
ecopcov Tovij rdvavria fJbOL -TroXtTevo/jbevov; eiri^ov- 
Xevovra'i Kal i^ diravTO'i Tpoirov dveXetv /xe 
^riTovPTaf — hi^prjTO 8e r)/LL(ov roTe rj iroXt'i — p-iav 
TavTTjv d7ro(f)vy)]v Kal dacfiaXeiav evptaKOV, Tqv 
avTTjv d/jua Kal rfj iroXei crocnripiav, el €7ri6efMevo<i 
rfi dp')(^r) eKe'ivov^ fxev dvaaTeb\ai/-u Kai TrauaaL/xt, 
e7n/3ov\evovTa<i, rrjv itoXlv he acocppovelv Karavay- 
Kaaatixi' Kal rjcrav yap ovk oXtyoc ravra eirai- 
vovvTef, dvhp€<i fierpioi koI (f)iXo7ro\ihe<;, ot Kai 
TTjv yvdo/xrjv rjSeaav tjjv efirjv Kal rf]^ i7n)(€Lp))aeo)<; 
rijv dvdyKTjv tovtoi^ ovv^ avpaycovL(rrai<i XPV" 
ad/jLevo<; pahia)<i eKpaTifaa.'^ 

Tovvrevdev ol p^ev ovKeri erdpaTTOV, dXX 3 
VTrrjKOVov, eyoo he rjpxov, V vroXt? he d(nacrLa(no<i 
7jv. acfyayd^; he rj eXdaet<i ?) hj]p,evaei<i ouhe Kara tcou 
eTTi^e/Sov'XeVKOTCOV elpya^6p,rjv, Kairoi, dvayxalov 
bv ^ TO, roiavTa rdXpdv ev dp^JI T^'i hvvaaTeta'i 

1 oZv Nil6i. : not in MSS. 

^ iKpdrrtaa Herwerdeu : (Kparriffa tTjs iirixeip-fiaeais MSS. 

» hv mUn : not in MSS. 


course he cannot be tripped by fallacies and misled 
by falsehoods : for although mere men are no doubt 
easy to cheat, a god (and above all this god) cannot 
be hoodwinked. 

' I was not one of the common people in Acragas, 
but was as well-born, as delicately brought up and as 
thoroughly educated as anyone. Never at any time 
did I fail to display public spirit toward the city, and 
discretion and moderation toward my fellow-citizens ; 
and no one ever charged me with a single violent, 
rude, insolent, or overbearing action in the early 
period of my life. But when I saw that the men of 
the opposite party were plotting against me and try- 
ing in every way to get rid of me — our city was 
split into factions at the time — I found only one means 
of escape and safety, in which lay also the salvation 
of the city : it was to put myself at the head of the 
state, curb those men and check their plotting, and 
force the city to be reasonable. As there were not 
a few who commended this plan, men of sense and 
pati'iotism who understood my purpose and the 
necessity of the coup, I made use of their assistance 
and easily succeeded. 

' From that time on the others made no more 
trouble, but gave obedience ; I ruled, and the city 
was free from party strife. Executions, banishments 
and confiscations I did not employ even against the 
former conspirators, although a man must bi-ing 


fxaXtara. ^iXavd poyrria jap Koi irpaoTrjTc Kal tw 
rjfMepa) ku^ ia-OTipbia<; 6av/jiaaico<; iyco rjXTri^ov e? 
TO irelOeo'Oai Trpoad^eaOat toutol"?. evOv^ <yovi^ 
TOL<; fiev ex,0pot^ ia7r€Lcrp,r}v koI SirjWdyfMrjv, Kal 
av/x0o6\oi<; Kal cvvearioi.^ i^pcopTjv rot? 7r\eicrT0i? 
avTMV. Trjv he rrroXiV avrrfv opcop oXiycopia tcov 
irpoeardiToov St,€(f)6ap/xevrjv, tcov ttoWcov kXctt- 
rovTcov, fjidWov Be dpTra^ovrcov ra Koivd, vodrwv 
re eTTLppoiai^i dveKTrjadp^rjv Kai olKoZofirnjidrcov 
dvacTTuaecnv eKoapLrjaa Kal ref^cof irepi^oXfj 
CKpdrvva koi rd<i 7rpocr6Bov<; , ocrai rjcrav Koivat, 
jfi TOiv €(f)eaT(i)Tcov iTTifieXela paSCca^ iTrrjv^rjaa 
Kal T)]<i veokaia^ eTrefxeXov/xrjv Kal tcov <yep6vr(ov 
irpovvoovv Kal top Srjfiov ev diac<; Kal hiavopal'^ 
Kal TravTjyvpeac Kal Br^[iodoLviaL<; Siijyov, v/3pei'i 
Be 7rap6evo)v r) ecfytj^cov Bi.a(f)6opal r) yvvaiKoyv 
diraywyal rj Bopv(f)6pcou e7rL7re/j.y}ret^ rj BecnroTiK'^ 
Ti? direLXri diroTpoTratd pLOi, Kal aKovaai tjv. 
ijBrj Be Kal irepX tov dcpelvai rrjv dpx)]v Kal 4 
KaraOeaOat rrjv Bwaarelav eaKOTTOvpniiv, ottci)? 
p,Qvov da(f>aX(t)<; iraucrairo dv ti<; evvowv, eVet to 
ye dp')/ecv auTO Kal irdvTa irpdTTeiv e'ira')(^9e<; ■r]B'>] 
Kal (Tvv (f)66vQ) Kapanipov eBoKei fjioc elvar to 
8' OTTft)? prjKeTi ToiavTrj'i TLvo<i 0epa7r€La<i Be/jcreTat, 
7) 7roA.t9, TOUT e^i'jTovv eTL. Kayoi fiev o dp)(^alo<i 
irepl ravra el-^ov, ol Be '>]Brj re crvviaTavro eV 
ipi,e KOI Trepl tov Tpoirov tj}? €'7ri^ovXrj<; Kal diro- 
ardaewi Io-kottovvto Kal avvco/jiO(TLa<; avveKpoTovv 
KoX OTrXa -ijOpoi^ou Kal ')(pi]/u.aTa ivopL^opTO Kal 
Tov<i daTvyelTopw; iireKaXovvTO Kal eh tijv 



himself to take such measures in the beginninc; 
of a reign more than at any other time. I had 
marvellous hopes of getting them to listen to me 
by my humanity, mildness and good-nature, and 
through the impartiality of my favour. At the 
outset, for instance, I came to an understanding 
with my enemies and laid aside hostility, taking 
most of them as counsellors and intimates. As for 
the city, perceiving that it had been brought to 
rack and ruin through the neglect of those in office, 
because everybody was robbing or rather plundering 
the state, I restored it by building aqueducts, 
adorned it with buildings and strengthened it with 
walls ; the revenues of the state I readily increased 
through the diligence of my officials ; I cared for 
the young, provided for the old, and entertained 
the people with shows, gifts, festivals and banquets. 
Even to hear of girls wronged, boys led astray, 
wives carried off, guardsmen with wari'ants, or any 
form of despotic threat made me throw up my hands 
in horror. I was already planning to resign my 
office and lay down my authority, thinking only how 
one might stop with safety ; for being governor and 
managing everything began to seem to me unpleasant 
in itself and both burdensome and invidious. I was 
still seeking, however, to ensure that the city would 
never again stand in need of such ministrations. But 
while I in my simplicity was engaged in all this, the 
others were already combining against me, planning 
the manner of their plot and uprising, organizing 
bands of conspirators, collecting arms, raising money, 
asking the aid of men in neighbouring towns, and 


'EWaSa irapa Aa/ceSaL/JLovLov; koX ^Atlrjvatov: 
eTTpea/SeuovTO' a fxev fyap irepl ep.ov avrov, el 
Xr](f)deLT]v, iSiBoKTO rjhr] avTol<i Kol ottco^ fie 
avTo-)(^eipia BcaaTrdaecrOat rjirelXovv Kal a? 
Ko\da€i<; eirevoovv, ht^pboaia arpelBXovpevoi 
i^eiTTOv. rov fiev Bij /xrjBev iraOeiv roiovrov ol 
deal alrcoL ^oipdaavTe<i ri]v i7n^ov\i]v, Kal 
pbaXtcrrd ye 6 TIv0lo<; oveipard re irpohei^a'i Kal 
TOi'9 p,y]vv(TOVTa^ CKaara eimrepbTrcov. 

'E7&) Se ivTavda ijSrj vpa<i, o) AeXcpot, cttI rov 5 
avrov Seov? vvv ra Xoyicrpat yevopevovi d^ico rrepl 
rSiv rore TTpaKricov pot avp,/3ovXevaat, ore u<^v- 
XaKTo^ oXlyov Selv Xr](f)9el<; e^ijrovv rcva arcorijpLav 
irepl rwv irapovroiv. 7rp6<; oXlyov ovv rrj yvcaprj 
69 ^AKpdjavra irap ipe drrroSrip/jaavre^; Kal LS6vre<i 
Ta9 '7rapaaK€vd<; avrcov Kal ra? aTretXa? aKov- 
(javre<i etirare rt hel^ rroielv; cfxXai'OpwTria 
^(^prjaOaL Trpo? avroix; ert Kal (fyeiSeadai Kal 
di>e')(ea6ai oaov avTiKa peXXijcrovra ireiaeaOat 
ra vcrrara; puaXXov he yvp^vrjv ?;S»; v-ne'x^eLv ri]v 
acfiayrjv Kal ra (f)iXrara ev o(f)dciXpol<f opdv uTroX- 
Xvp,eva; rj ra pev roiavra jrdvv rfXiOlov rtvb^ 
elvai, yevvala he Kal dvSpcohrj SiavoijOevra Kal 
')(oXriv epcppovo'; Kal rjhLKrjpievov dvSpb^i dvaXa/36vra 
psreXdelv eKeivov;, epavrw Be ck rojv evovrwv rrjv 
69 ro emov dcr(f)dXeiav irapaa'^elv; ravr otS' ore 
(Tvve^ovXevaare dv. 

Tt ovv eyu> puera rovro eTroirjaa; pLeratrrei- Q 
Xdp,evo<i TOI'9 alriovi Kal Xoyov pe'^aSov'i avrol^ 
Koi Tou? eXey)(pv<i rrapayayoiv Kal a-a(f)a)<i i^e- 

» Su MSS. : I5«. Cobet,. 


sending embassies to Greece, to the Spartans and the 
Athenians. What they had already resolved to do 
with me if they caught me, how they had threatened 
to tear me to pieces with their own hands, and what 
punishments they had devised for me, they con- 
fessed in public on the rack. For the fact that 
I met no such fate I have the gods to thank, who 
exposed the plot : above all, Apollo, who showed me 
dreams and also sent me men to interpret them 


'At this point I ask you, men of Delphi, to 
imagine yourselves now as alarmed as I was then, 
and to give me your advice as to what I should have 
done when I had almost been taken off my guard 
and was trying to save myself from the situation. 
Transport yourselves, then, in fancy to my city of 
Acragas for a while ; see their preparations, hear 
their threats, and tell me what to do. Use them 
with humanity .'' Spare them and put up with them 
when I am on the point of meeting my death the 
very next moment — nay, proffer my naked tliroat, 
and see my nearest and dearest slain before my 
eyes? Would not that be sheer imbecility, and should 
not I, with high and manly resolution and the anger 
natural to a man of sense who has been wronged, 
bring those men to book and provide for my own 
future security as best I may in the situation ? 
That is the advice that I know you would have 
ffiven me. 

'Well, what did I do then? I summoned the 
men implicated, gave them a hearing, brought in the 
evidence, and clearly convicted them on each count ; 


A.e7^av eKaara, eVet fjbijS' avTol ert t^apvoi 
rjcrav, rifivv6fi^]v ayavaKT(ov to irXeov ovx on 
iTT€^e/3ou\€V/j,7]v, aXX' otl fir] elddrjv vtt auTCOV 
ev eKelvp rfj irpoaipeaeL fietvai, r)v e^ ^PX^l** 
eueaTt^adfiTjv. kuI to o-tt' eKetvov (puXdrrcop fxev 
ifiavTov BiareXco, iiceivwv Se toj)? del iiri^ovXev- 
oprd<i fjbot KoiXd^wv. el9^ ol dvdpwTTOL ifxe Trj<; 
oo/jLorrjTO'i alriayvrai, ovKerc Xoyi^opevoi irapd 
TTOTepov rjfiayv rjv t) irpcoTrj tovtcov dp-)(i], crvve- 
Xovre'^ Se rdv jjiiacp koX e'^' o'd eKoXd^ovro Td<; 
Ti/jLCopia<; avrd^ jjTLcbvTO Kol Ta9 hoKovaa<i iv 
aural^i o)ju,ory]ra<i, o/jlolov &><? et Ti9 Trap v/mv lepo- 
avXov TLva ISow diro Trj<i Trerpa^ piirrofievov a fiev 
iroXpTjae p,i] Xoyl^ocTo, &)? vuKTcop e? to lepov 
TraprjXOe koI /carecrTracre rd dva$}']fxaTa kuI tov 
^odvov rj^aro, Karrjyopoi'r] Se vfiwv TroXXrjv ttjv 
dypiorrjTa, otl" EXXrjve<; re Kal lepol eivaiXkyovTe'^ 
v7rep,eLvaT€ dvOpcoirov "JLXXyjva TrXTjaiov tov lepov 
— Koi yap oil irdvv nroppo) t^? 7roXe&>9 elvac Xiyerai 
7} ireTpa — KoXdaei ToiavTrj irepi^aXelv. aX\', 
oifjiai, avTol KaTayeXdaeade, i]v TavTa Xeyrj rt? 
Kad' vp,o)v, Kal ol dXXoL 7rdv7e<i eiraivecrovTai, vficov 
Trfi> Kara tcov darejSovvTWV m/ioTrjTa. 

Lo oXov 01 orjixoi ovk e^6Ta^ovTe<i oiroio'i 7 
Tt9 Tol'i Trpdyz-LacTLV e(f)eaT(o<i eaTLv, etVe SiKaiO'i 
eiVe d8LK0<i, avTO a7rX&>9 to tj^9 TvpavviSo<i 6vo/xa 
pLiaovcrt Kal tov Tvpavvov, kclv AlaKo<i rj Mti'&)9 17 
'VaBdp,av6v<i y, 6fjbOLco<i i^ diravTO^ dveXeiv airev- 
Bovcrtv, TOv<i fiev Trovrjpov'i avTWV rrpo 6(f)0aXfj,(ov 
TiOep^evoL, tol'9 Se 'X^prjaTOv^; Trj KOivcovia Trj<; irpoa-rj- 
yopla^ TO) o/jbOLW fiiaei av/jiTreptXa/jb^dvovref. €760 
yovp uKovo) Kal Trap vjmv Tol<i "E/XXtjo-i ttoXXov'S 



and then, as they themselves no longer denied the 
charge, I avenged myself, angry in the main, not 
because they had plotted against me, but because 
they had not let me abide by the plan which I had 
made in the beginning. From that time I have 
continued to protect myself and to punish those of 
my opponents who plot against me at any time. 
And then men charge me with cruelty, forgetting to 
consider which of us began it I Suj)pressing all that 
went before, which caused them to be punished, 
they always censured the punishments in themselves 
and their seeming cruelty. It is as if someone 
among yourselves should see a temple-robber thrown 
over the cliff, and should not take into account what 
he had dared to do — how he had entered the temple 
at night, had pulled down the offerings, and had laid 
hands on the image — but should accuse you of great 
barbarity on the ground that you, who call yourselves 
Greeks and priests, countenanced the infliction of 
such a punishment on a fellow-Greek hard by the 
temple (for they say that the cliff is not very far 
from the city). Why, you youi'selves will laugh at 
any man who makes tliis charge against you, I am 
sure ; and the rest of the world will praise you for 
your severity towards the impious. 

' Peoples in general, without trying to find out 
what sort of man the head of the state is, whether 
just or unjust, sim])ly hate the very name of tyranny, 
and even if the tyrant is an Aeacus, a Minos or a 
Rhadamanthus they make every effort to put him 
out of the way just the same, for they fix their 
eyes on the bad tyrants and include the good in 
equal hatred by reason of the common title. Yet 
I hear that among you Greeks there have been many 



yevecrOai Tvpdivov^ ao^ovi viro (pavXa) ovS/jLaTt 
80KOVVTI, j(prja-Tov Koi rjixepov ydo^ iTriSeSeLy/mevou^i, 
&v ii'Lcov KoX Xoyov^ elvai ^pax^^f eV rw lepcp iifiMV 
a7roK6t/j,ivov<;, djaXfiara koI dva0r]/xaTa ra 

'Opdre Se Kol tov<; vofxo6era<i rS) Ko\a- 8 
(TTLKw elhet, TO irXeov vepbovra^;, to? tmv ye dWu>v 
ovSev o^eXo9, el fir) 6 <f)6^o<i Trpoaeirj kol eXvrt? 
T^9 Ko\daect}<;. r][xlv he tovto ttoXXw uvayKaio- 
repov To2<; rvpavvoi^, oafp irpo^ dvdyKr]v i^t^yov- 
fieOa Kot p,taovai re dfxa koL eiTL^ovKevovcnv 
dvOpdiTTOL^ avveapev, ottou /xt/Sc tmv /jbop/j-oXuKeicov 
o<^e\6'i rt I'^iMV yiyveraL, dWd tm irepl T'rj<;"T8pa<; 
fiv9(p TO TTpdy/jia eoiKev '6aw yap dv eKK07rroip,ev, 
ToaaSe 7rA.etou9 rj/julv dva<pvovTat rov Ko\a^eiv 
d(j)opfjLaL. ^epeiv Se dvdyKi] kuI to avacfyuo/xevov 
eKKOirreiv del koX eiriKaUiv vr) Aia Kara tov 
'loXewv, el pbeWofxev eTTiKpaTrjaeiv tov yap dira^ 
et9 TO, ToiavTa epuTrecrelv rjvayKaajxevov 6p,oiov j^pr) 
TTj vTToOeaet koX avTov elvat, 1) (peihopevov tmv 
TrXrjcriov dTToXwXevai. oXco9 Be, Tvva oteaOe oi;tcl>9 
dypiov ?) dv)]fiepov dv6 poiTrov elvai W9 rjheaOai 
padTiyovvTa Kal otp,(oyd)i' dKOuovTa kul a(f)aTTO- 
pevov<i opoiVTa, el /xi] e^oi Tivd peydXrjv tov koXu- 
^eiv alTiav; •noaaKL'^ yovveSuKpvaa fiaaTiyovfievcov 
dX\o)v, TTOaaKt^ Se Oprjielv Kal ohvpeaOat, Trjv 
ifjiavTOV TV')(rjv dvayKd^o/Jiai fiei^o) KoXacrtv avTO<; 
Kal y^poviWTepav viropbevwv; dvSpl yap (pvaei fxev 
dyaOG), Scd 8e dvdyKrjv TTLKpS), ttoXv tov KoXd- 
^€cr6at TO KoXd^ecp ')(aXeTrdiTepov. 



wise tyrants who, under a name of ill-repute have 
shown a good and kindly character; and even that 
brief savings of some of them are deposited in your 
temple as gifts and oblations to Pythius. 

' You will observe that legislators lay most 
stress on the punitive class of measures, naturally 
because no others are of any use if unattended by 
fear and the expectation of punishment. With us 
tjTants this is all the more necessary because we 
govern by force and live among men who not only 
hate us but plot against us, in an environment where 
even the bugaboos we set up do not help us. Our 
case is like the story of the Hydra : the more heads 
we lop, the more occasions for punishing grow up 
under our eyes. We must needs make the best 
of it and lop each new growth — yes, and sear it, too, 
like lolaus,^ if we are to hold the upper hand ; for 
when a man has once been forced into a situation of 
this sort, he must adapt himself to his role or lose 
his life by being merciful to his neighbours. In 
general, do you suppose that any man is so bar- 
bai'ous and savage as to take pleasure in flogging, 
in hearing groans and in seeing men slaughtered, 
if he has not some good reason for punishing ? 
How many times have I not shed tears while others 
were being flogged ? How many times have I not 
been forced to lament and bewail my lot in under- 
going greater and more protracted punishment than 
they? When a man is kindly by nature and harsh 
by necessity, it is much harder for him to punish 
than to be punished. 

^ The helper of Hercules in the story. 



Et 8e Set fxera rrapp'qaia'i eoTreiv, iyo) /nev, el 9 
aCpe(Tl<i fioi TT pored eCr], Trorepa ^ovXofxai KoXa^eiv 
Tiva<; aSt«:&)9 rj avTO^ dirodavelv, ev tare w? ovSev 
/jLeXX.r]aa<; eXoifxijv av redvavai fMaWov rj firjSev 
dStKovvraf KoXd^etv. el Be t^9 ^alr], BovXei, to 
^dXapi, reOvdvai avro'i uBlkco<; t) St/fato)? KoXd^eiv 
TOv<; i'jTt^ov\ov<i; rovro ^ovXoifirjv dv avda <ydp 
u/jbd<;, 0) AeX^ot, av/j,^ov\ov<; koXm, iTorepov 
dfiecvov elvat dSiKox; diroOaveZv rj dSi/c(o<; crdd^etv 
Tov tTTi/Se^ovXevKora; ovEeU ourw'^, ol/xai, dvovro*; 
icTTiV 0? ovK av Trporifxtjaete ^rjv fidXXov rj aco^cov 
T0U9 i)(^6pov<; dTToXcoXevat. KaiTOt Trocrov^i eyo) 
Kal rcou €7ri')(^ei p^jadvYcov [xoc /cal (^avepoy^ eXr/Xey- 
/xivcov o/u,co^ ecroocra ; olov ^A.Kav9ov tovtovI /cal 
Ti/xoKpuTT] Kal Aecoyopav tov d8eX(l)6v avrov, 
TraXat.d<; avvrjOeia's t?}? 7rpo9 avrov^i fivrj/xovevcra^;. 

"Orav Se 0ovXrj6i]T€ rov/xov elSevai, toi'9 jq 
ela(j)otT(bvTa<i el<; ^AKpdyavra ^evov<; epwrrjaare 
OTTOLO'? iyo) TTepl avrov<; eljxi Kal el ^iXavOpcoTrw^ 
'irpoa(})epop,aL roi^ Karaipovcriv, 09 ye Kai (TK07rov<; 
iirl TO)v Xi/xivcou e;)^&) Kal 7Tev6i]i>a<i, rive<; o9ev 
KaTaireTrXevKacTLV, ct)9 Kar u^iav Tifxwv uTroire/uL- 
rrroifjLi avTov<?. eviot Se Kal i^eirlTtjBe'; (f^oircocrt 
Trap" ifie, ol crocpcoTaroi rcov 'EXXtjvcov, Kal ov 
(j)euyovat rrjv avvovaiav ri]v e/xi]v, wcrirep dfxeXei 
Kal 7rpu)')]v 6 aocpo^ Jluday6pa<; rjKev ox; )'j/iid<;, 
dXXa fM6v inrep ifiov dKT]Kod}<i' iirel Be iiretpadt'i, 
dTTrjXdev irraivMV p.e Tr}9 BiKaiocrvvri^ Kal iXecou 
T?}9 duayKaia<i 00 fxorTiT o<i . elra o'ieaue tov irpo<; 
TOL'9 oOveiov<i (f)i\dv0p(O7rov qvtw^ av 7riKp(7)'i^ Tol<i 

' &»■ vtKpws Herwerden : clUkhis MSS. 


* P'or my part, if I may speak freely, in case I 
were ofTered the choice between inflicting unjust 
punishment and being put to death myself, you 
may be very certain that without delay I should 
choose to die rather than to punish the innocent. 
But if someone should sav: 'Phalaris, choose between 
meeting an unjust death and inflicting just punish- 
ment on conspirators,' I should choose the latter; 
for — once more I call upon you for advice, men 
of Delphi — is it better to be put to death unjustly, 
or to pardon conspirators unjustly? Nobody, surely, 
is such a simpleton as not to prefer to live rather 
than to pardon his enemies and die. But how many 
men who made attempts on me and were clearly 
convicted of it have I not pardoned in spite of 
everything ? So it was with Acanthus, whom you 
see before you, and Timocrates and his brother 
Leogoras, for I remembered my old-time friendship 
with them. 

' When you wish to know my side, ask the 
strangers who visit Acragas how I am with them, and 
whether I treat visitors kindly. Why, I even have 
watchmen at the ports, and agents to enquire who 
people are and where they come from, so that I may 
speed them on their way with fitting honours. Some 
(and they are the wisest of the Greeks) come to see 
me of their own free will instead of shunning my 
society. For instance, just the other day the wise 
man Pj^thagoras came to us ; he had heard a 
different story about me, but when he had seen 
what I was like he went away praising me for my 
justice and pitying me for my necessary severity. 
Then do you think that a man who is kind to 



oLKCLOt^ 7rpoa(f)ep€adat,, el fii] tl hia(pep6vT(o<i 

Tavra fiev ovv virep efiavTov aTroXeXoyrj/xat 11 
v/MLV, aX'>]0)] Koi SiKaia Koi eiraivov fiaWov, &>? 
i/xavTov ireido), rj /itcrou? ci^ia. virep he tov avadi]- 
fiaro^ KaLpo<; vjJLa^ uKovaat oOev Kal 07r&)9 tov 
ravpov TOVTOv eKTrjad/xrjv, ovk iK8ov<; avTb<; tS> 
ui'SpiavTOTToio) — fit} <yap ovto) fiaveirjv, ft)? tolov- 
Tutv eTTidv/xijcrat KTrifiaTcov — dWa Tiepi\ao<i ^v 
Ti? rjixehaiTo^, ^aX/cey? fiev djado^, Trovrjpo'i Be 
avdpcoTTO'^. ovTo<; irdfJi'iroXv rr)<i e/j,r]<i yvM/jLrj'i 
Si.r}/xapT7]K(i)'i (p€TO 'X^apceladai fiot, el Kaivi'jv riva 
KoKacriv eirivorjaeiev, &)9 e^ aTravro^ KoXd^eiv 
iTTiOv/xovvTC. Kal Sr) KaracTKevdcra^; tov ^ovv rjKe 
fioL KopLil^aiV KaWicTTOv ISeli' Kal Trpo? to aKpi^ecr- 
TUTOv tLKacr/jievov' KiV7}aeco<; yap avTu> Kal jiVKrjO- 
fjbov eSei fjLovov 7rpo9 to Kal efiyjrv^ov elvat hoKetv. 
Ihcbv Be dveKpayov evOv'i, ci^lov to KTtjua tov 
[ludlov, Tre/iTrreo? o Tavpo^ tw Oea>. 6 he lilepi,\ao<i 
TrapeaT(i)<;, Tt S' el p-dOoi^, e^rj, ttjv ao^iai Tr]v 
ev avTw Kal Ti]V ;i^/c>etai^ ))i'7ra/oe';^erat; Kal uv ^a? 
afjia TOV Tavpov Kara to. vootu, "Hv Tiva, e<prj, 
KoXdteiv e0e\rj<i, €iJ,^t/3d(Ta<i et? to /x7]'ydvy]/xa 
TovTO Kal KaTaK\eiaa<; nrpoaTLOevai ixev tov^ 
auXou'i TovaSe 77/309 tov<; /jiv^coTfjpa<; tov ^06'i, irvp 
Be viroKaUiv KeXevetv, Kal [jlIv oifidy^eTat kuI 
^o/](T£rat dXi]f<TOL^ Tal<i 6Buvai.<; e^6fJievo<i, 1) ^orj 
Be Bid Twv av\a)v /xeXr] aoi aTroreXiaet 61a Xtyupco- 
Tara Kal eTravXrjcrei 6 p->'jvo}Be<i Kal /nvKijcreTat 
yoepcoiaTov, &)9 tov /xev KoXd^ecrOat,, ae Be Tepirecr- 
OaL fie'^a^v KaravXou/xevov. eyay Be &>? tovto 12 
YjKovcra, t^p,v(Td')(6i]v ti]v KaKOfii'i'xavLav tov dvBpo<i 



foreigners would treat his fellow-coantrymen so 
harshly if he had not been exceptionally wronged ? 

'So much for what I had to say to you in my 
own behalf: it is true and just and, I flatter myself, 
merits praise rather than hatred. As for my gift, it 
is time you heard where and how I got this bull. 1 
did not order it of the sculptor myself — I hope I 
may never be so insane as to want such things I — but 
there was a man in our town called Perilaus, a good 
metal-worker but a bad man. Completely missing 
my point of view, this fellow thought to do me a 
favour by inventing a new punishment, imagining 
that I wanted to punish people in any and every 
way. So he made the bull and came to me with it, 
a very beautiful thing to look at and a very close 
copy of nature ; motion and voice were all it needed 
to make it seem actually alive. At the sight of it I 
cried out at once : " The thing is good enough for 
Apollo ; we must send the bull to the god ! " But 
Perilaus at my elbow said : " What if you knew the 
trick of it and the purpose it serves ? " With that 
he opened the bull's back and said : "If you wish 
to punish anyone, make him get into this contrivance 
and lock him up; then attach these flutes to the 
nose of the bull and have a fire lighted underneath. 
The man will groan and shriek in the grip of un- 
remitting pain, and his voice will make you the 
sweetest possible music on the flutes, piping dolefully 
and lowing piteously ; so that while he is punished 
you are entertained by having flutes played to you." 
When I heard this I was disgusted with the wicked 
ingenuity of the fellow and hated the idea of the 



fcal rrjv eirivotav ifilarjcra rov Karaa Kevd(rfiaTO<; 
KaX OLKeiav avrat TCficopiav ijredrjKa' Kai, "Aye 
St], ecjirjv, M TleplXae, el fiy kqv^j aXkoiXi V7r6a')(^eai.<i 
ravTo. iari, Sel^ov rjpuv avTo<i elcreXOcov ttjv 
okrjdeLav Trj<i T€')(vr](i koI fi[fir](rai roi)<{ /SooJVTU^, 
IV elBcofiev el kuI a ^^9 fiiXr) Bia r&v avXwv 
(fideyyeTai. welOeTai, fiev ravra 6 UeptXaof;, ejcii 
8e, eVel evSov rjv, KaTaKKeiaa^; avrov irvp v^aTTTeiv 
eKcXevov, ^ KiroXajx^ave, elirdov, rov a^iov fiiadop 
rrj<i Oavp-aarrfq aov Te')(y7}<i, Xv BiBd(JKdXo<i t?}9 
fiovcrLKrj^; 7rp6i)To<; avTO^ auX,^<?. Kal 6 fiev SiKuta 
eiraa^ev diroXavcov t?}? avrov evpjri-^avia<i' iyo) 8e 
en e/jLTTVovv Kal ^wvra rov dvSpa i^atpedPjvac 
Ke\evaa<i, ox? /xj) pidveie to epyov ivairoOavdov, 
€K6Li>ov pev draipov Kara Kprjpvcov pLTrretv i/ceXevaa, 
Kadr]pa<i he rov ^ovv dveirepu^a vplv dvaTedt-jao- 
p,evov ra> Oew. Kal iiriypdy^ai ye err avrw eKekevaa 
Trjvirda-av 8i7]yrjcnv, rov dvariOevroi; ipov Touvop,a, 
rov re')(yLTrjv rov TLeptkaov, rrjv eirlvoiav rijv 
eKeivov, ri]V StKatoavvrjv rrjv epy]v, rrjv irpeTrovaav 
rip,wp'iav, rd rov ao(f)Ov %a>)ce&)9 p,i\r}, rrjv 
Trpcort^v rrelpav rrj^ povaiKrjq. 

Tpel<: Be, w AeX(/>ot, BUaca rroo^aere 6v- K 
(javre<i pev virep ipov perd rcov rrpeajBetov, dva- 
devre<i Be rov ravpov ev Ka\a> rov lepov, w? 7rdvre<; 
eiBeiev oto? iyo) tt/do? tou? 7rov7]pov<; elpn Kal 
OTTCi)? dpLVvopai rd<i rrepirrd'; e? KaKiav eTnOvpia^ 
avrcov. ikuvov yovv Kal rovro povov BrfKooaai pov 
rov rpoTTOv, Ile/jtXao? Ko\aa6el^ Kal 6 ravpo<i 
dvareOel^i Kal prjKeri (fivXax^^U 'n'po'i dXXwv KoXa- 
^opevQiv avXyjpara p,i]Be p.e\a)8?](ra<; dXXo ert rrXrjv 
pova ra rov re')(yLrov pvKrjpara, Kal on ev povco 



contrivance, so I gave him a punishment that fitted 
his crime. " Come now, Perilaus," said I, " if this is 
not mere empty boastini^, show us the real nature of 
the invention by getting into it yourself and imitat- 
ing people crying out, so that we may know whether 
the music you speak of is really made on the flutes." 
Perilaus complied, and when he was inside, I locked 
him up and had a fire kindled underneath, saying : 
" Take the reward you deserve for your wonderful 
invention, and as you are our music-master, play the 
first tune yourself!" So he, indeed, got his deserts 
by thus having the enjoyment of his own ingenuity. 
But I had the fellow taken out while he was still 
alive and breathing, that he might not pollute the 
work by dying in it ; then I had him thrown over a 
cliff to lie unburied, and after purifying the bull, 
sent it to you to be dedicated to the god. I also 
had the whole story inscribed on it — my name as the 
giver; that of Perilaus, the maker; his idea; my 
justice ; the apt punishment ; the songs of the clever 
metal-worker and the first trial of the music. 

'You will do what is riglit, men of Delphi, if 
you offer sacrifice in my behalf with my ambassadors, 
and if you set the bull up in a fair place in the 
temple-close, that all may know how I deal with bad 
men and huw I requite their extravagant inclinations 
toward wickedness. Indeed, this affair of itself is 
enough to show my character: Perilaus was punished, 
the bull was dedicated without being kept to pipe 
when others were punished and without having 
played any other tune than the bellowings of its 


VOL. I. B 


auTft) Kal 7r€ipav eXa0ov t>}<? Te')(vr)<^ ical KareiravcTa 
rr)V ctfiovoov eKsivqv Kal ciTTdvdpoyTrov (pS/jv. k-uI ra 
fiev Trapovra ravra nrap' ifjuov rw Oew' dvadijaco 
06 KOL aXXa ttoWuki^;, iTreiSdv fioc 7rapda')(^r) 
p.'rjKeri Setadat KoXdcrecov. 

Tavra fiev, S) AeX^ot, ra irapa tov ^a\d- 14 
ptBof;, dXi]dr) iravra koI ola i7rpd)(9r] cKacrra, 
Kal StKuioc av €cr]/j,ev Triareveadai vcf v/jb(ov 
fX(ipTupovvTe<i, o)? av Kal €l86Te<i Kal fjLTjheplav tov 
y{r€v8€a6at vvv alriav exovre^. el he hel KaX 
her^OPjvai vTrep avSpo^ /jbdrTjv jrovTjpov Sokovuto<; 
Kac ctKovTCi KnXd^eiv i^vayKaa/xevov, cKerevofiev 
vfid<i r)/xei<; ol ^ AKpajavrtvoi" KX\,t]ve<; re oWe? Kal 
TO dp)(alov Awpie?,^, Trpoaeadac tov dvSpa di^ov 
elvai iOeXovTa Kal TroWd Kal hripLoaia Kal Ihla 
eKaarov vjxo)v eu TTOLrjaai dipfMrj/xivov. Xd^eTe ovv 
avTol TOV raupov Kal dvddeTe Kal ev^acrOe virep re 
rr}? AKpdyavTo<i Kal virep avTou ^aXdpiSo^, Kal 
jxrjTe 'i)ixd's aTrpdKTOv; d'7TO'rTep,-^^]Te /i?;Te eKelvov 
v^pLarjTe jX'iTe tov Oeov uTrocrrepijcrrjTe KaXXiaTOV 
re dixa kuI hiKaiOTdTOv dvaO )']jj,aTO<i» 


Oure ^AKpayavTLVwv, o) dvSpe<; AeX(/)ot, irpo- 1 
/ei'o? cov ovre IBw^evo^ avTov <i>aXdpiho^ ovt 
aXXrjv exoov 7rp6<i avTOV r) evvoia^ IBlav aiTiav rj 
neXXovcrrj^ (/)tA.ta? iXTrlSa, tcov 8e irpea/Secov 
dKOvaa<; tmv tjkovtcov Trap' avTov eTrieiKT] koI 
fxeTpia Bte^iovTuyv, Kal to 6uo"t73e<» d/xa Kal to 



maker, and his case sufficed me to try the invention 
and put an end to that uninsjnred, inhuman music. 
At present, tliis is what I offer the god, but I shall 
make many other gifts as soon as he })ermits me to 
dispense with punisliments.' 

This, men of Delphi, is the message from Phalaris, 
all of it true and everything just as it took place. 
You would be justified in believing our testimony, 
as we know the facts and have never yet been 
accused of being untruthful. But if it is necessary 
to resort to entreaty on behalf of a man who has 
been wrongly thought wicked and has been com- 
pelled to punish people against his will, then we, the 
people of Acragas, Greeks of Dorian stock, beseech 
you to grant him access to the sanctuary, for he 
wishes to be your friend and is moved to confer 
many benefits on each and all of you, both public 
and private. Take the bull then ; dedicate it, and 
pray for Acragas and for Phalaris himself. Do not 
send us away unsuccessful or insult him or deprive 
the god of an offering at once most beautiful and 
most fitting. 


I am neither an official representative of the 
peo])le of Acragas, men of Del])hi, nor a personal 
representative of Phalaris himself, and I have no 
private ground at all for good-will to him and no 
expectation of future friendship. But after listening 
to the reasonable and temperate story of the am- 
bassadors who have come from him, I rise in the 



Koivfi avfKpepov koI iiakiara to ^eK<^ol<i Trpeirov 
7rpoop(vfj.€vo<i uviarrjv wapaivecrwv v/jllp firjT€ 
v^pii^eiv avhpa Svvdcrrrjv evae/Sovira p-i'jre avd- 
Or^fxa 't']8^] Tcp 6eu> KadoyfioXoyrj/nirov uTraWoTfiouv, 
fcal ravra rpicov tmv /meycaTcov vTTojJLvrjixa ei? del 
yevrjaoixevov, Te')(vr](; Ka\\i<TTri<i koI eirivoia'i 
KaKi(TTT]<; Koi ZiKaia<i Ko\daeoi^. iyco fiev ovv 2 
Kal TO evSoidaai u/jLd<i ^ 6\(o<; Trepl tovtov koi {jjjuv 
irpoOelvat tt)v 8tdaK€-\jnv, €i ')(pr] hexecrOai to 
dvddrjfia rj oTTiaoi avOif diroTTefxiTeLV, dvocnov I'/S?; 
^Lvai vofiil^w, p.dWoi' he ovK virep^oXrjv dae^eiw; 
dTroXeXoiTrevar ovhev yap dXX! 57 lepoavXia 
TO Trpdyixd eVrt [xaKput tojv dWayv ^aXeirroTepa, 
oarp Toil to, yoi] dvaredevTa avXdv to /x-tjBe T-i]v 
dpxv^ '''^^^ dvuTidevai ^ouXo/xevoi^ einTperreiv 

Aeofiai Be v/xtov AeX^o? kciI avTO'i cov nal 3 
TO 'I'crov iJieTe')(wv Tr]<; Te hrjiJLOcria<; evKXetaq, el 
(jivXdTToiTo, Kal T)]<; evavTla^ ho^rj^;, el t'/c tcov 
irapovTcov TrpoayevotTo, pnqr diroKkeieLv to lepov 
Toi<; evae^ovai yLi7/Te ttjv ttoXlv 7rpo<; cnravTa^ 
uvOpcoTTOvi BLafidXXeiv &>? to, Tre/j-Tro/xeva Tfo 6ed) 
avK0(^avT0vaav Kal ylrrjcfya) Kal hiKaoT^jpiro 80- 
Kifid^ovaav T0V<i dvarit^eiTa^;' ov8el<^ yap eVi 
dvaO^lvai ToXfiijaeiev dv eiScw? ov Trpoaijcropevov 
Tov Oeou 6 TL dv /XT) irpoTepov AeX^ol<i ooKrj. 
6 fiev ovv nvOici Trjv BiKai'av i]8r] irepl tov 4 
dvad^luaT0<i ■ylrPjcfiov ijveyKev el 701)1; e/xioet tov 
^dXapiv ■)*] TO 8wpov avTov ifxvaaTTeTO, paBiov rjv 
ev Tw ^loviw fxearp KaraBvaai avTO fxera t/}? dyov- 
0-779 oXKuha, 6 Be iroXv TovvavTiov ev evBiq Te Bia- 

^ vfLus MSS. : bracketed by Nil6n, following E. Schwartz 


interests of religion, of our common good and, above 
all, of the dignity of Delphi to exhort you neither 
to insult a devout monarch nor to put away a gift 
already pledged to the god, especially as it will be 
for ever a memorial of three very significant things — 
beautiful workmanship, wicked inventiveness, and 
just punishment. Even for you to hesitate about 
this matter at all and to submit us the question 
whether we should receive the gift or send it back 
again — even this I, for my part, consider impious ; 
indeed, nothing short of extreme sacrilege, for the 
business is nothing else than temple-robbery, far 
more serious than other forms of it because it is 
more imjiious not to allow people to make gifts 
when they will than to steal gifts after they are 

A man of Delphi myself and an equal participant 
in our public good name if we maintain it and in 
our disrepute if we acquire it from the present case, 
I beg you neither to lock the temple to worshippers 
nor to give the world a bad opinion of the city as 
one that quibbles over things sent the god, and tries 
givers by ballot and jury. No one would venture to 
give in future if he knew that tlie god would not 
accept anything not previously approved by the men 
of Delphi. As a matter of fact, Apollo has already 
voted justly about the gift. At any rate, if he hated 
Phalaris or loathed his present, he could easily have 
sunk it in the middle of the Ionian sea, along with 
the ship that carried it. But, quite to the contrary, 



Trepatwdfjvai, w? <f>aai, Trapecr^ej^ avToi<i Kal a(t)<; e? 
ri]v Kippav Kardpai. co kuI Bj'jXov on Trpoaierai 5 
rijv rov fMovdp-)(ov euae/Seiav. ^/)>; Se Kal vp,d<; 
TCL avTCL ixeivw ylnjcfita-a/xevovi Trpoadelvai Kal rbv 
ravpov TOVTOvl tm ciWco KocrpLm rov lepov' eirel 
irdvTwv dv elr) rovro dTOirMTarov, irep-^avTa rcva 
jxeyaXoTrpeTre^ ovtco hSipov 6eS) ri]v KarahiKo,- 
i^ovaav e« rov lepov ■y^rj^ov XajSelv Kal pnaOov KOfxC- 
aaadai tt}? evaejBeia^ to KCKplaOai, p,r]8e rov dva- 
TiOevai d^coL'.^ 

'O fiev ovv TavavTia fiot €yv(OKQ)<?, KaOdirep eK 6 
Tov AKpdyai'T0<i dpTi KaTa7r€7r\evK0i)q, a^jayd'i 
Tiia<; Kal ^la^i Kal dpTrayd^ Kal diraywyd^ 
irpaycpBei, rov Tvpdvvov /uovov qvk av7 07rT7]<; 
yeyeirjaOai Xeycov, ov icrpev ov8* ct)(pi rov ttXolov 
uTTohehi'ip.^lKOTa. ■>(p)] Se rd jxeu roiavra p^ijBe T049 
ireiTOvOevai (pdcrKovaiv irdvu nricrreveiv Snjyov- 
pAi'OL<i — dhrfkov yap el dXrjdfj Xeyovaiv — ovy 
oiTw<i avTov<i d fxi) iirtardp-eOa Karriyopelv. el 8 7 
OVV Tt Kal TreirpaKTaL toiovtov ev ^LKeXia, tovt' 
ov AeX(f)o2<; dvayKalov TToXvTrpayp.oielv, el /xt] 
dvrl leperov i]8rj hiKaaral elvai d^iovnev Kal, Beop 
dvetv Kal rdXXa Oepairevew rov 6eov Kal avvavarc- 
6ei>at el Trep^'^eie rt<;, crK07rovvre<i KaOii^ieOa e'l 
rcve<i ro)v virep rov ^loviov SiKatw'i rj dhiKUx; 

Kal rd p.ev rwv dXXcov ex^ro) ottt] ^ovXerar 8 
rjp,iv Se dvayKalov, olpat, rd I'jp.erepa avroiv 
uSevai, oTTro? re 7rd\at SieKeiro Kal oirws vvv e')(eL 
Kal rl iroLOvcn Xmov ecrrar on fiev Bi] ev KprjpLVol^ 

' i.liov Herwerden : Sjioj MSS. 



he vouchsafed them a calm passage, they say, and a 
safe arrival at Cirrha. By this it is clear that he 
accepts the monarch's worsliip. You must cast the 
same vote as he, and add this bull to the other 
attractions of the temple : for it would be most pre- 
posterous that a man who has sent so magnificent a 
present to our god should get the sentence of 
exclusion from the sanctuary and should be paid for 
his piety by being pronounced unworthy even to 
make an oblation. 

The man who holds the contrary opinion ranted 
about the tyrant's murders and assaults and 
robberies and abductions as if he had just put into 
port from Acragas, all but saying that he had been 
an eye-witness ; we know, however, that he has not 
even been as far from home as the boat. We 
should not give such stories full credence even when, 
told by those who profess to be the victims, for it is 
doubtful whether they are telling the truth. Much 
less should we ourselves play the accuser in matters of 
which we have no knowledge. But even if some- 
thing of the sort has actually taken place in Sicily, 
we of Delphi need not trouble ourselves about it, 
unless we now want to be judges instead of priests, 
and when we should be sacrificing: and nerforminjr 

111 *^ I O 

the other divine services and helping to dedicate 
whatever anyone sends us, sit and speculate whether 
people on the other side of the Ionian sea are ruled 
justly or unjustly. 

Let the situation of others be as it may : we, in 
my opinion, must needs realize our own situation — 
what it was of old, what it is now, and wliat we can 
do to better it. That we live on crags and cultivate 



re otKovfiev avrol koX irirpa'i jecopyovfxev, ov'X, 
'Ofirjpnv XPV TrepipLeveLV BrjXwaovra rj/j,Li', aW' 
opav irdpeaTi ravra. koI oaov iirl rf/ yf], ^a6el 
Xifjia> dec avvrj/jLev dv, ro S" lepov koX o YlvdLO<i koL 
TO ')(pr]aT7]ptoi> Kol oi 6vovTe<i Kol ol evae/SouvTeij, 
Tavra AeXcpcov rd ireSia, ravra rj rrpocroho^;, iv- 
revdev r] eviropta, ivrevOev al rpo^ai — 'x^pi] <ydp 
rdX^]6T) 7rp6<i ye i)pd<i avrov^ Xiyeiu — kol to Xeyo- 
/X6V0V VTTO royv Troirjrwv, dcnrapra tj/jLiv koI dv)]pora 
(f)veraL rd rrdvra vtto yeoypyco tcu Ogm, 09 ou 
jiovov rd irapd roi'i ' FuXXrjaiv dyaOa yiyvop^eva 
Trapex^i'f dXX^ ei ri tV ^^Ipu^lv ?} AfSot? 77 Ilepcrat? 
17 'A cr o-fpioi? 7) ^l^oivi^iv 7) '\raXt(orai^ rj 'TTrep- 
(3opeoi<; avjol^, rrdvra e? AeXcpov^ d(f)tKVtirai . Kac 
rd Sevrepa /xerd rov 6eov 'r]fi6l<i ripao/xeda v(f)' 
dirdvrwv Kal evrropovpev kul euSaipovov/xev 
ravra ro dpxaiop, ravra ro P'ixP'' ^^^' '^^^ I^V 
TravcraLjieOd ye ovrw /Siovvre'i. 

Me/Lif?7Tat 8e ouSel? rrM-rore -^rj(^ov virep dva- 9 
6t]puro<i Trap rjulv diadoOetaav vvSe KcoXv6evra 
rivd Oueiv r) dvariOevai. Kal 8id rovr, olpai, Kal 
avro ei9 virep^oXi-jv rjv^qrai ro lepov Kal virep- 
rrXovret ev rot-; dvadtjpacriv. Set roivvv /LLrjli' iv rut 
irapovri Kaivoropeli' prjdev yu-z/Se irapd ra rrdrpta 
vofJLOv Kadtardvai, 4>uXoKpU'elv rd dva9i]p.ara Kal 



rocks is something we need not wait for Horner to 

tell us — anyone can see it for himself ^ As far as 
the land is concerned, we should always be cheek by 
jowl with starvation : the temple, the god, the oracle, 
the sacrificers and the worshippers — these are the 
grain-lands of Delphi, these are our revenue, these 
are the sources of our prosperity and of our subsis- 
tence. We should speak the truth among ourselves, 
at any rate ! " Unsown and untilled," '^ as the poets 
say, everything is grown for us with the god for our 
husbandman. Not only does he vouchsafe us the 
good things found among the Greeks, but every 
product of the Phrygians, the Lydians, the Persians, 
the Assyrians, the Phoenicians, the Italians and even 
the Hyperboreans comes to Delphi. And next to 
the god we are held in honour by all men, and we 
are prosperous and happy. Thus it was of old, thus 
it has been till now, and may we never cease leading 
this life ! 

Never in the memory of any man have we taken 
a vote on a gift, or prevented anyone from sacrificing 
or giving. For this very reason, I think, the temple 
has prospered extraordinarily and is excessively rich 
in gifts. Therefore we ouglit not to make any 
innovation in the present case and break precedents 
by setting up the practice of censoring gifts and 
looking into the pedigree of thiiigs that are sent 

^ " Rocky Pytho " is twice mentioned in the Iliad (2, 519 ; 
9, 405). But Liician is thinking particularly of the Homeric 
Hymn to Apollo, toward the close of which {526f. ) the 
Cretans whom Apollo has settled at Delphi ask him how they 
are to live ; " for here is no lovely vine-land or fertile glebe." 
He tell!> them that they have only to slaughter sheep, and all 
that men bring him shall bo theirs. 

"^ Homer, Od. 9, 109 ; 123. 



lyevaXo'yelv ra Tre/nTTo/xeva, oBev Kal acj)^ otov koI 
OTToia, he^ajiiei'ov^ Be uTrpay/xovco^; avartdevai vttt)- 
perovvra<i d/ji(f)Oiv, /cal ru> Oecp koI tol<; evcre/Seat. 

Ao/fetre 8e /j,oi, o) dvBp6<i AeXcbol, cipiara /3ov- 10 
XevaeaOac ^ irepl tmv irapovroiv, el Xo'yiaaiaOe 
inrep^ oacov Kal rjXiKfav earlv rj aKi-\p-i<;, irpoiTOV 
fiev VTrep tov Beov kol tou Upou Kal dvaidv Kal 
dvaOrjfiaTcov Kal iOcov dp)(^aicov Kal deaficov 
TraXaiojv Kal 86^)]^ tov ixavTslov, eirena virep t?}? 
TToXeo)? 0X779 Ka\ rwv av[X(^epovroiv tS> re KOivSi 
y)\iSiv Kal I8ia eKacnm AeXtjicov, evrt Trdat, he t% 
irapa iracnv dvOpcaTToa eu/cXeta? 17 KaKoBo^la^' 
TOVTOiv yap ovk olha eX Ti pel^ov, ec aw^povelre, 
i) dvajKaioTepov ip/yjaaiade dv. 

Tlepl fieif ovv oiv ^ovXevoixeOa, ravTa iariv, H 
ov 'i^dXapt^ rupavvo^ et? ouS' Tavpo<; ovro<i ov8e 
)^aXK6<i jjbovov, dXXd 7rdvTe<i ^acnXel<i Kal irdvre'i 
hvvdarat, gctol vvv y^pwvrat rw lepw, Kal ')(^pvcrb<; 
Kal dpyvpo<i Kac oaa ciXXa ri/iia, TToXXuKi^i 
dvareOrjaopieva ru) Oew' Trpoyjov jxev yap to Kara 
rov deov e^eraaOrjvai d^iuv. nvo^ ovv eveKa 12 
p,ri fo)9 del fii]8e 0)9 irdXat rd irepl rwv dvaO)]- 
p,dro)i' TTOtrjawpev; rj n pefX(f)o/jLevoi rotv rraXaiol'i 
edeaiv Kaivoro/j.ijaMpev; Kal o /jbtiBe irwirore, 
d(f) ov rrjv ttoXiv olKiivpiev Kal Yivdio'^ XP^ '^^'' ^ 
rpLTTov^ <^9 eyy erai Kal rj lepeia ep^rrvelrai, ye- 
yevrfrai Trap rj/xtv, vvv Karaarvcrcopeda, Kplveadai, 
Kal e^erd^ecOai rovf dvaridevra^; ; Kal prjv i^ 

' 0ov\f'''(r(a6at Reitz : PovKtveaBai MSS. 
^ iirip Sommerbiodt : Trpuroy virip MSS. 



here, to see where they come from and from whom, 
and what they are: we should receive them and 
dedicate them without officiousness, serving both 
parties, the god and the worshippers. 

It seems to me, men of Delphi, that you will 
come to the best conclusion about the present case 
if you should consider the number and the magnitude 
of the issues involved in the question — first, the god, 
the temple, sacrifices, gifts, old customs, time- 
honoured observances and the credit of the oracle ; 
then the whole city and the interests not only of 
our body but of every man in Delphi ; and more 
than all, our good or bad name in the world. I 
have no doubt that if you are in your senses you 
will think nothing more important or more vital than 
these issues. 

This is what we are in consultation about, then : 
it is not Phalaris (a single tyrant) or this bull 
of bronze only, but all kings and all monarchs who 
now frequent the temple, and gold and silver and all 
other things of 'price that will be given the god on 
many occasions. The first point to be investigated 
should be the interest of the god. Why should 
we not manage the matter of gifts as we have always 
done, as we did in the beginning ? What fault 
have we to find with the good old customs, that we 
should make innovations, and that we should now 
set up a practice that has never existed among us 
since the city has been inhabited, since our god has 
given oracles, since the tripod has had a voice and 
since the priestess has been inspired — the practice 
of trying and cross-examining givers.'' In consequence 



eKclvov fiev rov iraXaiov e6ov<i, tov avehijv koX 
Traaiv e^eivai. Spare oacov ayadSiv eix7r67r\'y](TTai 
TO iepov, cnrdi'Twv uvaTidivTCOv Kal virep rrjv 
V7rdpxouo-av 8vva/xiv ivioiv Scopovfiiicov rov 6eov. 
el S' u/ia? avroi)^ SoKi/xaaTdf koL i^eTacrTa<i 13 
eTriaTiqaere xoi? d id/jfxaaiv, OKVOi (jltj airopr]- 
(70)/j,ev TOiv hoKi^aadrjcrofxivoiv en, ov8evb<; vtto- 
fxkvovTO^ VTTohiKGv uuTOV KadicTTavai, Koi avoKi- 
(TKovra Kal KaTaBaTravcovra irap" avrov KpiveaOai 
Kal virep ro)v okoiv Kivhvveveiv. ij tlvl ^lcotop, €i 
/cpid^aerav tou uvartOevaL dva^io>i ; 


PH A LA Ills II 

of that fine old custom of unrestricted access for 
all, you see how many g(H)d things fill the temple : 
all men give, and some are more generous to the 
god than their means warrant. But if you make 
yourselves examiners and inquisitors upon gifts, I 
doubt we shall be in want of people to examine 
hereafter, for nobody has the courage to put himself 
on the defensive, and to stand trial and risk every- 
thing as a result of spending his money lavishly 
Who can endure life, if he is pronounced unworthy 
to make an oblatiou ? 




" Description " (ecplnasis) was a favourite rhetorical exer- 
cise, though many frowned on it. In the " K.heloric " 
attributed to Dionysius of Halicarnassu.s (X, 17 Userier) it is 
called "an empty sliow and a waste of words." It is the 
general opinion that this piece is not by Lm;iaa. 


Tmv aocpMi' €K6ivov<; fxakLcna e'yoi'ye (fyrj/M B/^iv 1 
cTraivelv, oiroaoL /xi) \6yov<; /xovov Seftou? Trufje- 
(TXOVTO virep tcov "Trpay/jLcircov eKiicnwv, aWa kcU 
e'p70«? 6/xotoi9 Ta<; rwv Xoycov viroa-^eaeif iiri- 
(TTuxravTO. koX yap tmv larpdv 6 ye vovv e)(^w 
ov rov<; apicrra vinp Tfj<; Te;^i/r;? elirelv hwafxevon^ 
IxeraareWeraL voaoiv, aWa tov<; irpa^ai rt Kar 
avT}]V fiffieXertjKora^, a/xeivoyv Se Kol fiovaiKo^i, 
olfxat, Toi) Btaicpiveiv pv6/j,ov<i koI apfiovia^ eVf- 
ara/ievov 6 koL yjraXai koL KiOaptaat avrb-; Svvd- 
fi€vo^. ri yap av aoL twv aTparrjywv Xeyoi/Mt 
Tov<i etAToTft)? api(TTov<; KpiBevra'?, on ov raTreiV 
jxovov Kal irapatveiv y)aav ayaOoi, aXXa Kai Trpo- 
fjid')(^e(xdaL row dWrov Kal ^€Lp6<i epya tiriBdrcvu- 
aOat; olov irdXai /nev ^Aya/xefivova Kal W.^iXXea, 
rcov Karw he rov ^AXe^avBpov Kal Hvppov icrfiev 

Ilpo<i Srj ri ravT €(f)r]v; ov yap dXXoi'i 2 
larTopiav eTTtheiKwaOav ^ovX6pLevo<i eirenvnadr^v 
avrwv, d}OC on, Kal tcov /.ui^ai'iKcoi' eKcivovt 
d^iov davpd^eiv, o-noaoi ev tt] Oeropia XufXTrpol 
yevopevov Kal fxv)]p6crvva 6p-(i><i t?}? re')(i^rj<; Kal 
7rapaB6iyp,aTa^ rot'; fier avT0v<i Kare^nrov errel 
oi ye Tolf Xoyoif; p,6voi<i iyyeyvjivacrpievoi (T<i<^(,arai 

^ irapaSeiy^ara Rotlistein : irpa^^iOTo MSS. 



Amono wise men, I maintain, the most praise- 
worthy are they who not only have spoken cleverly 
on their particular subjects, but have made their 
assertions good by doing things to match them. 
Take doctors, for instance: a man of sense, on falling 
ill, does not send for those who can talk about their 
profession best, but for those who have trained 
themselves to accomplish something in it. Likewise a 
musician who can himself play the lyre and the cithara 
is better, surely, than one who simply has a good ear 
for rhythm and harmony. And why need I tell you 
that the generals who have been rightly judged the 
best were good not only at marshalling their forces 
and addressing them, but at heading charges and at 
doughty deeds? Such, we know, were Agamemnon 
and Achilles of old, Alexander and Pyrrhus more 

Why have I said all this ? It was not out of an 
ill-timed desire to air my knowledge of history that 
I brought it up, but because the same thing is true 
of engineers — we ought to admire those who, though 
famous for knowledge, have yet left to later gene- 
rations reminders and proofs of their practical skill. 
for men trained in words alone would better be called 



au eLKOTca fiaWov r] ao<^ol KaXolvro. tolovtov 
uKOVOfxev TOP ^Ap')(ifit]ST) yeveadai koX tov K-viSLnv 
"EcoaTpaTOV, tov fxev IlToXe/uLaifp ■^eipcocrap.evov tijv 
^i/j,(f)iv^ cipev TToXiopKia'i a'lTQcrrpoc^fj kuI Btaipeaei 
TOV TTOTa/iiov, TCI' Se Tttf Tcjv TToXe/xLoyv Tpu'jp€t,<; 
KaTa(f)\e^avTa t^ ji-)(i>rj. kol ^a\r)<i he 6 
Mt\7;crf09 irpo avTMv vTro(T\6ixevo<i Kpoiao) 
ajSpoy^ou Sta/Si^daew tou oTpaTov eirivoia ku- 
TOTTiv TOV aTpaTOTreSov fiia vvkti tov ' AXvv 
Trepirj'ya'yev, ov purj-s^^aviKO'^ ovTa yevofievo^, cro(^o9 
Be Kal iirivorjaat kol avvetvat 7n6av(OTaT0<;. to 
p.ev yap TOV 'Evre/of) irdw dpy(_alov, 09 ov povov 
Te^in']craadai Tol<; K')(^aiol<i tov ittttov, dXXa koI 
avy Kara/3 P]vai avrolf e? avTov Xejerat. 


r/yLta? pepvYjaOai, d^iov, dv8po<i ^070(9 pev Trap 
ovTiva /SovXei tmv irpo avTov yeyvpva<Tp,evov kuI 
avielval re 6^60<i Kal eppn'jvevaai cracpeaTaTOv, ra 
Be epya ttoXv tcov Xoycov up-elvo) irape^op^ivov Kai 
Tr]V Ti]<i Te^vr)<; V7r6(7)(^eatv dTroirXtipovvro'i, ov< ev 
TOiavTai<i p,€v vTToOeaeaiv ev al^ 01 irpo avTov 
TTpwTOi' yevkaQai evTvyy](jav, kutcl Be tov yewpieTpi- 
Kov Xoyov eVt rf/? BoOeia^i'^, (paair, evdeia^ to 
Tplycovov aKpi/Boj'i avvLOTapievov. KaiToc tmv ye 
dXX(ov eKa(TTo<i ev ti t?}? eVicrT/^/i?;? epyov diro- 
Tep6pevo<s ev eKeiva) evBoKipirjcra'i elvai Ti<i bpbQ}<i 
eBo^ev, 6 Be pi7])(avL/<a)v re o)v to, TrpcoTa koI 
yecoperpiKcov, gtl Be dppoviKcbv Kai p,ovaih(ov 
^alveTai, Kal 6p,w<i eKacTTOv tovtcov ouTWi eVreAO)? 

* Vlro\efia'tCj) x^^P'^^'^t'-^^"^ ^V Meu(piy Palmer : riTo\€fia7ov 
Xeipaxrdnevov Kal rriv Me^*"' I^ISS. " took Ptolemy and 
Meuiphia." * irpiroi E. Capps : not in MSS. 



wiseacres than wise. Such an engineer we are told, 
was Archimedes, and also Sostratus of Cnidus. The 
latter took Memphis for Ptolemy without a siege by 
turning the river aside and dividing it ; the former 
burned the ships of the enemy by means of his 
science. And before their time Thales of Miletus, 
who had promised Croesus to set his army across the 
Halys dryshod, thanks to his ingenuity brought the 
river I'ound behind the camp in a single night. 
Yet he was not an engineer: he was wise, how- 
ever, and very able at devising plans and grasping 
])roblems. As for the case of Epeius, it is prehistoric : 
he is said not only to have made the wooden horse 
for the Achaeans but to have gone into it along 
with them. 

Among these men Hippias, our own contem- 
porary, deserves mention. Not only is he trained as 
highly in the art of speech as any of his predecessors, 
and alike quick of comprehension and clear in exposi- 
tion, but he is better at action than speech, and fulfils 
his professional promises, not merely doing so in those 
matters in which his predecessors succeeded in 
getting to the fore, but, as the geometricians put it, 
knowing how to construct a triangle accurately on a 
given base.^ Moreover, whereas each of the others 
marked off some one department of science and 
sought fame in it, making a name for himself in 
spite of this delimitation, he, on the contrary, i.s 
clearly a leader in harmony and music as well as in 
engineering and geometry, and yet he shows as 

' In other words, he has originality. 



BeLKVvcriv &)? ev avro fiovov iTriaTafievos-. ryv nlv 
yap Trepl uktu'WV koI avaicKdaewv kuI Karoirrpcov 
deoopi'iv, eVi he acrrpovofn'av, ev y 7rai8a<i rov<; irpo 
avTOV U7ri(f)r]i'€v, ovk o'Kijov ')(^povov av elrj 
eiraivelv. a Se evay^ot; iStbv avrov roiv epycou 4 
Kar€7r\dyrjv, ovk 6KV}]act) enrehr Koivrj pcev yap r) 
VTT6deai<; kuv tw kuO' r^jxa^ /Stro ttcivv ttoAX?;, 
j3aXar€iov KaracTKevif r) ^ irepwoia he Koi iv raJ 
K'oivrp TOVTcp avve(Tt<i davixaarr). 

ToTTo? /xev Tjv OVK eTTiTTeSo?, dXXa irdvv irpo- 
acivrrjii koI 6p6io<;, ov Trapaka/Swv Kara Odrepa 
€(<; vTT€p/3o\r)i> TaireLvov, laoireZov ddrepov' Oarepo) 
dire^rivev, KprjirlZa p.ev ^e/SaioTdTrjv aTravTi rSi 
epyw 0a\6/j,ei'o<; Ka\ 6epLe\i(ov decree Tr]v tmv 
eTrniOepAvwv dacfidXeiav e p,7re8o)(T d/xei'o<;, vyjrecn^ Se 
irdvv d7ror6pot<i Kal 7rp6^ da<^d\eiav avve)(Ofjievoi<; 
TO 6\ov Kparuvdfievo^' ra he eTroLKohopirjO evra 
r& re roi) tottov fxeyeOeL (Tv/jL/xerpa fcal tm evXoytp 
T?}? Karaa KevT)<i a pp^ohicoTaTa Kal rov rcov (pcorcoi' 
\6yov (f)v\dTT0VTa. ttvXoov ptev v^lrrjXof dvaj3a- 5 
a€i<i TrXareiwi e/^wv, vTrr'ta'^ fidWov ?} 6p6ia<i^ irpo^ 
rrjv rwv dpioi'Tcov evpidpeiav elcriovra he rovrov 
exhe^eTat, koiv6<; oIko^ evpueyeOii^, iKavr]v ey^wv 
u7rr)peTai<i Kal ukoXovOol'^ hiarpi/Bqi^ iv dpLarepa 
he TO. 69 rpu(l)r]v TrapeaKevacrfieva OLKi],° 
jSaXaveitp h' ovv Kal ravra TTpeirwhecrrara, X'^P^' 
eaaat Kai (fxitrl rrroWw KaraXapbTrofievai, virox^pf)- 

> T) E. S i-'hwartz : not in MSS. 
" edrtpov E. Schwartz : not in MSS. 
' vrixat MSS. • a\i/i(Tt Pellet and du Soul. 
■• uTrrios, opOiaj E. Schwartz: vimns, opBios MSS. 
* TO irapaffKfvaa/'a oiKrinaTa Guj'et : toii/ Trap'j-a Kfvatr f ivtov 
ohcripaTmv MSS.: ruv TTapaaKfvaff/xfyaiy oiKiinara Scliwarcz. 



great perfection in each of these fields as if he knew 
nothing else. It would take no little time to sing 
his praises in the doctrine of rays and reflexions and 
mirrors, or in astronomy, in which he made his pre- 
decessors appear children, but I shall not hesitate 
to speak of one of his achievements which I recently 
looked upon with wonder. Though the undei*taking 
is a commonplace, and in our days a very frequent 
one, the construction of a bath, yet his thoughtful- 
ness and intelligence even in this commonplace 
matter is marvellous. 

The site was not flat, but quite sloping and steep ; 
it was extremely low on one side when he took it in 
hand, but he made the whole level, not only con- 
structing a firm basis for the entire work and laying 
foundations to ensure the safety of the superstructure, 
but strengthening the whole with buttresses, very 
sheer and, for security's sake, close together. The 
building suits the magnitude of the site, accords well 
with the correct proportions of such an establishment, 
and shows regard for the principles of lighting. 

The entrance is high, with a flight of broad 
steps of which the tread is greater than the pitch, 
to make them easy to ascend. On entering, one 
is received into a public hall of good size, with 
ample accommodations for servants and attendants. 
On the left are the lounging rooms, also of just 
the right sort for a bath, attractive, brightly lighted 



tret?, elr e^^ofxevo^ avrwv olko<?, irepLTTO^^ fiep o)<i 
7rpo<i TO 'Xovrpov, uvayKaLO<i Be ft)? vrpo? tt^i^ 
T(t)V evhaijjLOvearepwv viToho~)(^)]v. fiera he rovrov 
eKarepcoOev hiapKei<i tol'^ aTTo8uo/u,evoL^ dirodeaei'i, 
Kol fiefTOf oIko<; ii-^ei re v-^T]\oraTO^ Kal (^wtl 
(f)aiSpuraTO';, ylrvx^pov vSaro'i e)(^wv rpel^ tcoXvfJi- 
^)]Oi:a<i, AuKalvr/ XlOm KeKo<Tfn]fiepo<i, Kal eiK6ve<i 
ev avTw XiOov \evKov t»^<? apxo-ia^ epyaaia<i, rj 
fiev "Tyteia's, rj Se 'Acr/cX^/Trfoi). 

'E^eX^ot'Ta? Be virohex^Tat r^pefia ')(\iai- 6 
v6/xevo<; oIko^ ovk airrivel rfj Oep/mrj TrpoairavTwv, 
e'mp.')]Krj<;, a p(})iaTp6yjv\o<i , fxeO' ov ev Se^ia 
oIko^ ev fidXa ^aiS/oo?, a\eL\jraa6ai 7rpo(Tr]VM<i 
Trapexop-evGi?, eKarepcodev elaoBovf; e;^«i' ^pvyUp 
\i9(p KeKaXXcoTTKr/iieia^, rov<i utto 7raXaiaTpa<; 
el<Tt6i>ra>i Be^^^ofxevo^;. elr iirl tovtm dXXo^ oJKO<i 
o'kwv cnrdvrcov KdXXiaro<s, crTrjvaL re Kai eyKaOv- 
^eaOuL 7rpoa7]i'earaTO(; koI e/jL/SpaBui ai d^XajSe- 
■xraroq koI eyKvXiaacrOai djcfieXt/iicoTaro^, ^pvyiov 
Kal (ivro<i et\ opocpyjv UKpav dTroariXlSoiV. e^i}^ Be 
6 6ep;jLb<; v7ToBe-)(^eTaL BidFpo/jLO^ No/x«St Xudrp Bia- 
KeKoXX)]/j,ei'0<;. 6 Be evBov o2KO<i KdXXLaTO<;, (fxoro'i 
re TToXXou di>d/xearo<i Kal &)? irop^vpa Biijj'Oicr- 
fjLevo<i. rpel<i Kal ovto<; depfid^i TrveXovf irape'x^eTai. 

Aovoa/uievQ) Be evecrri crot yu,*; ri^v Bid 7 
Tcov avTMv ol'kcov av0c<i eTravievai, dXXd 
Ta')(eZav t7ji> eirl to yj/vypov Bi r/pep-a deppov 
olK7]p,aro<i, Kal zavra irdpTa vtto (f)ayil /xeydXco 
Kal TToXXy TTj evBov yfiepa. v^i] irpof TOvroL<i 



retreats. Then, beside them, a hall, larger than 
need be for the purposes of a bath, but nece.ssary 
for the reception of the rich. Next, capacious 
locker-rooms to undress in, on each side, with a ver}' 
hiiih and brilliantly lighted hall between them, in 
which are three swimming-pools of cold water ; it 
is finished in Laconian marble, and has two statues 
of white marble in the ancient technique, one of 
Hygieia, the other of Aesculapius. 

On leaving this hall, you come into another 
which is slightly warmed instead of meeting you 
at once with fierce heat; it is oblong, and has a 
recess at each side. Next it, on the right, is a 
very bright hall, nicely fitted up for massage, 
which has on each side an entrance decorated with 
Phrygian marble, and receives those who come in 
from the exercising-floor. Then near this is another 
hall, the most beautiful in the world, in which 
one can sit or stand with comfort, linger without 
danger and stroll about with profit. It also is 
refulgent with Phrygian marble clear to the roof. 
Next comes the hot corridor, faced with Numidian 
marble. The hall beyond it is very beautiful, full of 
abundant light and aglow with colour like that of 
purple hangings. 2 It contains three hot tubs. 

When you have bathed, you need not go back 
through the same rooms, but can go directly to the 
cold room through a slightly warmed apartment. 
Everywhere there is copious illumination and full 
indoor daylight. Furthermore, the height of each 

^ Or "long and rounrled" ; i.e., elliptical. 

" The writer does not mean that the room was buns; with 
purple, but that the stone with which it was decorated was 
purple : perhaps only that it had columns of porphyry. 



avaXoya Kat irXdrr) Tol'i firjKea-i crvfi/xeTpa koI 
TravTay^ov ttoWt) x^P''^ '^^'^ 'A^/ooStrr; eiravOel' 
Kara yap rov koKov HivSapov, ap^pp^evov epyov 
irp6ao37rov XPV ^^/^ey Tr]Xavye<i. rovro S' av elirj 
€K rr]<i avyr]'^ pboXiara kuI tov (f)eyyov<i kuI tS>v 
(f)corayo}y(ov pLe/urj^avrj/nivov. o yap aocfio^; &)<? uXr)- 
(■)(!)<; 'iTTTTta? TOV pbkv yjrvxpoSoxov oIkov et? ^oppav 
TTpoaKexf^PV^oTa iTToirjo-ev, ovk ap.oipov ovhe 
rov jj,e(n]p,/3pii'<jv ciepa' tou? 8e ttoXXov tov 
OdX-nov^ h€op.evov<; votw /cal evpat Kal ^ecfivpoy 
VTreOrjice. ri 8' av aot to iirl tovtw Xiyoi/ni 8 
TrdXalar pa<i koI Ta<; Koivd<i twv ifiaTio^vXaKovv- 
T(t>v KaTaaKeva<i ray/eiar ^ eVl to XovTpov Kal 
p,7j Bid pbuKpov TTjV oBov €XOvcra<t TOV XPV^^/^o^ '^^ 
/cal d0Xa^ov<i eveKa; 

Kat pirj p,e inroXd^r] rt? fiiKpov epyov irpoOe- 
pevov KO(Tp,eiv tw Xoym TrpoaipelrrOar to yap iv 
T0i9 KOLvoL'i Kaiva eirtvorjoaL kuXXov; BeiyuaTa, 
01) p,tKpd<; ao(f)ta<; 670)76 riOep^aL, olov Kal roSe to 
epyov o 6avp-d(7io<i i)pLiv'\7nrla<i eirehei^aTO Trdaa^ 
e^ov Ta? jSaXaveiov dperdf;, to p^7;cri/xot', to 
evKuipov, TO ev(f)€yye<;, to (Tvpp,eTpov, to tS> tottw 
i)pp.oapbevoi', to ti]v xpeiav da(f)aX^) "Trapexop-evov, 
Kal irpoaeTt TJj dXXr) irepivoia K€K(iap,T)p.evov, 
d(p6S(ov p,ev dvayKaioiV Svalv dvaxf^PV^^cri-v, 
€^6Boi<; Be TToXAat? TeOvpoyp-evov, oypcov Be BiTTat; 
Bt]Xcoaei<;, ttjv p.ev Be" vBaTO<; Kal pLVKt']p.aTO<i, Ttjv 
Be Bi* tjXlov e7rtBeiKvvp.€vov. 

Tavra IBovra p,r) uiroBovvaL tov irpeTrovTa 
eiraivov tco epym ovk dvoi'jTov p,6i>ov, dXXd Kal 

' TOx«<a»' Schwartz : raxfiay t^v MSS. 



room is just, and tlie breadth proportionate to 
the length ; and everywhere great beauty and love- 
hness prevail, for in the words of noble Pindar/ 
" Your work should have a glorious countenance." 
This is probably due in the main to the light, 
the brightness and the windows. Hippias, being 
truly wise, built the room for cold baths to north- 
ward, though it does not lack a southern exposure ; 
whereas he faced south, east, and Avest the rooms 
that require abundant heat. VV'hy should I go on 
and tell you of the exercising-floors and of the cloak- 
rooms, which have quick and direct connnunication 
with the hall containing the basin, so as to be con- 
venient and to do away with all risk ? 

Let no one suppose that I have taken an insignifi- 
cant achievement as my theme, and purpose to en- 
noble it by my eloquence. It requires more than a 
little wisdom, in my opinion, to invent new mani- 
festations of beauty in commonplace things, as did 
our marvellous Hippias in producing this work. It 
has all the good points of a bath — usefulness, con- 
venience, light, good proportions, fitness to its site, 
and the fact that it can be used without risk. More- 
over, it is beautified with all other marks of thought- 
fulness — with two toilets, many exits, and two 
devices for telling time, a water-clock that bellows 
like a bull, and a sundial. 

For a man who has seen all this not to render the 
work its meed of praise is not only foolish but 

' OJymp. 6, 3. Pindar's apx^f^fvov [the beginning of your 
work) is out of place in this context. 



ayaplcTTov, /u^dWop Be (SaaKc'ivov /xoi elvai eSo^ev. 
ijci) fiev ovv 649 hvvafxiv KOL TO ep'yov Kai top 
reyyiTrjv Kal Brifitovpyov rijxeiy^dfirjv rw Xoyro. et 
he deo<i 'Trapdaj(Oi koI \ovaacrOab irore, iraWovi 
olSa e^cov TOv<i Kou>o)i'i](TOPTd<i fiot TOiv eTraLvoiv. 



unc^rateful, even malignant, it seems to me. I foi 
my part have done what 1 could to do justice both 
to the work and to the man who planned and 
built it. If Heaven ever grants you tlie privilege 
of bathing tliere, I know that I shall have many 
who will join me in my words of praise. 



In Liician's time it became iho cu.stuiii to introduce a 
formal piece of rhetorical fireworks with an informal talk, 
usually more or less personal. See A. Stock, dt profalinrinn 
vsu rhfforico, Ki'migsherg, 1011. It is the general belief that 
the "Dionysus' introduced Book ii. of the •True fcjtory.' 



"Ore o At6fVcro<; eir ^JvSov^ a-rpariav rjXaae 1 
— Kw\vei 'yap ovhev, olfiai, Koi fiuOov vpuv 
hi7]'y)](jaa6aL llaicy^LKov — (f)acrlv ovroi KaTacf>popPj- 
aat, avTOV to, irpoiJa rou<{ av9p(OTT0v<; Tov<i eKei, 
ware Kara'yeK.av e7rt6vTO<;, pdWop 8e iXeelv rrjv 
ToXpav avTLKa pciXa av/jb7raTy]0)]aopei'Ou iiirh TOiv 
iXe^iivTcov, el di'Tird^ano' ^ ■i'jKovov yep, ot/xai, tcou 
(TKO'iroiv dWoKora virep rrj^ arpaTid^ avrov 
ujyeWovTcov, o)? rj pev (pciXaj^ avrco Kal oi Xo^ol 
<yvvalKe<i elev eKcfipovef Kal pep^jvviai, klttw 
eareppivat, veflpiha<i evijppivai, Bopdria piKpd 
e^^ovaai dcnSi]pa, KCTTOTroirjTa Kat ravra, Kat riva 
TreXTdpta Kov(pa, /Sop^ovi^ra, ec Ti9 povov Trpoad- 
■\lrano — dairlai yap eiKa^ov, olpaif'rd rvpirava — 
oXiyovi Be Tiva<; dypoiKov^ veaviaKov^ ivelvai, yup- 
rov<i, KopSaKu 6p-)(ovpevov<s, ovpd^ e^ovTa<;, Kepda- 
ra<;, ola rolii u/jtc yevvijOelaiv epucpot^ v7ro<pveTai, 
Kai rov pev arpaTi^Xdrriv avrov e0' dppaTO<; o;^6t- 2 
aOai vaphdXewv vire^evypevcuv, dyeveiov aKpijBSi^, 
ovB' eTT^ oXiyov riji' irapeidv ')(^i'OcavTa, Kepaacfyopoi', 
j3oTpvni<; hare(^ai>o)iJLevov, p'npa ti]v Koprjv dva- 

' a.vma.^a.iro MSS. : avriroL^oiTO Cobet. 
** olfxai Rothst/cin : koX MtStJ. 



When Dionysus led his host against the men of 
Ind (surely there is nothing to prevent my telling 
you a tale of Bacchus !), he was held at first in such 
contempt, they say, by the people there, that they 
laughed at his advance ; more than that, they pitied 
him for his hai-dihood, because he was certain to be 
trampled under foot in an instant by the elephants 
if he deployed against them. No doubt they heard 
curious reports about his army from their scouts : 
" His rank and file are crack-brained, crazy women, 
wreathed with ivy, dressed in fawn-skins, carrying 
little headless spears which are of ivy too, and light 
targes that boom if you do but touch them " — for 
they supposed, no doubt, that the tambours were 
shields. " A few young clodhoppers are with them, 
dancing the can-can without any clothes on ; they 
have tails, and have horns like those which start 
from the foreheads of new-born kids. As for the 
general himself, he rides on a car behind a team of 
panthers ; he is quite beardless, without even the 
least bit of down on his cheek, has horns, wears 
a garland of grape clusters, ties up his hair with 



6eBefiei/ov, ev irop^vplht koX ')(pvaf] ifi^dSr inro- 
cTTparrjyeiv 8e 8vo, eva fxev Ti.va0pa')(vv,7rp^a/3vT'r)V, 
inroTra^vv, TrpoydcTTopa, pivoaifioi', oyra fieydXa 
opdia exovra, unrorpopov, vdpOrjKi i'jrepeiSopevov, 

TovTOv, iravv tnUavov riva (TvvTa'yp,aTap'\^rjv 
avTov erspov Be repdartov dvOpwirov, rpdyo) ra 
vepdev ioiKora, Kop,j'jTrjv rd <TKe\ij, Kepara ^xovra, 
^advTTOiywva, opyiXov Kol Oup^LKov, Bare pa p^ev 
(Tvpiyya (pepovra, tt) he^ia he pdfSSov KapirvXrjv 

€7r>jpp€V0l' Kal TTCpiCTKipTMVTa 6\oV TO (jrpaTOTTe- 

oov, Kol ra yuvaia Be cpn/SelaOai. avrov Kal aeietv 
rjvepLwp-eva^ Td<i Kopa^i, orrore irpoaioi, kuI ^odv 
evol' rovro S' elKdl^eiv KaXelcrOai, avroiv rov 
SecTTroTrjv. rd'i S' ovvrrolpva'; SnjpTrdadai ■)']8rj vtto 
TMV yvvaLKOiv Kal hieairdaOaL en ^wvra ra 
dpepp-ara' a)fxo(bdyov<; yap Tiva<i avTd<; elvai. 

Taura ol 'Ii'Sot Kal 6 ^uai\€u<i avTwv aKov- 
oi'Te? eye\(oi>, o)? rb €lk6<;, koA ouS' dvreTre^dyeiv rj 
irapardTTeadai t^^lovv, dW etwep cipa, Td<i 
yvvdtKa^ e7ra<l))'jcrtiv avTOi'i, el TrXrjaiov yevoivro, 
cr0tVt 8k Kal viKCLV alcry^pov iSoKei Kal (f)oveveiv 
yvvnia piepfjvoTa Kal drjXvplrpriv ap^ovra Kal 
pueOvov apbiKpov yepovriov Kal i]p,iTpayov arpaTtco- 
rrjv dWou^ val yvpvrjra<; 6p)(^r](rTd<;, Trdu-^a'i^ 
yeXoLOVii. iiret Se rjyyeXro TrupiroXcov o deo^ i]8r) 
rrjv ■)(^d)pav Kal TroXet? avTdv8pou<i KaracpXeytov 
Kal di'd-TTrcdv rd^; vXa<; Ka) ev (3pa')(el Trdaav tijv 
^ivBiKijv (f)Xoyo<; e p,iT eTrXrj K(a<i — ottXov ydp ti 

' 7]ixlr payor ffrpaTtaiT-qv &\\nv Haiinon : rjfit(TTpaTu!;n)v &\\oy 
MSS. : rifxlTpa-yov aWov Hartniann : rinirrw Tpa-yifiST) &.v6pu>-xoi' 
Sclnvartz. * irivras MtJS. : irarra .Schwartz. 



a ribbon, and is in a purple gown and gilt slippers. 
He ha« two lieutenants. One^ is a short, thick-set 
old man with a big belly, a flat nose and large, 
up-standing ears, who is a bit shaky and walks with 
a staff (though for the most part he rides on an ass), 
and is also in a woman's gown, which is yellow ; he 
is a very appropriate aide to such a chief! The 
other 2 is a misbegotten fellow like a goat in the 
underpinning, with hairy legs, horns, and a long 
beard ; he is choleric and hot-headed, carries a 
shepherd's pipe in his left hand and brandishes a 
crooked stick in his right, and goes bounding all 
about the array. The women are afraid of him ; they 
toss tlieir hair in the wind when he comes near and 
cry out ' Evoe.' This we suppose to be the name of 
their ruler. The flocks have already been harried 
by the women, and the animals torn limb from 
limb while still alive ; for they are eaters of raw 

On hearing this, the Hindoos and their king 
roared with laughter, as well they might, and did 
not care to take the field against them or to deploy 
their troops ; at most, they said, they would turn tiieir 
women loose on them if they came near. They them- 
selves thought it a shame to defeat them and kill 
crazy women, a hair-ribboned leader, a drunken little 
old man, a goat-soldier and a lot of naked dancers — 
ridiculous, every one of them ! But word soon came 
that the god was setting the country in a blaze, 
burning up cities and their inhabitants and firing the 
forests, and that lie had speedily filled all India with 

' Silenus. ^ PaiL 


VOI„ I. £J 


AiovvaiaKov rb irvp, irarpuiov avrat kcln. tov 
Kepavvov — evravOa ySt] cnrovSf} dveXd/.tjSaL'Ov ra 
otrka Kol Tnv<; eXi(f)avTa<i i7riad^avT6<; koI i'y-^aXt.- 
vaxravre^ koI tou? Trvpyov':: dvaOepLevoi iir avroix; 
avreri c^rjecrav, KaTa(ppovovL'T€<i fiev ku' Tore, 
opyi^u;-iei>oi. Be 6/j,co<; koI avvTpL\jrai, a7revSovre<i 
avTcp arparoiriSro tov dyeveiov eKelvov arparr]- 
Xarrjv. iirel he irX'qaiov eyevovTo kuI elSov d\- 
\}]\ov(;, nl fiev ^IvSol ■jrpord^avre'; tov<; e\i(f)av- 
Ttt? iirrj'yov tijv cf)d\ayya, 6 Atovvao'i Se to fxeaov 
fiev avTOf eive, tov Kepw<; 8e avrw tov SePiov aev 
ZLKrjvo';, TOV evcovv/xou be o iiav rjyovpTO' 
XoXayol 8e Koi Ta^iapxoi ol ^drvpoi iyKaOet- 
aTrjKtaav Kal to /xev avidt]fMa rjv diraai to evol. 
€v6v<i Se TO, Tv/xTrava eTraTayelro Kal tu KVfi^aXa 
TO TToXefXLKov e(Ti]/.iaiv€ Kal rcop "Earvpcov Ti<i 
Xa^MV TO Kepa<; iiry^vXec to opOiov Kal o tov 
'EiXrjvov ovo^ evvdXiov Ti 0)yK7](TaT0 Kal al 
MaimSe? aiiv oXoXvyfj eveTr/jBrjaav avTOt<i 8pd- 
K0VTa<i VTTe^wa fjLevai kuk twv Ovpawv UKpcov diro- 
yvfivovaai tov alSyjpov. ol 'IvSol Se kuI ol 
eXe<^avTe^ avTcov avTiKa eyKXlvavTe'i avv ovSevl 
Koa/xo) ecfeevyov ovS' ivTO'i ^eXov^ yeveadac 
V7ro/-ieLvavi6^, Kal reXo? Kara Kpdro^ kaXooKeaav 
Kat, afXfJ-aKwTOt wrriiyovro vtto tojv leax; KuTuye. 
Xwfxevwv, kpyw /J.a06vTe<; d>^ ovk e^P^v utto t/}? 
TTpcoTrj'} aKoij^ KUTa^povelv ^evcov cri paTOTreScop. 



flame. (Naturally, the weapon of Dionysus is fire, 
because it is his father's and comes from the tliunder- 
bolt.') Then at last they hurriedly took arms, 
saddled and bridled their elephants and put the 
towers on them, and sallied out against the enemy. 
Even then they despised them, but were angry at 
them all the same, and eager to crush the life out of 
the beardless general and his army. When the 
forces came together and saw one another, the 
Hindoos posted their elephants in the van and 
moved forward in close array. Dionysus had the 
centre in person ; Silenus commanded on the right 
wing and Pan on the left. The Satyrs were com- 
missioned as colonels and captains, and the general 
watchword was ' Evoe.' In a trice the tambours were 
beat, the cymbals gave the signal for battle, one of 
the Satyrs took his horn and sounded the charge, 
Silenus' jackass gave a martial hee-haw, and the 
Maenads, serpent-girdled, baring the steel of their 
thyrsus-points, fell on with a shriek. The Hindoos 
and their elephants gave way at once and fled in 
utter disorder, not even daring to get within range. 
The outcome was that they were captured by force 
of arms and led oft" prisoners by those whom they 
had formerly laughed at, taught by experience that 
strange armies should not have been despised on 

^ Zeus, the father of Dionysus, revealed himself to Semele, 
his mother, in all his glory, at her own request. Killed by 
his thunderbolt, she gave untimely birth to Dionysus, whom 
Zeus stitched into his own tliigh and in due time brought 
into the world. 



^AWa Tt 7r/)o? TOP Aiovvaoi' o Aiovvao'i 5 
ovTO<;; ecTTOi xi? dv. on /xoi SoKovai — Ka\ 7rpo<; 
XaptTWi' fn] /Jb6 KopvjBavriav rj re\eco<i jxeOveiv 
v7roXdl3)]re, el rufjid etVa^o) xoi? 6eol<i — o/xoiov ri 
Trdcrx^iv oi ttuWol tt/jo? rov^ Kaivov<i roiv Xoywv 

TOi? 'Ij'Sfy?? €K€LVOt<;, olov Kol TT/JO? TOU? i/J,OV^' 

olofieiot, yap aarvpiKO, Kai yeKold Ttva koX KO/xiSfj 
Kco/xiKo. irap^ i)fxo)v uKovcreaOai — roiavra yap ^ ire- 
iTKTTev/caaiv, ouk olS" o ri Bo^av avrol<; virep ifjiov 
— ol fier ovSe riji' dp')(J)v d^LKVovvrai, to? ovEev 
Senv 7rape)(^eiv rd mtu Kd)/xoi<i yvvacKeloi^ nal crKtp- 
Trjpaai aarvptKol^ Kara^dvTa^; diro roiv eXecf^av- 
T(ov, Oi Be ft)? cttI roiovTo rt ^]Kovre<i dvrl rev 
KtTTov aihqpov eup6vT€<i ovS" ovrax; eTraivelv 
ToX/j-coat, TU) TTupaSo^o) rov 7rpdyfMaTo<; reOopv- 
^Tjp ''POL. d\Xd dappcov eirayyeXXopai avrot'i, 
OTi i]V fcal vvv &)? irporepov ttotb rrjp reXerrji/ 
eOeXrjawcnv iiriZelv ttoXXukc^ koI dvafivtjcrdayaiv 
ol TTaXatol aVflTTOTai Ku>p.rov kocvmv tmv tutc 
Katpo)v Kal fit) KaTa(f)pov7](Twaiv tmi> ^aTvpwv 

Kol ^iXtJVMV, TTLWCTt Bk €9 KOpOV TOV KpaT^pO^ 

TOVTOV, en ^aKy^evaew - Kal auroix; Kal 7roXXdKt<; 
jxeff' rjficbv ipelv to euoi. ovroi fxev ovr — eXevOepov 6 
yap dKOt) — TToiovvTcov 6 n Kai (f)iXoi'. 

li,7a> oe, e7rei07]7rep en, ev ivooL^ ecxfiev, eueXco 
val dXXo vfilv Sirjyr'jCTaadal n rcov eKeWev, ovk 

' ybip (in two late MSS. only) A. M. H., making Totavra. 

. . (fiov parenthetical. 

* frt flaicx*"*''*"' Schwartz : ifi.$aKXfvafiv (or 4x0.) MSS. 



" But what has your Dionysus to do with 
Dionysus?" someone may say.^ This much: that 
in my opinion (and in tlie name of the Graces don't 
suppose me in a corybantic frenzy or downright drunk 
if 1 compare myself to the gods!) most people are in 
the same state of mind as the Hindoos when they 
encounter literary novelties, like mine for example. 
Thinking that Avhat they hear from me will smack 
of Satyrs and of jokes, in short, of comedy — for that 
is the conviction they have formed, holding I know 
not what opinion of me — some of them do not come 
at all, believing it unseemly to come off their ele- 
phants and give their attention to the revels of 
women and the skippings of Satyrs, while others 
apparently come for something of that kind, and 
when they find steel instead of ivy, are even then 
slow to applaud, confused by the unexpectedness 
of the thing. But I promise confidently that if 
they are willing this time as they were before to 
look often upon the mystic rites, and if my boon- 
companions of old remember " the revels we shared 
in the days that are gone " ^ and do not despise my 
Satyrs and Sileni, but drink their fill of this bowl, 
they too will know the Bacchic frenzy once again, 
and will often join me in the " Evoe." But let them 
do as they think fit : a man's ears are his own ! 

As we are still in India, I want to tell you another 
bile of that country which " has to do with Dionysus," 

ovStv irphs Thv £^i6i>v(rov eVl rciv rk /xii irpoaiiKOVTa to7s 
uiroK<:t/jifvo(S htyiivToiv. Explained by Zenoliius as said in the 
theatre, when poets began to write about Ajax and the 
Centaurs and other tilings not in the Dionysiac legend. 
See Paroemio'int phi (j'raeri i. p. 137. 

* Tbo source of the anapaest kw/jloov koivSov r&y 't6t( Kaipuf 
is unknown. 



aTrpocrhiovvaov ovh^ avro, ovh wv Troiov/xei' aWo- 
rpiov. ev ']j'5ot9 rot? Ma^Xa/oi?, oi ra Xaia rov 
'li>8ou TTorafiov, el Kara povv avrov ^Xeiroi^;, 
e7nv6fi6fJi€voi P'^XP'' 7rpo9 tov ^i^Keavov KaO/jKovai, 
irapa ruvTOL<? aXao<; eariv ev irepicppaKTO), ov 
irdvv peyaKw ^wp/w, <TVVTqpe(^el he' kltt6<; jap 
7ro\i'<f Kal apireXoi ctvctklov avro dKpi^a)<i iroiov- 
(XLv. evravOa Trrjyai elac T/oet? KaWifTTOv Kal 
SieiSearaTov ySaro?, ?? fxev ^arvpcov,^ rj Be Uai>6<;, 
rj Se %t\7]vov. Kal elcrep^ovraL el<i avro ol ^\vhul 
dira^ TOV eVoL"? eopTd^ovT€<^ tm dew, Kal mvovai 
Twv irrjyMv, ov^ diracrMV diravTe^, d\ka Ka9^ 
r'jXiKiai', TCL /u,ei> ixeipaKia tT;? roiV ZaTvpwv, ol 
avhpe<i 8e t)"}? YlavLKTjt, Tr]<i 8e rov SiXtjvov ol Kar 

'^A fiev ovv TTuaxovaiv ol rrac^e<; eTreiBav 7 
rriwcriv, i) ola ol dvSpe^; roXfXMai Karexofievot 
T(p Yiavi, /xaKpoi' dv ett] Xejeiv a S' ol •yepovre<i 
rroiovcTiv, orav /zedvadfoaiv rov v8aro<;, ovk 
dXXoroiov elrrelv irreihdv rriyj o yepcov Kal 
Karda^V avrov 6 ^iXr]v6<;, avrLKa eVi iroXv 
d<p(ov6'i eart Kal Kupij/Sapovvri Kal ^e/3a7rria-/j-ev(p 
eoiKev, elra dcf)ra) (fioivr] re Xajxirpa Kai (f)6eypa 
ropov Kal TTvevpa Xcyvpov eyyiyverat avrw Kal 
XaXLararo<; e'f d(f)'ovordrov earlv, ovS" dv em- 
arop,('aa^ 7ravaeia<i avrov p^rj ov^l o-vi-ey^j XaXeiv 
KoX pr)(Tev<i p,aKpd<; avveipetv. crvvera pevroi 
rrdvra Kal Koapta Kai Kara rov Opi]pov CKelvov 
p-qropa' V((f>d8ea(ji yap eoiKora x^ipepirjac Bie^ep- 
yovrat, ovS' diro^PV'^^'' col kvkvol^ Kara tt]V 

' iarvpwv E. Capps : tarvpov MSS. 



like the first, and is not irrelevant to our business. 
Amonff tlie Machlaean Indians who feed their flocks 
on the left banks of the Indus river as you look down 
stream, and who reach clear to the Ocean — in their 
country there is a grove in an enclosed place of no 
great size ; it is completely sheltered, however, for 
rank ivy and grapevines overshadow it quite. In it 
there are three springs of fair, clear water : one 
belongs to the Satyrs, another to Pan, the third to 
Silenus. The Indians visit the place once a year, 
celebrating the feast of the god, and they drink 
from the springs : not, however, from all of them, 
indiscriminately, but according to age. The boys 
drink from the spring of the Satyrs, the men from 
the spring of Pan, and those of my time of life from 
the spring of Silenus. 

What happens to the boys when they drink, and 
what the men make bold to do under tlie influence of 
Pan would make a long story ; but what the old do 
when they get drunk on the water is not irrelevant. 
When an old man drinks and falls under the 
influence of Silenus, at first he is mute for a long 
time and appears drugged and sodden. Then of 
a sudden he acquires a splendid voice, a distinct 
utterance, a silvery tone, and is as talkative 
as he was mute before. Even by gagging him you 
couldn't keep him from talking steadily and deliver- 
ing long harangues. It is all sensible though, and 
well ordered, and in the style of Homer's famous 
orator ; ' for their words fall " like the snows of 
winter." You can't compare them to swans on 

' Odysseus : II. 3. 222, where he and Menelaua are com- 



fjXiKtav eiKaaai avrom, aWa reTriyMSe^; ri 
TTVKVov KoX e'Trirpo')(ov avvdirrovaiv ay^pi ^adeia<i 
ea7repa<i. Tovvrevdev Se i'jBrj a^edeiar]<; avTol<{ 
T?7? fie9ii<i aiQ)7r(t)ai koI 7rpo<i to dpy^atov dva- 
Tpeyovac. rb fievTOi irapaho^oraTov ovBeTTio 
elirov Tjv yap dreXq 6 jepwv fxera^v KaraXiTrj} 
ov Sie^rjec TOP Xoyov, Svvto<; rjXiov KoiXvdei^ eirl 
Tripa'i avrov eire^eXOelv, e? viwra irioiv av6i<i 
eKclva avvdirrei a iripvcri Xijovra 77 /xedrj avrov 

Tavrd [xoi Kara tov Mw/xov eh ifiavrov dire- 
aKQ)cf)6(i), Kal ixd rov At" oiiK dv en e7raydyoi/j.t, ro 
€7n/jLv6iov' opdre yap ySr] KaO' 6 tl tu> /xvOm 
eoLKa. ware rjv nevrL TrapairaLW/jiev, 1) /xeOrj atna' 
el he TTLVvrd Bo^eie id Xeyofieva, SiXrjvo^ dpa 
11V iXeo)<i. 



account of their age ; but like cicadas, they keep up 
a constant roundelay till the afternoon is far spent. 
Then, when the fumes of the drink leave them at 
last, they fall silent and relapse into their old ways. 
But I have not yet told you the strangest part of 
it. If an old man is prevented by sunset from 
reaching the end of the story wliich he is telling, 
and leaves it unfinished, when he drinks again 
another season he takes up what he was saying the 
year before when the fumes left him ! 

Permit me this joke at my own expense, in the 
spirit of Momus. I refuse to draw the moral, I 
swear ; for you already see how the fable applies to 
me. If I make any slip, then, the fumes are to 
l)lame, but if what I say should seem reasonable, 
then Silenus has been good to me. 





Toy llpaK\ea oi KeXrol "Oy/niov ovo/JLa^ovai 1 
(pcopfj TTJ i7rc')(^(opi(p, to Se elSo? roO Oeou irdvv 
dWuKOTOV ypu(j)i>u<Ti. yepcov ecrrlv avrol^ e<f to 
€(T')(^aTov, dva(}ia\avTia<i, vroXto? aKpt/3co<i ocrai 
XoiTral Tcov Tpfx^ojv, pva6<: to heppa /cal SiaKCxav- 
fiei'Of €9 TO peXdvTaTov oloi elcriv ol daXaTrovpyol 
'yepoi'T€<i' pdWov Se X^dpcova rj ^laireTov Tiva twv 
vTTOTapTapioiV KoX TrdvTa paKXov r) 'HpaKXea 
elvac av eiKdaeia^. dWa Kal toiovto^ wv e^ei 
opw; TTjV aKevrjV ttjv 'HpaKXeov^' koI yap ttjv 
Zi(f>depav evriTrraL T7]V tov \eovTO<; koI to poiraXov 
e^ei iv TTJ Se^ia fcal tov ycopvTov TrapijpTTjTai, Kal 
TO To^ov ivTeTapievov r] upiaTepa irpohuicvvcnv, 
Koi o\o<i 'Hpa/cX?}? eaTt TavTa ye. (pprjv ovv e0' 2 
v^pei TCOV 'FjWtjvccov^ decov ToiavTa irapavopelv 
Tov<; KeXToy? e? Ty]v pop(f)>)v ttjv 'Hpa/cXeou? 
dpivvopevov^ avTOv Trj ypacj^fj, oTi Trjv '^copav ttotc 
avTcov iin'fkdev \eiav iXavvcov, ottotc Ta? rtjpuovov 
dyeXa<i ^rjTcov KaTehpape Ta iroWa tmv eairepLcov 
yevwv. KaLToi to vrapaSo^oTaTov ouSenco €<f)i]V 3 

* 'EWrivlaiv MSS., Herwerden : 'Ewiivwp Schwartz: 'EA- 
\riviKiiv vulg. 



The Celts call Heracles Ogmios in their native 
tongue, and they poi-tray the god in a very peculiar 
way. To their notion, he is extremely old, bald- 
headed, except for a few lingering hairs which are 
quite gray, his skin is wrinkled, and he is burned as 
black as can be, like an old sea-dog. You would 
think him a Charon or a sub-Tartarean lapetus ' — 
anything but Heracles ! Yet, in spite of his looks, 
he has the equipment of Heracles : he is dressed in 
the lion's skin, has the club in his right hand, carries 
the quiver at his side, displays the bent bow in his 
left, and is Heracles from head to heel as far as 
that goes. I thought, therefore, that the Celts had 
committed this offence against the good-looks of 
Heracles to spite the Greek gods, and that they were 
punishing him by means of the picture for having 
once visited their country on a cattle-lifting foi'ay, 
at the tmie when he raided most of the western 
nations in his quest of the herds of Geryon. But 
I have not yet mentioned the most surprising thing 

* Chief of the Titans, who M'arred on Zeus and after their 
defeat were buried for ever in the bowels of the earth, below 



Ti}? €LK6vo<i' 6 yap Br) yepojv 'Hpa/cX,?}? eVeti^o? 
avOpctiTTwv TrdfMTroXu ri Tr\ri6o<i eX/cei €k roiv lorwv 
aTTcivTa'i BtBe/xei ov<i. Secr/xa 8i elaiv ol aeipai 
Xeirral ■)(^pvcrov Koi rfKeKrpov elpyaafxevai 6pixoL<i 
ioiKvlat TOi? KaWiaTOi<;. kuI 6p.w<i v^' ovT(o<i 
aaOevoiv ayop-evoi out6 Spaa/xov /3ovXevovaL, Svvd- 
[jLevoi av €v/jLara)<;, outs oXw? uvTiTeci'ovcrtv r) rot? 
TTOcrlr dvrepeiSovai Trpo? to evavriov t>}? dyo3yr}<i 
e^U7rri(i^ovTe<;, dWa (f)aiSpol eirovTar, koI yeyrj- 
06re<i KoX rov ayovra e7raLuouvTe<;, iTreiyofievoL 
diravTe^ koI t&) (^Odvew iOeXeiv rov Seapoi' eTrt- 
'^a\(OVT€<i, €0iKuT€<i d)(0€a6rjanfievoi<; el \v9i]- 
aovrai. o 8e irdvToiv droTrdiTarov eivai fioi 
eSo^ev, ovK oKinjaoi Koi tovto eliretv ov yap 'e)(wv 
o ^a)ypd(f)o<; o6ev i^d\\iei6 ral<i (TeipaL<; Td<; ap'^u'^} 
are Tr]<; Se^ia? p-eu ■)]8rj to poiraXov, Trj<i Xaid^i Be 
TO TO^ov i^'ivcrr](;, Tpu7ri]aa<; rod Oeov ri^v yXwTTav 
uKpav i^ i/ceivrjf; ekKopievovf; avrov<i CTroujcrev, Kol 
eTrecrrpa'TTTai ye eh tov<; dyo/nevov<; p^eiBiMV. 

TaOr' eyoi [xev eirl iroXii elaT/]Keiv opcov Kal 4 
6aup,d^(ov Kal dTTopwv Kat dyavaKrwv KeXro? 
Be Tt9 TTapecTTco'i ovk diraiBevro^ rd rjfierepa, cos 
eBei^ev dKpt/ScJo'i'KXXdBa (pwmjv d(pLeL<f, (piXoaocpoii,, rd eVi^ctJyOta, '£7(0 aot, ecfyy], m ^eve, Xvcro) 
Trj<; ypa(f))]<i to al'viyp-a- Trdvv yap raparrop-evoi 
€OLKa<i irpo'i avr7]P. rov Xoyov 7;/i6t9 01 KeA.TOt 
ovx oicrnep vp,el<; oi"KXXi]V€<i' Epp,7]V otop-eOa ewai, 
aXV 'WpaicXel avTov eiKd^op^ev, ort irapa iroXv 
TOO 'Rpp,ov Lax^p6repo<; outo<:. el Be yepcvv 
TreTTOirjrai, firj 6av/xdar)<i' fXovo<i yap o X0709 ev 
yijpa (f>iXeL irreXi] eTTiBeLKPuadai ttjv dKp-ijv, ei 

* rii o-px^^ Schwartz : tos rHv Sicrfiwi' apxas MSS. 


in the picture. That old Heracles of theirs drags 
after him a great crowd of men who are all tethered 
by the ears ! His leashes are delicate chains 
fashioned of gold and amber, resembling the 
prettiest of necklaces. Yet, though led by bonds so 
weak, the men do not think of escaping, as they 
easily could, and they do not pull back at all or brace 
their feet and lean in the opposite direction to that 
in which he is leading them. In fact, they follow 
cheerfully and joyously, applauding their leader and 
all pressing him close and keeping the leashes slack 
in their desire to overtake him ; apparently they 
would be offended if they were let loose ! But let 
me tell you without delay what seemed to me the 
strangest thing of all. Since the painter had no 
place to which he could attach the ends of the 
chains, as the god's right hand already held the 
club and his left the bow, he pierced the tip of his 
tongue and represented him drawing the men by 
that means ! Moreover, he has his face turned 
toward his captives, and is smiling 

1 had stood for a long time, looking, wondering, 
puzzling and fuming, when a Celt at my elbow, not 
unversed in Greek lore, as he showed by his excellent 
use of our language, and who had, apparently, 
studied local traditions, said : " I will read you the 
riddle of the picture, stranger, as you seem to be 
very much disturbed about it. We Celts do not agree 
with you Greeks in thinking that Hermes is 
Eloquence : we identify Heracles with it, because he 
is far more powerful than Hermes. And don't be 
surprised that he is represented as an old man, for 
eloquence and eloquence alone is wont to show its 



ye dXrjdf) vfxcov ol irocriTul Xeyovaiv, otl ai fj.ev 
TMv OTrXorepcov ^peve^ rjepedovrai, ro Ze 'yvjoa^; 
e)(^ei Tt Xe^ai r(ov vicov crocfxoTepov. ovtq) ye rot 
Kol rod Ne(TTopo9 v/jlIv airoppel e/c tt;? y\a)TT7]<i 
TO fieki, fcal ol ajoprjral tmv Tpcowv ri]V oira ^ 
d(j)iaaiv evavOrj tivw Xeipia yap KaXelrai, el yc 
fX€/jLV7]fjiai, rd dvOr], ware, el twi' a)TO)v e/cSt-Se- 5 
fj,evov<; T0U9 dv6pu)TT0V<i irpo'i rrjv yXcoTTav 6 yepwv 
ovTO<; 'UpaKXi]*; eXfceL," firjSe tovto 6av[xucrr]<i elhdx; 
Ti]v ooTOiv /cal yXcoTTT]^ avyyiveiav ov8^ v/3pi<i et? 
avTov, el TavTT} reTpvinjTai' fiefMvrjuat yovv, e(p7], 
Kol KoofiiKwv TLvcov lap-^eicov Trap u/xayv fiaOcov, 
Tot9 yap XdXoi^ i^ dnpov ?; yXwTia irdaiv ecrri 
Terpvirrj^evrj. ro 8 oXov kuX avjov rjpeLs' top 6 
'HpaKXea Xoyco rd irdvra t'^yoviJLeOa i^epydaaaOai 
ao(ji6v yevofxevoi', Kal ireiOot rd irXelara ^idaaaOai. 
Kal rd ye jBeXrj avrov oi Xoyot eiaiv, olfxai, 6^el<i 
icaX evaro')(^oi Kal rax^i'i Kal ra? '^v^d<i rirpd)- 
(TKOvre<i' irrepoevra yovv ra errr] kul vfiel^ (pare 

Tocraura fiev o KeXro?. ijjLol 8e i^viKa irepl 7 
rrj<i Bevpo rrapohov raur?;? eaKoirovfiriv 7rp6<i 
efiavrov, et p.oi KaXo)^ e'^ei rrjXiKwSe ovri Kal 
irdXai rcbv eTTiSel^ecov irerravpLevw avOi<i virep 
ep,avrov -^ricjiov hihovat roaovroL<; SiKaarac<;, Kara 
Kaipov errrjXOev dva/uvijcrdrivai rrj<; elKovo^;' re(o<{ 

' T^i' Oira Schwartz : r^v Swa t^jv \tipi6t<Taav MSS. 
'^ f\Kfi Hartinan, Schwartz: 6 \6yos fA«*x MSS. 



full vigour in old age, if your poets are right in 
saying ' A young man hath a wandering wit ' ^ and 
' Old age has wiser words to say than youth.' ^ 
That is why your Nestor's tongue distils honey,^ and 
why the Trojan counsellors have a voice like flowers ^ 
(the flowers mentioned are lilies, if my memory 
serves). This being so, if old Heracles here drags 
men after him who are tethered by the ears to 
his tongue, don't be surprised at that, either : you 
know the kinship between ears and tongue. Nor is 
it a slight upon him that his tongue is pierced. 
Indeed," said he, " I call to mind a line or two of 
comedy which I learned in your country : 

the talkative 
Have, one and all, their tongues pierced at the tip.'' 

In general, we consider that the real Heracles 
was a wise man who achieved everything by 
eloquence and applied persuasion as his principal 
force. His arrows represent words, I suppose, keen, 
sure and swift, which make their wounds in souls. 
In fact, you yourselves admit that woi-ds are 
winged." ^ 

Thus far the Celt. And when I was debating 
with myself on the question of appearing here, con- 
sidering whether it was proper for a man of my age, 
who had long ago given up lecturing in public, once 
more to subject himself to the verdict of so large a 
jury, it chanced in the nick of time that 1 
remembered the picture. Until then I had been 

1 Iliad 3, 108. » Eur. Phoen. 530. 

« Iliad 1, 249. * Iliad 3, 152. 

^ Source unknown (Kock, Com. Att. Fragm., adesp. 398). 

* Homer, passim. 



fiev 'yap iSe^Uiu, fii] rti't v/jLmv ho^ai/xi KOfiio^ 
fxeipaKico8)] Taura tro elv Kai irap ijXiKi'av 
veavieveaOat, Kara Tt<; '0/u,')]piKO'i veaincTKO'i eVt- 
irXij^etev fxot elTTOiv to <t7; Se /8t?7 XeXvrac, Kai 
y^nXeiTov yfjpa'i KarecXijcfii ae, ijireSai 6^ Be vv rot 
depuTTCOv, ^paBee<; St' tol "ttttol, e? tov<; Trooa? 
TOVTO aTTOCTKooiTToyv. dXV orav dvafivrjada) tov 
<yepovTO<; iiceLvov 'Wpa/cXiov^, Travra Troielv irpo- 
d'yujiaL /cal ovk alBovfiaL TOtavra roXixwv r)\iKio)Ty]<; 
biv TYj^ e'K6vo<;. Mare la')(y<=; ijcev Kal rd-)(o<; Kal g 
KaXXo'i Kal oaa (T(o/jiaro<i dyadd ')(aLperw, Kat, o 
"Epco? croii, Si Trjle Troirjrd, ecnhu>v fie vttottoXlov 
rb ^ yeveiov ■)(^pv(TO(f)aevvu)p et /SovXerai irrepvycov 
rapcrol<; '" irapaTrericrOQ), Kal 6 'l7r7ro/c:\6t8>;? ov 
^povriei. ru) Xoyo) Be vvv dv fidXiara dvq^dv 
Kal dvdiziv Kal uKfid^eLV KaO^ o'ypav etr] Kai eXKeiv 
TO)v wrwv oaovs dv rrXelarovf; BvviiraL, Kal ro^eveiv 
TToXXdKi's, o)? ovBev <ye Beo<; yu.?; KevwOel^ Xd6oi o 
ycopuTo^; aviai. 

'Opd'i 07r&)<? rrapaixvOovixai rrjv ifKixLav Kat 
TO yrjpa'i rb ifxavrou. Kal Bta rovro iroX- 
fiTjcra TrdXai vei'€(o\Krjfu,evov rb dKdriov Kara- 
a7rd(Ta<i Kal €k roip ivovrwv iTncrKevdaa<s avdi^ 
d(^elvat e? /xeaov rb iriXayo'i. eh] B\ w 6tOL, kul 

' rh Schwartz : not in MSS. 

* Tapaois Schwartz ; ^ atrols MSS. 



afraid that some of you might think I was doing an 
altogether boyish thing and at my age shewing the 
rashness of youth ; and tliat then some young fellow 
full of Homer might rebuke me by saying " Your 
strength is gone " and " Bitter old age has you in his 
clutch " and " Your squire is feeble and your steeds 
are slow," ^ aiming the last quip at my feet. But 
when I remember that old Heracles, I am moved to 
undertake anything, and am not ashamed to be so 
bold, since I am no older than the picture. Goodbye, 
then, to strength, speed, beauty and all manner of 
physical excellence ! Let your god of love, O Tean 
poet,2 glance at my grizzled chin and flit by me if he 
will on his gold-gleaming pinions : Hippoclides will 
not mind ! ^ Now should certainly be the time for 
eloquence to flourish and flower and reach its fulness, 
to drag as many as it can by the ears and to let fly 
many arrows. At least there is no fear that its 
quiver will unexpectedly run short ! 

You see Avhat encouragement I apply to my age 
and my infirmities. This it is which gave me the 
heart to drag my pinnace, long ago laid up, to 
the water, provision her as best I could and set sail 
on the high seas once more. Be it your part, 

» Iliad 8, 103 f. (spoken to Nestor). 

^ Anacreon (frg. 2.'i Bergk) : the poem is lost. 

^ Hippoclides of Athens, one of many suitors for the hand 
of the daughter of Clisthenes, tyrant of Sicyon, was preferred 
above them all. But at the feast which was to have an- 
noiuiced his engagement he danced so well and so un- 
wisely that Clisthenes was disgusted and said "Son of 
Tisander, you have danced yourself out of the match ! " 
" Hippoclides does not mind ! " was the answer he received. 
"Hence the proverb," as Herodotus says (6, 126-131). 



ra Trap' vixwv e/xTrveuaat, Be^id, &)? vvv 76 fi,a\i(Tra 
TrXrjcncrTiov re kui iadXou eralpov drefiou Beofieda, 
iva, el d^ oi (p'nvoijueOa, koI rjfjilv to 'Ofx^jpixov 
eKeivo iTTKpdey^-ijrai Ti's, 

OL7]v eK paKecov 6 jepcop eTriyovviBa (paivei. 



ye gods, to blow me fair, for now if ever do I need a 
breeze "that fills the sail, a good companion."^ If 
anyone thinks me worthy, I would have him apply 
to me the words of Homer: 

" How stout a thigh the old man's rags reveal ' " ^ 

» Odyss. 11, 7 ; 12, 149. * Odyss. IS, 74. 



The introduction to a lecture, evidently familiar to 
Ijiician's public under two names. 


^HXeKTpov irept KaX v/u,a<; BiiXaSt] 6 ixu6o<i \ 
ireireLKev, alyeipov^; eVt t« ^HpiSavo) iroTafiM 
BaKpveiv auTo 6pt]vou(Ta<i rov ^aeOoi ra, koX 
dhe\(^d<i ye elvai ra? alyeipov; eKeiva^ tov 
^PaeOovTO<i, elra 6hvpofieva<i to p^eipaKiou dWa- 
yfjvai €9 TO. cevSpa, koI dtrocndi^etv en avTcov 
SciKpvov hrjdev TO yXeKTpov. TOiavTa yap d/.te\ei 
xal auTO? dKovcov tmv TroiJjTcoi' dhovTwv yXiri^ov, 
ei TTore yet'oipbi^v iirX tm ^HptSai^o), vireXOfov piav 
TMP aiyeipwv €K7r€Tdaa<i to TTpoKoXiriov virohe- 
^eadai tmv BaKpvwv oXcya, ux i/XeKTpnv eyoipLi. 
Kal Si] ov 7rp6 TToXXou Arar' dXXo fxev tc '^peo'i, 2 
^]KOV he o/j.Q)'? e? TO, ^copLa eKelva, koX — ehet yap 
avuTrXelv Kara tov ^HpiSavov — nvT alyeipov<i 
elSov irdvv "nepiaKOTrMV otne to y')\eKTpoi>, dXX" 
ovSe Tovvo/na tov 4>ae^o/^T09 fjSecxav o'l em- 
Xopioi. dva^y]Tovi'TO<; yovv eiJ-Ov Kin hiairvvOavo- 
p.evov, TTore B>j eirl Ta<i alyeipov<; dcfii^o/xeOa 
Ta<; TO TjXeKTpov, eyeXwv ol vavTai Kal '))^iovv aa(f)e- 
(TTepov Xeyeiv 6 tl Kal 0eXot/iii' Kdyco tov ^vdov 
Sirjyovfjirjv avTot^, ^aedovTa yeveat^ai 'WXlov 
TralBa, Kal tovtov e? r'jXiKiav ekOovTa acTfjaat 
Trapa tov iraTpb^ eXdaat to dpp,a, wf Troi/jcreie Kal 
auTo? fii'av rj/^iepav, tov Be Sovvai, tov Be cnroXe- 
(rOai €KBi(f)pev6€VTa, Kal Td<t dBeXcpd^i avTov 



With regard to amber, you doubtless share the 
general belief in the story that poplars on the banks 
of the river Eridanus shed tears of it in grief over 
Phaethon ; and that these jjoplars are the sisters of 
Phaethon, who out of sorrow for the boy were 
changed into trees and still drip tears — of amber ! 
Such tales, when I heard them from the lips of the 
poets, made me expect that if ever I got to the 
Eridanus, by going underneath one of the poplars 
and holding out a fold of my cloak I could supply 
myself with amber by catching a few of their tears. 
As a matter of fact, I did visit those parts not long ago 
(on another errand, to be sure) ; and as I had to go up 
the Eridanus, I kept a sharp lookout, but neither 
poplars nor amber were to be seen. Indeed, the very 
name of Phaethon was unknown to the natives. At 
any rate, when I went into the matter and inquired 
when we should reach the poplars — "the amber- 
poplars," — the boatmen laughed and asked me to tell 
them more plainly what I meant. So I told them 
the story : that Phaethon was the child of the Sun, 
and that on coming of age he asked his father to 
let him drive the car and "do just one day " himself; 
his father consented, and he was thrown from the 
car and killed. " And his sisters," said I, " out of 



TrevOovaa'i ivravdd ttov, e^?;v, Trap' vfilv, 'ivmrep 
Kai KaTeTreaev, tVi ru> ^Vipihavw, alyeipovi 
yevecrOai koX BuKpveiv en eV avru) to ifkeKrpov. 
Tt9 TavTa (TOL, e(paa/cov, ScTjytjaaro cnrarecov 3 
Kal yjrevSoXoyo^ avdpco7ro<;; ///xet? Be ovre rjvloxov 
Tiva eKTrLTTTOvra eiSofiev ovre ra^ alyelpov; a? 
<i6r;9 e^ofiev. el Se rjv ri toiovtov, ol'et ///xa? Bvotv 
6j3o\olv eveKa eperrtiv av rj eXKeiv ra irXola 7rpo<i 
evavTLOV to vScop, ol<; e^rjv TrXovTelv uva\,eyovTa<; 
Tcov alyeii wv to, Bd/fpva; tovto Xe^f^Oev ov ytierpt&x? 
fjLov KaOiKeTO, Kal iaidaTTi-jcra ala'^^yvPei^, oti 
iraiZiov Tiv(j<; fof d\')]6o)<i epyov eireTTovOeiv iri- 
aTevaa<i tol^ TroiT/ra?? inriQava ovTcof ■\jrevSo- 
fiei'ot^, &)9 /j.')]8ev vyie<i dpecrKecrOat avToc'?. 

Mtd<? fiev Bt] TavTrj<i eXiriBo'i ov fii-Kpd<i iy^eua- 
lxevo<;r]VLd}fiiiv KaOdirep e/c tmv yeipwv to r]K,eKTpov 
a7ro\(uXe/CftJ9, 09 ye ^]S7] dveirXaTTov oaa Kal ola 
')(^p/](JO[xat avT&. eK€ivo Be Kal irdvv dXt-jOe'; 4 
a>firjv evpijcreiv Trap' avTot<i, kvkvov<; itoXXov^ 
ciBovTa^ eirl Tm<; o-)(^6ai<; tov TroTafiov. Kal avOm 
})pu)TO}v Tov<i vavTa<i — dveTrXeofiev yap eTt — 'AW' 
OL ye KVKvoL TTi-jVLKa vfuv TO \tyvpov eKelvo 
iiBovaiv i(f)€(TT(ii)Te<; tw TroTafifp ei'Oev Kal evdev; 
(patrl yovv ^ KttoXXwvo'^ TrapeBpou<i avTov^ 6vTa<;, 
Q}BiKov<i dv9p(07rov<i, evTavdd irov e? to, opvea 
fieTaTTecrelv Kal Bid tovto dBeiv eTi ovk eKXa- 
dofxevov^ T7}9 finvaiKrj(;. 01 Be avv yeXwTC, 5 
Si", e'</)';cray, & dvdpoiire, ov 7rava>] Tt')fiepov 
KaTW^evBofievo^ t?}9 ;\'&)pa9 rj^cov Kal tov iroTa- 
fiov; rjfiel^ Be del irXeovTe^ Kal ck iralBoiv 
(T-)(eBov ipya^ofievoi iv toJ 'HptSavy oXiyovi fiev 



sorrow turned into poplars somewhere in this neigh- 
bourhood of yours, on the banks of the Eridanus, at 
the spot where he fell, and still weep for him with 
tears of amber." "Who told you that?" said they. 
" The cheat and liar ! We never saw any driver 
fall from a car, and we haven't the poplars you speak 
of. If we had anything of that sort, do you suppose 
that for two obols we would row or tow our boats up- 
stream, when we could get rich by picking up the 
tears of the poplars .'' " This remark struck me 
uncommonly, and I held my tongue for shame that 
I had acted like a child, and no mistake, in believing 
the poets, who are such incredible liars that nothing 
sensible finds any favour with them. 

Well, this was one great expectation that I was 
disappointed in ; and I was as vexed as if I had let 
the amber slip through my fingers, for I was already 
iniamninsr all the different uses which I should make 
of it. But the other storv I thought I should 
find completely true there — the one about troops of 
swans that sing on the banks of the river. So 1 put 
H second question to the boatmen — for we were still 
on our way up. " But, how about your swans ? " I 
asked- " At what time do they sing so melodiously, 
ranged along the river, on this side and on that } 
People say, at all events, that they were associates 
of Apollo, men with the gift of song, who somewhere 
in these parts changed into birds, and for that 
reason do not forget their music, but still continue 
to sing." With a burst of laughter they replied : 
" Why, man, aren't you ever going to stop telling 
lies about our country and our i*iver? We are 
always on the water, and liave worked on the 
Eridanus since we were chikh'en, almost ; now and 



KVKvovi eviore opcofiev iv Tol'i eXecn rou Trorafiov, 
Kol Kpco^nvcnv ovrot iravv ctf-tovaov koI dcrd€ve<i, 
0)9 TOU9 KopaKai; rj tou? ko\oiou<; 'Eeipi'jVa'i elvai 
7rpo9 avrov<;, aBovTfov Be rjBv kui olov aii (f)r]<; ovSe 
ovap aKr]K6a/j.€V' ware Oavfid^ofiev iroOev raura 
et9 vfia.<i dcpLKero irepl tj/icov. 

UoWa Toiavra i^airaTiiOrjvdL eari TricrTeuov- 6 
Ta<; To2<i Trpo? to fiel^ov eKaara i^i]yov/jLerot<;. 
Mare Kdjo) vvv hehia vrrep e/uavrov fir] vfiel^; dpri 
d(f)i.yijLevoi, Koi rovro TrpoJTov dxpoaaofxevoL rjficoi', 
'I'fKeKTpd TLva koX kvkvov^ iX7ciaavTe<i evpi'jaeiv 
Trap' rjfuv, eirena /xer oXiyov direkOr^re Karaye- 
X(t)VT€<; TMV v7ro<T)(^Ofxii'Mi' vfilv TOiaina iroWd 
Keifir'fKia eveivai Tol<i \oyoL<i. dWa fxaprvpof-iai, 
ft)9 ifiov TOiavra iJbeya\av)(ov jxevov irepl rcov i/xMV 
ovre vfi€t<; ovre dWo<; ttco aKrjKoev, ovS" dv 
aKOVcreiev irore. dWoi'i fiev yap ovk oXlyoif 
ivTvxoi'i di' 'HptSat'ot? Ticri koI oh ovk i]'KeKTpov, 
dWd ■^pv(TO<i avTO<i diroard^eL tmv \6ycoi', ttoXv 
Tcov KVKVcov Tbiv TToirjTiKMV \iyvp(iiTepoL<;' TO Se 
i/jLOV opdre •)']Brj ottoiov dirXoiKov Kal ci/j-vOov, ovSe 
Tt9 (oSrj TTpocreaTii'. ware bpa firj roiovro ri 
7rddr]<i fiel^co rrepl rjjbiwv eXTnaas, olov ri Trdaxovaiv 
ol rd ev rw vSari opwvre^' olofievoi yap rrjXiKaura 
elvai avrd ola Bie(paivero avroh dvwOev, evpvvo- 
/xevrjii Tr}"? aKid<; tt/^o? rr]v avyvjv, eTretBdv dva- 
arrdawai, ttoWo) fiiKporepa evpiaKovre<; dviwyrai. 
7]8r] ovi> aoL TrpoXeyco, eK^ea^ ro vBoip Kal diro- 
Ka\v^a<i rdfxd /xrjBev fieya 7rpoa8uKi]aT]<i dvLfirj- 
aeaOai, y aavrov alriday Trj<i eKTiiho<i, 



then we see a few swans in the marshes by the 
river, and they have a very unmusical and feeble 
croak ; crows or daws are Sirens to them. As for 
the sweet song you speak of, we never heard it or 
even dreamed of it, so we wonder how these stories 
about us got to your people." 

Many such deceptions can be practised on men 
when they put faith in those who exaggerate every- 
thing they tell. Therefore I am now afraid on my 
own account that you who have just come here 
and are about to hear me for the first time may 
expect to find anber and swans, and after a while 
may go away laughing at the men who promised 
you that such treasures were abundant in my 
discourse. But I swear that neither you nor any- 
one else ever heard me make such boasts about 
my compositions, and never Avill I Others, to be 
sure, you can find in plenty of the Eridanus kind : 
their words distil very gold instead of amber, and 
they are far more melodious than the swans of 
poetry. But as for my talk, you already see how 
simple and matter-of-fact it is, and that there is no 
music to it. So look out that you do not set your 
hopes of me too high, and thereby have an experience 
like people who see things under water. They expect 
them to be as large as they looked through the 
water, from above, when the image was magnified 
under the light ; and when they fish them up, they 
are annoyed to find them a great deal smaller. I 
warn you, therefore, at the outset — don't expect 
that when you have bailed out the water and 
exposed my thoughts you will make a great haul, or 
else you will have yourselves to blame for your 
expectations ! 



It need hardly be said that this belongs to the domain of 
belles lettres, not of science. Like the Italian poets of the 
Renaissance, the rheroricians of the decadence deliglited to 
show their cunning by "praising" all manner of things good, 
bad, and indifferent. 


'H /Au'a €(7Ti fiev ov to ^ ajxiKporaTOV twv 1 
opvewv, oaov efiir'icn koX KOivw^i, koI Tol<i ert 
X€7rT0Tep(ii<i Trapn^dWeiv, ciXKa rocrovrov eKeivwv 
fxeyedei nrpov-xei oaov avrr) /ieXtTX?;? diroXeiTreTai. 
iirrepcoTai 8e ov Kara rd aura rots' dXkoi,<;, o)? 
Tot? fJLev uiravraxodev KOfidv rov aco/xaruf;, toc<; 
Bs Q)KV7rTepoL<i ■)(^pria6aL, dWd Kara rd^ uKpiBa^ 
Kol riTTiywi kuI yiieXtTTa? iarlv viMevoTrrepo^, 
ToaovTov diraXwrepa e^ovaa rd irrepd oaov t?)^ 
'EW'r]viKrj<i eadrjTO<i i) 'IvSiKij Xetrrorepa Kal 
/jLaXuKMripa' koI firjv Bnjrfiiarai Kara rov<; 
Taa)va<;, ct ri<; drevh /SXeTroc it avrtjv, oTTorav 
eKirerdaaaa 7r/309 rov I'jXiov tnepuaarirai. rj 2 
8e TTTiiai'i oure Kard rd'i vvKT€piSa<; elpeaia 
avve-)(el tmv irrepwv ovre Kard rd^ a/rpt^a? jj-era 
'7rri8)]/xaT0<; ovt6 &)? ol a^r}Ke<; fierd poi^ij/xarot, 
dXX' evKafnrr]<i Trpo? o ti dv /xepot opp,i)arj rov 
dipa- Kal /Mvv KUKeivo irpoaeartv avrfj, to fit) 
Ka6' rjavxi-av, dXXd fxer a5S?}v TreTeaOat ovk 
dirrivom o'ia Kcovooiroiv Kal ifiTTiSwv, ovSe to 
^apv^pofiov TMV fxeXiTTtov rj tmv aj>r,KO}v ro 

J ov rh vulg. : ovra> MSS.: ov i&v ciuKpora.'ruv opviuv 



The fly is not the smallest of winged creatures, at 
least in comparison with gnats and midges and things 
still tinier. On the contrary, she is as much larger 
than they as she is smaller than the bee. Slie is not 
provided with feathers like the birds,^ so as to have 
some for plumage all over her body, and others to fly 
with, but like grasshoppers, locusts and bees, she has 
membranous wings, as much thinner than theirs as 
Indian stuffs are more delicate and softer than Greek. 
Moreover, they have the colours of a peacock in 
them, if you look at her sharply when she spreads 
them and flies in the sun. She does not fly like 
bats with a steady, oar-like movement of the wings, 
or like grasshoppers with a spring, or as wasps do, 
with a whizzing rush, but easily directs her course to 
any quarter of the air she will. She has also this 
characteristic, that her flight is not silent but musical : 
the sound is not shrill like that of gnats and midges, 
nor deep-toned like that of bees, nor fierce and 

1 Lit. "like the rest (of the Spvta)," which is illogical. 
Perhaps atro'is should be written. 


VOL. I. D 


(fio^epov Koi aTTeiXiiTLKOv ivZeiKvv^evi]^, aWa 
Tocroinov eari XiyvpwTepa, oaov adX.Triyyo's koi 
KVfi^aXcou avXol /j.€\ixpoTepoi. to 8e aXXo 3 
(Tcofxa r^ ixev KecpaXr) XeTTTorara tio av^ei'i avve- 
X^'^^'- '^^^i' ^cTTiv evTrepidywyoq, ou avfXTrecjiUKvla o)? 
j; Twv uKpl^oiv 6(f)0aXfiol Se 7rpo7reTel<i, noXv roO 
Keparo^ e^ovTe^' arepvov ev7raye<i, kol efMirecfiv- 
Kaaiv avrfj rfj euro/xf] ^ ol Trohe'i ov Kara rov<; 
(T(f)f]Ka<i iravv ia(f)iyfj,€ir}.^ i) yaarjjp Se dixvpcorai 
KoX avry^ koI OcopaKi eoi/cev t^oivat; TrXareta? Koi 
(j)oXLoa<; exovcra. dfiuverat, fxevrot ou Kara rovp- 
poirvyiov (o<i acprj^ /cai fieXtrra, nXXd rco aTOfxari 
Kai rfi 7rpo^(i<TKL8(, ijv Kara to, aina roi<i eXe^aai 
fcai, avrrj e^ovaa Trpovofievet re koi i-7ri\a/x/3di'eTat 
Kat Trpoacpvaa Karex^i- kotvXtjSovi Kara to ciKpov 
eoLKvlav. eK Se avrPj^ 6Sou<i irpoKinneL, u> k€v- 
rovaa Trtvei, rov aiixaro^ — Trivet, fxev yap koI yd- 
XaKTO<i, r)oif oe avrfj koX to alfia — ov pLerd /x€ydXrj<i 
68vvri(; rS)v KevTou/xevcov, i^dirov; 8e ovaa toU fiev 
reaaapcri /SaBi^ei piovoi^, roc<i 8e irpoaOioL'; 8va\ 
Kal oaa %epcri ;)^p>'}Tat. iSoit dv ovv avTrjv eVi 
reTTapcov jSe^yjKulav exovcrdv ri iv rolv \epolv pbere- 
(opov -rScoBi/xov, dvdpQ}'7TLV(i)<i irdw Kal Kad^ 7)pLd<i. 

TtveraL Be ovk evdu^ TOtavrrj, dWd cricoXi]^ 4 
TO irpwrov rjTOL e|- dvdpwTrwv rj dXXcov ^airou 
diroOavovTcov' elra kut oXiyov 7r6Ba<i re eKcpepei 
Kol (})U€i rd TTTepd koI ef eprreTov opveov yiverai 
Kat Kvocfyopel Be kuI aTroTLKrei aKooXrjKa puKpov r^iv 
pivlav varepov, (xvi>Tpo(f)o<{ Be dvOprvTroa vtrdp- 

• TTJ ivTOfiri Schwartz : not in MSS 

* iacpiyfifvri Schwartz : ^<r<ptyfxfvoi MSS. 
' auTp A.M.H.: ouT^ MBS. 



threatening like that of wasps ; it is much more 
melodious, just as flutes are sweeter than trumpet 
and cymbals. As for her body, the head is very 
delicately attached to the neck and so is easily 
moved, not fixed like the head ot a grasshopper. 
The eyes are prominent, and have much the quality 
of horn. The breast is solid, and the legs grow 
right out of the waist, which is not at all pinched 
up, as in wasps. As in them, the abdomen is 
armoured and resembles a corselet in having flat 
zones and scales. She differs, however, from the 
wasp and the bee, in that her weapon is not the 
hinder-part, but the mouth, or rather the proboscis; 
for, like the elephant, she has a trunk with which 
she forages, seizing things and holding them tena- 
ciously, since it is like a sucker at the end. A 
tooth protrudes from it with which the fly inflicts 
bites in order to drink the blood, for although she 
drinks milk, she likes blood also. The bite causes no 
o-reat pain. Though she lias six feet, she walks with 
only four and uses the two in front for all the 
purposes of hands. You can see her standing on 
four legs, holding up something to eat in her hands 
just as we human beings do. 

The fly is not born in the form which I have de- 
scribed, but as a maggot from the dead bodies of men 
or animals. Then, little by little, she puts out 
legs, grows her wings, changes from a creeping 
to a flying thing, is impregnated and becomes mother 
to a liUle maggot which is to-morrow's fly. Living 



X^ovaa Kat ofjLohiairo's koI o/xoTpdire^o^ airdvrwv 

yeverai, ttX^v iXatov 6dvaT0<i "yap avrrj rovro 

TTieii'. Kat fxevTOL u>Kv/j,opo<; ovaa — irdvv 'yap €<; 

arevov o l3io<i avrrj av/xpep^iTpr^Tai — tw (f)coTl 

X^^P^i' pdXiara kuv lointo TrokiTsveraL' vvKro<i he 

elpip-qv ciyet naX ovre Trirerat oure aSei, aXX" yTre- 

TTjyjxe Kal drpepel. avvecrtv Be ov pbiKpav avTi)<i 5 

el'jrelv e;^w, oirorav top i-n-L/dovXov Kal iroXepiLov 

avrfi Tov dpdxv7]v SiaSiBpuaK^j' Xo^oyvrd re yap 

eTTirrjpel kuI dvjlov uvtm opa eKKXivovaa ttjv 

opp,i)v, &)? p,rj dXicTKotro aayrjvevdeicra Kal irepi- 

TrecTovcra Tat'i rov 0)]pLov TrXe/crat-at?. Ttjv p.ev 

yap dvBpiav Kal rtjv dkK-qv avT7]<i ovy^ '>]pa<i j/ph 

Xeyetv, dXX 09 peyaXo(f>cov6TaTo<i twv TTocrjTcov 

Opr^pos- Tou yap dpiarov jcov rjprewv iiraivecTaL 

^rjTwv ov XeovTi t) irapBaXet r/ m t7]v dXKrjv avrov 

etKu^ei, uXXa tw ddpaei Tp]<i puia'i Kal t&j drpecnco 

Kal Xcrrapel Tr]<; itTL'xeiprjcreoi'i' ovBe yap dpdau^ 

aXXa ddpao'i (f)>]alv avrfj Trpocretvai. Kal yap elp- 

yopev)], ^1-jaLV, 6pco<i ouk d(j)iaTaTai, dXX' icfiierai 

TOV Bi]yparo<;. ourco Be rrrdvv eTratiet koI dcrird^e- 

rai TT]v pvtav, ware ovx dira^ ovB' iv 6Xiyoi<; 

pepprjTai avT)j<;, dXXa TroXXdKa- ovtco Kocrpel ra 

tTTTj pvrjpovevopevri. apri pev rrjv dyeXaiav 

TTTrjcnv avTt'i<i eVl to ydXa Btep)(eTai.,^ cipTi Be rrjv 

' Iliad 2, 469 : '* the many hordes of clustering flies 

That dart about the sheepfoMs in the spring, 
When pails are wet with milk." 
Iliad 16, 641 : " They swarmed about tlie body like the flies 
That in the fold buzz round the milky pails." 



in the society of man, on the same food and at the 
same table, she eats everything except oil : to taste 
this is death to her. Being the creature of a day — 
for hfe is meted out to her in very scant measure — 
she hkes sunshine best and goes about her affairs in 
it. At niglit she keeps quiet and does not fly or 
sing, but liides away and is still. I can also mention 
her great intelligence in escaping her designing foe, 
the spider. She watches for him lurking in ambush, 
and is wary of him, turning aside from his attack, 
so as not to be captured by being ensnared and 
falling into the toils of the creature. Of her courage 
and bravery it is not for me to speak, but for Homer, 
the most mighty-mouthed of the poets ; for when he 
seeks to praise the foremost of the heroes,' he does 
not compare his bravery to a lion's or a leopard's or 
a wild boar's, but to the fearlessness of the fly and 
the daring and insistency of her attack. He does 
not say that she is reckless, but fearless : - that even 
if she is kept away she does not desist but is eager 
to bite. So outspoken is he in his praise and fond- 
ness for the fly that he mentions her not merely 
once or twice but often ; in consequence, references 
to her enhance the beauty of his poems. Now he 
describes her swarming flight after milk ; now, when 

' {Hind 17, 570, Menelaus), into whose heart Athena 
"puts the boldness of the fly." 

■' The distinction (unknown to Homer) is between thrasos 
and tharaoi. 



'A6T]vav, QTTore rou MeviXew to ^e\o<; airo/cpove- 
rat, o)? firj eVl ra KaipLcorara ifiirecroi, elKa^wv 
ixrjrpl Kr]hofM€vp Koifiw/xerov avrj] tov ^pe^ov^, Ti]v 
fjivlav avdi<; eTreLcnijei rw TrapaSeiy/xaTi,. Kal fiijv 
Kol eTTideTW KaXXlaru) avra'i eKoapbriaev dBcva<i 
Trpocrenrcbv koX rrjv ajeXTjv avrwv edvr} koXcov. 

OuTO) Be la-)(ypd eanv, wcrd' oirorav ri BaKvr}, 6 
TirpaxTKei ovk dvOpoiirov Sepfia fxovov, a}^\a icai 
(3oo(; Kal 'lttttov, koI i\e(^avra Xvirel e? ra<; pvTiSa^ 
avTov TrapeiaSvofiivT] koI rj) auTfj<i Trpovofiaia 
Kara \6yov rou /jLeye6ov<; dfivaaouaa. /xi^ewi Se 
Kal iK^poBiaiwv Kal ^/u/xcov ttoXXj) avral^ i] 
ekevOepia, Kal 6 appr]v ov Kara rov<; d\eKrpv6va<; 
iiri^d'i evOvf; aTreTrrj^rjaev, a\V iirox^^'di rfj 
Orfkeia enl ttoXv, KciKeivr) (pepei tov vv/x(f)iov, Kal 
(TVfiTreTOVTat t/> ivaepiov eKeivr^v fil^cv ttj irTrjcreL 
fXTj hia<^6dpovaai. diroTi-Li^Oeiaa he T}]V K€(f)a\}]v 
fjivla eirl tto\v ^y tw (XcofiaTi Kal efiirvovq t'aTLv. 

"O Se pieyicTTov iv Tfj ^vaei avTcop vircipx^i, 7 
TOVTO S)i /3ov\o/xai, el-rrelv. Kal fioi BoKel a 
UXaTcov jjLovov avTO irapihelv ev Tcp irepl ^v^rj^i 
Kal dOavacria<i avTrj<i X07&). uTTodavovaa yap 
fiuia Tecppa'i einxvOe'L(r)^<i dviaTaTai Kal -n-aXiy- 
yeveaia Ti? avTJi Kal JB'kx; a\\o<; ef virapxu'i 
yiveTai, 6i<i uKpi^coq ireTreldOaL vrai'Ta?, ort kuk€L- 
voiv ciOdvaTO^ ecTTiv 1) '^v)(y], e'l ye Kal d7re\0oi-cra 
eiravepx^Tai tti'iKiv Kal yvcopi^ei Kat eiTavKTTrjcn, 
TO awjxa Kal nreTeaOab ttjv /jviav Troiec, Kal 
€7ra\r]devei tov irepl 'Epfj,oTi/j.ov tov KXai^ofu-eviov 
i.wdov, oTi TroWdKLf u(f)ielcra avTov rj y^rvxy 



Athena turns tlie arrow aside from Menelaus in order 
that it may not strike a vital spot, iie likens her to a 
mother tending a sleeping child, and again introduces 
the fly into the comparison. ^ Moreover, he has adorned 
them with fine epithets in calling them " clustering " 
and their swarms " hordes." ^ 

So strong is the fly that when she bites she 
wounds the skin of the ox and the hoi'se as well as 
that of man. She even torments the elephant by 
entering his wrinkles and lancing him with her 
proboscis as far as its length allows. In mating, 
love, and marriage they are very free and easy. 
The male is not on and off again in a moment, 
like the cock ; he covers the female a long time. 
She carries her spouse, and they take wing together, 
mating uninterruptedly in the air, as everyone 
knows. A fly with her head cut off keeps alive a 
long time with the rest of her body, and still retains 
the breath of life. 

You may be sure I propose to mention the most 
important point in the nature of the fly. It is, I 
think, the only point that Plato overlooks in his 
discussion of the soul and its immortality. When 
ashes are sprinkled on a dead fly, she revives and 
has a second birth and a new life from the be- 
ginning. This should absolutely convince everyone 
that the fly's soul is immortal like ours, since after 
leaving the body it comes back again, recognises 
and reanimates it, and makes the fly take wing. It 
also confirms the story that the soul of Hermotimus 
of Clazomenae would often leave him and go away 

' Iliad 4, 130. * Iliad 2, 469. 



aTreSijfiei Kaff" eavr/jv, elra eTraveXOoua-a eirXijpou 
avdi<i TO CTMfxa KUt aviara rov 'Fjp/uoTi/JLOV. 

'Ap7o<? Se avrrj koX dv6T0<; ovaa to, vtto tcov 8 
aWcov 7roi'ov/jL€va KapTrourai koI 7r'\.rjpr]<i avrfj 
iravra'x^ov Tpdire^a- koX yap ai alye^ auTrj dfieX- 
yovTai, KoX rj /jbeXirra ou^ rjKLara /xvcac^ Kal 
dvOpcoTTOi^ epyd^erai, kul oi o^ottolol ravrrj ra 
oyjra i)hvvovcn, koI /3acn\ea)v aurcov Trpoyeverai 
Kal Tat<i rpa7re^ai<; e/jiTrepnraTOvaa crvveaTidrai 
avTot<; Kal avvaTrdXaveL TrdvTcov. veorridv Sk 9 
rj KoXcdv ovK ev kvl tottco Karecm'jaaTn, aXka 
7r\dvrjTa rijv Trrfjcriv Kara rov'i ^/cu^a? eTravrjpr]- 
fievi], oTTov dv TVXU ^""^ ''"% vvkto^ KaTa\i]c}}6etaa, 
EKel Kal ecTTLav Kal evvrjv iroieiTai. vtto (Tkoto) 
jLievToi, o)? e(f)r]v, ovSev epyd^trat ovBe d^ioi 
Xavddveiv rt irpdrTOvaa, ovSe ^jyelrai rt aia)(pov 
TTOieip, if (f)'OTl 8ou)/j,evov al(T)(^uvel auTijv. 

^rjalv 8e 6 pvOo<i Kal dvdpwTTOv riva ^Iviav 10 
TO dpy^alov yeveaOai irdvv Ka\ip>, \d\ov fievroi 
ye Kal (TTcopvXov Kal whLKrjv, Kai dvTepaad?]vai 
ye T^ XeXT]vr) Kara to avro dp(f)OTepa<; ^ tov 
^KvBv/J,Lcovo<i. elr eVetSP; KOip-cop-evov ro peipd- 
Kiov (Tvvex^^ irri'iyetpev epea^vXavaa Kal aSovaa 
Kal Kcopdl^ovaa evr' avrov, tov fxei' dyavaKTrjaai, 
rrjv Se 'E€Xrjjn]v opyiaOeiaav el<i tovto t))v ^Vvlav 
fxeTa^aXelv Kal Sid tovto irdat vvv tol^ koljiw- 
/xevoi<i ai'T7]v rov virvov (pQovelv pepvr]/j.€vi]v eTC 
TOV 'FA'Svpiwvo^;, Kal pdXiaTa roi? veoi<; Kal 
aTraXoZii' Kal to Syjy/iia Se avTO Kal i) tov aTpaTOt 
€7ndv/jiia OVK dypioTrjTO'j, dXX ep(OT0<i eaTi (ttj- 

* Kara rh ai/rh a./j.<poTfpas : probably a gloss (Ilerwerden, 



by itself, and then, returninf]r, would occupy his 
body again and restore him to life. 

Knowing not labour and living at large, the fly 
enjoys the fruits of the toil of others, and finds a 
bounteous table set everywhere. Goats give milk 
for her, bees work for flies and for men quite as 
much as for themselves, and cooks sweeten food for 
her. She takes precedence even of kings in eating, 
and walks about on their tables sharing their feasts 
and all their enjoyment. She does not make a nest 
or habitation in any one place, but taking up a 
roving, Scythian life on the wing, finds bed and 
board wherever night cliances to overtake her. But 
in the dark, as I have said, she does nothing : she 
has no desire for stealthy actions and no thought 
of disgraceful deeds which would discredit her if 
they were done by daylight. 

The story goes that long ago there was a human 
being called Muia, a girl who was very pretty, but 
talkative, noisy, and fond of singing. She became a 
rival of Selene by falling in love with Endvmion, and 
as she was for ever waking the boy out of his sleep 
by chattering and singing and paying him visits, he 
became vexed at her, and Selene in anger turned 
her into the fly we know.^ So, in remembrance of 
Endymion, she begrudges all sleepers their repose, 
especially those of tender years ; and even her 
biting and bloodthirstiness is not a sign of savagery, 
but of love and friendship. She gets what satisfac- 

' The story explains the word fivia, "fly," a3 having been 
originally the name of a girl. 



fietov Kol (^ikavO pwiria';' co? 'yap BvvaTov utto- 
\aveL KOL 70V KuXkovq tl aTravOi^erai. 

^E'yeveTO Kara tol'9 7ra\aiou<; Kal 'yvviy Tt<? 1 1 
ofidiivv[io<i avrfi, Troir'jTpia, irdvv kuXi^ kuI aocpr], 
Kal (iWrj kraipa twv ^Attlkmv i7ricj)av}]<;, irepl rj<i 
Kal 6 Koy/xLKos 7rot7jTr;<? ecprj, r) Mvta eSaKvev avrov 
axpt T?)? KapBlaf;' out(U9 ovSe y KcofiiKT] %api9 
airrj^iwcxev ovSe direKXeiae rt]<i (TKt^vrjq ro rr}? 
fjLvia-i ovofxa, ovS' ol joveU rjBovvro ra? OvyaTepa'i 
ovTO) Ka\ouvT€<;. »; /J-ev jdp rpaycoSia Kal crvv 
fi6yu\(p iiralvw /j.efj.vrjTai rf;? pLvia^, to? ev tovtoi<;, 

Beivov je Tijv fiev fivlav nXKifiu) adevei 
Trrjhdv eV uvhpoiv cr(jOfj.aO\ co? TrXrjaOfj cf)ovov, 
avhpa<i 5' ovrXtra? irokiiXLOV rap^elv Sopv. 

TToWa S' av elxov elirelv Kal irepl Muta? tT;? 
TlvfiayopLKij<i, el fxj] jva)pi,fM(><i rjv diracnv rj /car 
avrrjv laTopta. 

TiyvnvTai Be Kal [xeyiaTai Tive<; p,v7at,, a? ^o 
(TTpaTid)TiBa^ 01 TToWol KaXovaiv. ol 8e Kvva<;, 
TpayyTarai rov /So/x^ov Kal rrjv Trrrjaiv diKvrarai, 
at <ye Kal fMaKpo/SKorarai elaiv Kal rov x^tp-wvo^ 
d\ov daiTOi BiaKaprepovcTLV vire-mrixylaL rot<i 
op6^0L<; fxdXto-ra, ecf) mv KUKelvo Oav/Jid^tiv d^iov, 
on d/x^oTepa, Kal ra 6i]\€io)v Kal to. dppepcov, 



tion she can, and culls something of the bloom of 


Aeconling to the ancients slie has had two 
namesakes, a very pretty and accomplished poetess 
and a famous Athenian courtesan. It was the 
latter wliom the comic poet meant when he said, 
" Yon fly him to the heart did bite." ' From this 
you see that comic wit has not disdained the name 
of fly nor barred it from the boards, and that parents 
have not been ashamed to give it to their daughters. 
As for tragedy, it, too, mentions the fly with great 
praise ; for example, in these words : 

" 'Tis strange that while the fly with hardy 

Encounters man to sate itself with gore. 
Stout men-at-arms should fear the foeman's 

lance ! " ^ 

I could also say a great deal about Muia, the Pytha 
gorean, if her story were not known to everyone.^ 

There are very large flies, too, which most 
people call camp-flies, though some call them 
dog-flies. They have a very harsh buzz and a 
very rapid flight. They are extremely long-lived, 
and endure the whole winter without food, usually 
hiding in the roof Another surprising thing in 

* Unknomi fKock. adexp. 47o). 

^ Source unknown (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Fragm., adesp. 

^ Very little of her story is known to us. She U said to 
have been daughter of Pythagoras and wife of Milo, the 
athlete of Crolon. 



Spcocriv Kol ^aivoixevat koI ^ 0at'vovT€<; iv rw juepei 
Kara rov Kpfj.ov kol A^poSin;? iralha rov /xtKrov 
rrjv (jyvatv kol Bittov to kuXXo'?. ttoXXu S" en 
€)((t)p eiTreZv Karairavaoi rov \6yov, fxi-j Koi So^co 
Kara r>]v Trapoi/xlav iXecpavra e'/c p.via'^ rroietp. 

^ ^aiv6p.iva,i Koi Schwartz : not in MSS. 



them is that they are bisexual, like the child of 
Hermes and Aphrodite, who had two natures and 
double beautv. 

Though I still have a ^reat deal to say, I will stop 
talking, for fear you may think that, as the saying 
goes, 1 am making an elephant out of a fly. 



Except through Lucian, nothing is known of this philoso- 
pher. 8()nie have sought to identify him with one Albinus, 
about whom we have scarcely any infuimation, and others 
have thouglit him a cluld of Lucian's fancy. But it is quite 
possible that he really existed, and led, as Lucian says, a 
life of retirement. 


AovKiavo<; Niypivw ev irpaTretv. H fiev 
irapot/jLta (prjcrii', TXavKa ek 'A6i]va^, 6i<i yeXoi- 
ov ov el ri<; eKcl ko/jll^oi <y\av/<:a<;, on TroWai 
Trap' auToU elaiv. 6700 S' el [xev Suvafxiv \6yoiv 
eirthei^addai ^ov\6^evo<i eireira Kbyplvro ypdyp-afi 
(Si^Xiov eTre/xTTOi', elxofivv av rfp yeXotw yXavKU'i 
CO? ttXi^^co? efiTTopevo/jiei o?- eVel Se fi6vi]v aoi 
Br]\o!)aat Ti]V efiy-jv yvMfirjv iOeXco, 67r(i)<i re vvv 
exoi Kal on fit] irapepyw'i etXr]p,pai Trpo? r(ov 
achv Xoyrov, d7ro(f>€vyot.fM av eiKOTco^ Kal ro rov 
SovkvSlSov \eyovTO<i, on 1) dfiadia fxev Opuao<i, 
OKViipov^; he ro XeXoyia/xevov uTrepyd^erar BP]Xov 
yap ft)<? ov^ ') dfiadla p-ot jmovi] rr}<i roiavrrj<i 
ToXyLi7?9, dXXd Kal 6 rrpo^ ruv<i Xoyovi ep(o<i airio^;. 


'n? aep-vo'^ 7)p,lv acpoBpa Kal fiereoipo<; enrave- 1 
Xi'fkvOa^. ov roivvv irpoaiiXi-jreLV i)p.d<^ en 
d^iol<i ovd' 6fiiXi.a<i /ieraStSco? ovre KOivcovek rcbv 
ofioiwv Xoywv, dXX' d^vco fiera(3€f3Xt]aai kuI 6X(0<i 



Best wishes to Nigrinus from Lucian ! 

The proverb says " An owl to Atliens ! " meaning 
that it would be ridiculous for anyone to bring owls 
there, because they have plenty in the city. If I 
wanted to display my command of language, and 
were sending Nigrinus a book written for that 
purpose, I should be exposing myself to ridicule 
as a genuine importer of owls. But it is onlv 
my state of mind which I wish to reveal to you, how 
I feel now, and how deeply I have been moved by 
your discourse. So I may fairly be acquitted even 
of the charge contained in Thucydides' saying ' that 
ignorance makes men bold, but discourse •^ cautious, 
for clearly this great hardihood of mine is not due to 
ignorance alone, but also to fondness for discourse ! 
Good health to you ' 


A. How very lordly and exalLcd you are since 
you came back ! Really, you don't deign to notice 
us anj more, you don't associate with us, and you 
don't join in our conversations : you have changed 

'^ 2, 40, 3. 

" To bring out the play on words, "discourse " is unod heif 
in the obsolete sense of " consideration, retieclion." 



uTTepnTTTiKcp Tivi €OLKa<i, rjSeco^i S' uv TTaph aov 
7rvdoLfi7]v, oOev ovrco^ aroTTO)? e;^ei9 /cat ri tovtoiv 


T'l yap aWo ye, co eTacpe, ?} evrv^^'a; 

Hco<; \iyei<;; 

'OBou Tfdpepyov ^]K(o (Jol evhaip,oyv re koI 
liaKo.pio'; yeyevrjjiievo^ koI tovto Sr] to utto t?}9 
(XKr^vvj. ovojia, rpia6\/3to<;. 

'HpaKXei^i, ovTO}<i iv ^pa')(6l; 

Kat fMuXa. 

Tt Be, TO fi€Ta^ TOVTO, ia-rlv €(f) ot&) koI KOfia<?; 
iva prj iv Kec^akaiM fxovw evippaivco/xeda, €)(0}- 
fiev Si TL KoX aKpi/3e(; elBivac to irav uKovaavTe^. 

Ov Oav/jLaaTov elvai aot BoKel irpo^ A; 09, uvtI 
fM€v BovXou fie iXeuOepov, uvtI Be 7rev7]To<i co? 
a\ii6o)<i TrXouaiov, avrl Be avoi'jTOV Te koX t6tv- 
(fxofievov yeviaOai fieTpicoTepov; 

MeytcTTOv fiev ovv uTap ovttco fiavOuvco cra<f)cb<; 2 
o Ti Kol \eyei<i. 

'EaTaXrjv pev ev9b t% 7roA,e&)<> ^ov\6pevo<i 
LUTpov 6^0a\p.o)V dedcraaOai tivw to yap pot 
irddo^ TO ev tco 6(^da\jjLrp pidWov irreTeiveTO. 

OlBa TovTwv €KaaTa, koI 7]v^dp.ijv ae tlvi 
crirovBaUp einTv^^elv. 

Ao^ar ovv p,oi Bia iroWov TrpocreiTretv l^typcvov 
Tov UXaTcoi'iKov cl)iXoao(f)Ov, ecoOev i^ava(TTd<; 0)9 
avTov d(f)iv6p,i]v Koi Ko^jrwi Ti-jv Ovpav tov iraLBcx; 
elaayyeiXavTo^; €kXi/6t]V' kuI rrapeXdoyv elcro) 
KUTaXapL^di'd) tov fiev iv X^P'^'' /3i/3Aiov e^oi'Ta, 

* H(Ta. MSS. : fj.fya du Soul. 



all of a sudden, and, in short, have a supercilious air. 
I should be glad to find out from you how it conies 
that you are so peculiar, and what is the cause of all 
this ? 

B. Nothing but good fortune, my dear fellow. 

A. Wiiat do you mean ? 

B. I have come back to you transformed by the 
wayside into a happy and a blissful man — in the 
language of the stage, " thrice blessed." 

A. Heracles ! in so short a time ? 

B. Yes, truly. 

A. But what is the rest of it ? What is it that 
you are puffed up about .'' Let us enjoy something 
more than a mere hint : let us have a chance to get 
at the facts by hearing the whole story. 

B. Don't you think it wonderful, in the name of 
Zeus, that once a slave, I am now free ! " once poor, 
now rich indeed " ; once witless and befogged, now 
saner ? ^ 

A. Why, yes ! nothing could be more important. 
But even yet 1 don't clearly understand wliat you 

B. Well, I made straight for Rome, wanting to 
see an oculist ; for I was having more and more 
trouble with my eye. 

A. I know all that, and hoped you would find 
an able man. 

B. As I had resolved to pay my respects to 
Xigrinus the Platonic philosopher, which I had not 
done for a long time, I got up early and went to his 
house, and when I had knocked at the door and the 
man had announced me, I was asked in. On 

^ Apparently a free quotation from some play that is lost. 
iKock, adesp. 1419.) 



TToWa? Be elKova<i irakaioiv cf)i\oao(f)(i)v ev KVK\(p 
KGifxeva^. TrpovKeiTo Be ev /xiaco /cat ttivuklov 
Ti(Ti TOiV airo jeco/jLerpLWi cr^T/yu-tiTwi^ KUTayeypa/j,- 
fievov Koi <T(jiaLpa KaXd/juou tt/jo? to tov iravro'; 
/jLifiTj/xa &)? eBoKec ireTroLrjixevrj. crcpoBpa ovv p-e 3 
(f)iXo(f)pov(i)<j aaTracrdp.evo'i rjpMra 6 Ti TrpaTTOipi. 
Kayo) irdvra Birjyrjadp.^-jv avrw, koi Brjra ev 
jxepet KOi avTO'; rj^iovv elBevat 6 Tt re irpuTTot, 
Kol el av6i<^ avTO) eyvcoapLevov eL7] aTeWeaOac Tip 
eirl Trj<; 'KXXaSo?. 

U be air cLp-)(i)<; ap^ap,evo<i, w eraipe, 
Trepl TOVTcov Xeyeiv koi tiju eavrov yvcop,7]v 
Birjyetadat Toaavrip rivd p,ov Xoywv dp,- 
^pocrtav KareoKeBaaev, ware koX Ta<; ^eipr,va<i 
eKeiva<s, et Tive<^ apa eyevovro, kclI ra<; dr}()6va^ 
Kol TOV 'Opirjpov \wTov dp')(atov aTroBei^ar ourco 
deaTrecria ecfjOey^aro. 7rpo)])($7] yap avTip> re 4 
^i\ocr(i(f)iav eTTaivecrat koI ttjv aTro ravT'>i<; ekev- 
Oepiav Kot TMv Biip^oala vopa^op^evwv dyaOoov 
KUTayeXdaai, ttXovtov koL Bo^r]'; kol /3acnXeia<i 
KOL Tip,r}<i, €Tt re ^(^pva-ov Kai iropcpvpa^, rcov irdvv 
rrepi^XfTTTOiv Toi? ttoXXoI^, rew? Be Kdp,ol Bokovv- 
Tcov. cLTtep eycoye drevel koi dvaTreTrrap^evij rfj 
^^XV Be^dp,evo^ avr'iKa p,ev ouBe el-^ov eiKdcrat 
oirep eTreirovdeiv, dXXa Travroto^ eyiyv6p,r]v' koI 
dpri fj,ev iXv7rovp,T]r, eXrjXeyp,eva)v p.0L rwv (^iXrd- 
roiv, ttXovtov re kuI dpyvpiov kuI B6^T]<i, koX 
p,6vov ovK eBdfcpvov eir avrol<i KaOrjpi]p.evGi<;, cipri 

' cirr' apxv^ hp^ifitvos Schwartz : diropfifuei'oj MSS. 


entering, I found him with a book in his hands and 
many busts of ancient philosopliers standing round 
about. Beside him there had been placed a tablet 
filled with figures in geometry and a reed globe, 
made, I thought, to represent the universe. 
Well, he greeted me in very friendly way and 
asked me how I was getting on. I told him 
everything, and naturally in my own turn wanted to 
know how he was getting on, and whether he had 
made up his mind to take the trip to Greece again. 

Beginning to talk on these topics and to explain 
his position, my dear fellow, he poured enough 
ambrosial speecli over me to put out of date the 
famous Sirens ^ (if there ever were any) and the 
nightingales 2 and the lotus of Horner.^ A divine 
utterance ! For he went on to praise philosophy and 
the freedom that it gives, and to ridicule the things 
that are popularly considered blessings — wealth and 
reputation, dominion and honour, yes and purple 
and gold — things accounted very desirable by most 
men, and till then by me also. I took it all in A\ith 
eager, wide-open soul, and at the moment I couldn't 
imagine what had come over me ; I was all con- 
fused. At first I felt hurt because he had criticised 
what was dearest to me — wealth and money and 
reputation, — and I all but cried over their downfall ; 

1 Odyss. 12, 39 ; 167. ^ odyss. 19, 518. 

' Odyss. 9, 94. The lotus is mentioned because of its 
effecsi. It made Odysseus' shipmates 

" Among the Lotus-eaters fain to stay 
And gather lotus, and forget their homes. " 



Be avra f.uv iSuKei /xot TUTreiva Kai KmayiXatJTa' 
e^aipov 8' av uiairep ^ €k toc^epov Tivo<i aepo<; 
Tov iS'iov rov irpoaOev e<f aWpiai> re Kal /neya 0co9 
ava^XeiTccv Mcne S?;, to Kuivorarov, rov 6cf)0aX- 
[xov fiev Kal Ttj<; trepl avrov acrOeveia^; eireXavOa- 
vofjL^lv, Ti-jv he yp-vy^jjv 6^v8epKearepo<i Kara puKpov 
iyijvofiTjv eXeXi/deiv yap rew? aurrjv tv(}>\(ottou- 
crav 7TepL(f)epo)v. irpolcov he e<> rohe Trepujx^'l^y 5 
oirep upTL'o<i i)/jliv e7reKdXei<i' yavpo<i reyhp vtto tov 
Xoyou teal fieTe(opo<i elfiL Kal oXw? p,iKpoi> ovKeri 
ovSev eTTivoM' Sokm yap pot op^otov tl 'TeirovOevai, 
Trpo? (f)iXo(Tocf)iav, olovTrep Kal ol \vhol irpb'i tov 
olvov XeyovTat iraSelv, ore irpwrov errLov aumv' 
OeppiOTepoi yap oVre? (^vcrei 7ri6vTe<; i(T')^vp6v ovrw 
iroTOV avTLKa p.u\a i^ejiaK-)(^ev9'>]aav Kal hi- 
TrXaaiwi vtto tov UKpaTOU e^epdvy]aav. ovroi 
aoi Kal auT09 evOeo^ Kal p.e6vu)v vtto twv Xoycov 

Kal p.7]v tovto ye ov p-eOveiv, aWa vncpeiv 6 
re Kal aa)(f)poveiv eariv. iyoo he ^ouXoip,r]v civ, 
el olov re, auTCOv aKOvcrai tmv Xoywv ouSe yap 
ovhe (jidoveiv' avroiv oi, dep,L<i, dXXwi Te ei 
Kal (jiLXo'i Kal irepl ra 6p.ota ea7rovhaKa)<i o 0ovXo- 
p,evo<i uKoveiv ehi- 

@dppei, oiyaOe' tovto yap toi to tov 'Op,}]pov, 
cnrevhovTa Kal (ivrov irapaKaXet'i, Kal et ye fit] 
e^Orj'i, avTO^ av ihe)jOi]v aKOvcrai p,ov hn]yovp,evov 
p,dpTvpa yap ae TrapacrTijaaaOai 7rpo<; tou? 
TToXXoi"? eOeXu), otl oxjk aKoyw<^' dXXco^ 

' av Siairep vulg. : h.v &avep MSS. : Siaireo hv SchwdrtZ. 
* (pOovfiv Jacobitz : Karatppovt'iv MSS. Schwartz assumes 
a lacuna after yap. 



and then I thought tliem paltry and ridiculous, and 
was glad to be looking u]), as it were, out cf the 
murky atmosphere of my past lite to a clear sky and 
a great light. In consequence, I actually forgot my 
eye and its ailment — would you believe it? — and by 
degrees grew sharper-sighted in my soul ; which, all 
unawares, I had been carrying about in a purblind 
condition till then. I went on and on, and so got 
into the state with which you just now reproached 
me : what he said has made me proud and exalted, 
and in a word, I take no more notice of trifles. I 
suppose I have had the same sort of experience with 
philosophy that the Hindoos are said to have had 
with wine when they first tasted it. As they are 
by nature more hot-blooded than we, on taking such 
strong drink they became uproarious at once, and 
were crazed by the unwatered beverage twice as 
much as other people. There you have it ! I am 
going about enraptured and drunk with the wine of 
his discourse. 

A. Why, that isn't drunkenness, it is sobriety and 
temperance ! I should like to hear just what he 
said, if possible. It is far, very far from right, in 
my opinion, to be stingy with it, es))ecially if the 
person who w-ants to hear is a friend and has the 
same interests. 

B. Cheer up, good soul ! you spur a willing horse, 
as Homer says,' and if you hadn't got ahead of me, 
I myself should have begged you to listen to my 
tale, for I want to have you bear witness before the 
world that my madness has reason in it. Then, too. 

» Iliad 8, 293. 



re Kat rihv fioi to fi€fjLvr](7dai avroiv 7roX\aKi<i, 
ical ravT-qv i]hr) fieXeTrjv i7ron]ad^i]v eVel Kav 
ri<? fJLT] irapcov tvxV' '^"^ ouru) 8i9 rj rpi'i tt}? 
rjfxepa'i avaKVK\6) irpo^ ifiauTov ra elpijfieva. Kat, 7 
MCTTTep ol ipaaral tmv iraiZtKOiV ov Trapovrwv 
epy arra koI \6yov<; elprjfjievov'i avroi'i Btafivy]- 
fiovevovat koI tovtoi.<; ivSiaTpi/SovTeq i^aTrarayai 
Trjv voaov, ft)? irapovTwi' a(})Lcn ro)i' ayairco/xe- 
D(^p — evtoL yovv avToi'i koI nrpoaXaXelv otovrai 
Kol 0)9 iiprt Xeyofxevoiv 7rpo9 avrov^ (ov rure 
i']Kouaav, ijSoi'Tai koI irpoady^ravTe'; rrjv ^vxh^ 
T^ p-Vij/J-u TMV IT a pe\'r]\v 6 or MV a^aXrjv ovk 
dyovaiv roc<i iv Troalv uvidadai — ovrco orj Kat 
auTO? (^Lko(TO(^ia^ ov irapovari'i tou? \6yov<^,ov<s 
Tore i']KOvaa, avvnyeipMV Koi 7rpo<i e/xavrov uva- 
TvX'iTTcov ov fiiKpav ex(^ Trapap^vdiav, Kat, bXco<; 
KaQdirep iv ireXdyet Kal vvktI TroWfj (pepop-eva, 
fc"9 TTvpaov Tiva rovrov (nropXeiTU), iracri p.ev 
irapelixn rol<; vir' ip,ov ■TrpaTTop,evoi<; rov dvhpa 
eKelvov (:l6p.evo<i, del he wairep ukov'cv avrov rd 
avrd 7rp6<i /xe \eyovTO<;- eviore Be, Kal p-dXiara 
orav evepeiao) rrji' -^^u;^?/!/, Acat to TrpoacoTTOv avrov 
fjLOi ^aiveraL Kal ttj^; (pcovi)^ 6 ijxo'i ^v rah 
aKoal^ Trapap^erer Kal jdp tol Kara rov Kwp^LKov 
ox? dXi^dw^ iyKareXiTrev tl Kevrpov Tol<; aKOVovuLv} 

» Cf. Eupolis (Kock, 94). 

K^inrrros ouros iyivtr' avQpwTT'jiyv Kfyeiv 
i7r(!T6 iraptKOoi 8', Hairep ayadol hpm?i?, 
fK 5(Ka TToiwv rjpfi A.6'7a'i' tovs pr\Topa.s, 
raxhv \4ym fxiv, nphs 5«' y' avri rcji TaX« 

o'uT(jis eK-h\fi xal fiSvos rwv ^tiripoov 

rh KtvTpov iyKarfKeiitf toij a/f^oa).u*j'o/<J. 

1 06 


I take pleasure in calling his words to mind 
frequently, and have already made it a regular 
exercise : even if nobody happens to be at hand, I 
repeat them to myself two or three times a day just 
the same. I am in the same case with lovers. 
In the absence of the objects of their fancy thev 
think over their actions and their words, and bv 
dallying with these beguile their lovesickness into 
the belief that they have their sweethearts near; in 
fact, sometimes they even imagine they are chatting 
with them and are as pleased Avith what they 
formerly heard as if it were just being said, and by 
applying their minds to the memor\^ of the past give 
themselves no time to be annoyed by the present. 
So I, too, in the absence of my mistress Philosoph}-, 
get no little comfort out of gathering together the 
words that I then heard and turning them over to 
myself. In short, I fix my gaze on that man as if he 
were a lighthouse and I were adrift at sea in the 
dead of night, fancying him by me whenever I do 
anything and ahvays heaiing him repeat his former 
words. Sometimes, especially when I put pressure 
on my soul, liis face appears to me and the sound of 
his voice abides in my ears. Truly, as the comedian 
says,^ " he left a sting implanted in his hearers ! " 

* Eupolis in the Demes, referring to Pericles (Kock, 94). 
" None better in the world to make a speech ! 
He'd take the floor and giv^e your orators 
A ten-foot start, as a good runner does, 
And then calch up. Yes, he was fleet, and more — 
Persuasion used to percii upon his lips, 
So great his magic ; he alone would leave 
His sting implanted in his auditors." 



IlaOe, tt) Oau/xdcrie, [xaKpov^ uvaKpovo/xevof 8 
Kol Xeje t^ (''^PXV^ dva\a/3ci>v ySr] ra €lp'>ifieva' &>? 
01) fi€TpLO)<; fxe diTOKi aUi<i irepid'ywv. 

Eu \€yei<i, KoX oirco ^/q/; ttolhIv. uX)C €K€lvo, 
M kralpe — >/8^ rpayiKov^ ?} kui v>] Ala kco/jlikou^; 
(f)avXou<; e(opaKa<i vTroKpird'^, tmv crvpiTTO/jiivcov 
Xeyco TovTcov fcal hiac^OetpovTwv ra iroiii^aia kol 
TO TeXevTotov ifc^aWo/iievcov, KalroL tmv SpafMUTtov 
TToWdKL'i ev e^ovrcdv re K(U vevifcrjfcorcov; 

TloWov<; oiSa roiovrov^. uWa tl tovto; 

AeSoLKa fxt] aoL fxera^u ho^co yeX' Lo)<; avra 

fiifxelcrOai, tu /mev draKTCOii avveipoyv, eviore ^e kol 

avrbv vir u(T6eveLa<t rov v<wv Bia(f)6etpQ)v, Kara 

7rpoa')(drj<i r/pe/xa Kai avTov KarayvMvai rov 

8pd/xaTo<i. KoX TO fxev efiov, ov irdvv a^6ofiai, rj Se 

virodecL'i ov /xeTpuo<; fie \viTi]cr6tv eoiKe crvveKTri- 

TTTOVcra Koi TO e/jLov yu-epo9 da^^jfiovoi^'aa. tovt 9 

ovv Trap oXov fiefxinjao fxoi top Xoyov, w? o fiev 

7rot7]Tr)<i Tj/jitv TMV ToiovTOiv d fiapTrj fjidTCOV dvev- 

dui>o<i Kal T/}? aKT]vrj<i Troppco ttoi fcuOrjrai, ov8ei> 

avTfp peXov tmv ev Oedrpro TrpayfxdTMV. €ya> S' 

e/aavTOV aoi Trelnav Trare')((t), o7rolo<i Tt? elfii rrjv 

/jLV)]fir]v vTroKpiTt'i<i, ovSev dyyeKov to, dXXa rpayi- 

Kov hiax^epwv. oxttc kuv evSeearepov n Sokm 

Xeyeiv, eKelvo fxev ecrrw Trpoyeipov, <w? apieivnv 

YjV, Koi dXX(o^ " o TTOir/Tj)? I'crd)^ Ste^rjer e/xe Se 

Kav iKtrvpirr-p^, ov ttuvv ti XvTrijao/xat. 

* (xaKphf S, and two late codices : ixtKphv the other MSS., 
usually rendered " Rack water a bit." 

2 ^v Kol &\K(Aii MSS.: f) 6 H-yyehnf Schwajtz. 



A. Have done with your long prelude, you 
stranjre fellow ; begin at the beginning and tell me 
what he said. You irritate me more than a little 
with your beating about the bush. 

B. You are right I 1 must do so. But look here, 
my friend : you've seen bad actors in tragedy before 
now — yes, and in comedy too, I'll swear ? 1 mean 
the sort that are hissed and ruin pieces and finally 
get driven off the stage, though their plays are often 
good and have won a prize. 

A. I know plenty of the sort. But what of it .'' 

B. I am afraid tliat, as you follow me, you ma}' 
think that 1 present my lines ridiculously, hurrying 
through some of them regardless of metre, and 
sometimes even spoiling the very sense by my 
incapacity ; and that you may gradually be led to 
condemn the play itself. As far as I am concerned, 
I don't care at all ; but if the play shares my failure 
and comes to grief on my account, it will naturally 
hurt me more than a little. Please bear it in 
mind, then, all through the performance that the 
poet is not accountable to us for faults of this nature, 
and is sitting somewhere far away from the stage, 
completely unconcerned about what is going on in 
the theatre, wiiile 1 am but giving you a chance to 
test my powers and see what sort of actor I am in 
point of memory ; in other respects my role is no 
more important than that of a messenger in tragedy. 
Therefore, in case I appear to be saj'ing sometliing 
rather poor, have the excuse to hand that it was 
better, and that the poet no doubt told it dilFcrently. 
As for myself, even if you hiss me off the stage, I 
shan't be hurt at all ' 



'il? ev ye vr) rov 'Ep/j,7]v koI Kara rov tmv 10 
prjTopwv vo/jiov Treirpooiixiaarai aor €OLKa<; yovv 
KUKelva 7Tpoa0t](reiv, co? 8l' oXljou re vfxcv r) 
avvovata iyevero kuI o)? ov8 aur6<i rjKe<; rrpo'i rov 
Xojov 7rapeaK6va(T/j,ivo<i koI ux; a/xeivov el')(ev 
avrov rain a Xeyovro^ aKovetv (tv yap oXiya Kal 
oaa olov re rjv, rvyx^dvei'^ rfi ju,v/]firj cxvyKeKopna- 
fievo^. 01) ravT ipelv e/neXXe^; uvSev ovv avro)i> 
en aot Sel 7rpo<i ifie' vofjuaov he rovrov ye eveKa 
Trdvra aoL irpoeipfjadaL- cl)? eyto Kal ^oav Kal 
Kporelv eroifxo'^. rjv Se Sia/jiiXXr)';, fxv7](TiKaKt]au) 
ye rrapa rov ayoiva Kal o^vrara avpL^ofjuai. 

Kat ravra fiev, a av SifjXOe'i, e/3ovX6fir]v av 1} 
elpfjcrOai /xot, KuKelva Be, on ov)(^ e^ij'i ouSe w? 
eKelvo^i eXeye, pfjaiv nva irepl rrdvrojv ipco' rrdvv 
yap rovB' rjpuv dhvvarov' ol^S' av eKelvco irepidelf; 
rov<; X6yov<i, firj Kal Kar dXXo n yevwjxat rot? 
vrrOKpLral<i eKeivui^- o/xoio^, ot 7roXXdKC<; rj 
' \ya/x6/jiV0V0f; i] Kpeovro<i rj Kal 'HpaKXeovi avrov 
rrpoawTTOv dveiXr}(p6re<;, ■^^pvaiSa'i rj/j^cfiiea/xei'ot Kal 
Setvov /SXerrovre^; Kal fiiya Kej(^iiv6re<i fxiKpov 
(jiOeyyovrai Kal icry^vov Kal yvvaiKcoSe'i Kal rrj<; 
'E«a/i^>/9 17 n.oXv^evrj<! -ttoXv raireLvorepov. 'iv ovv 
fxrj Kal avro<i eXey^wixai rrdvv fiei^ov t?}? i/j,avrov 
Ke(f)aXrj<; TrpoacoTrelov TrepLKel/xeva Kal rr]v aKevrjv 
Karaicr')(yv(i>v, drrb yvpivov aoi ^ovXoixai rovjiov 
TrpoaooTTOv rrpoaXaXelv, iva /xt] avyKaraaTrdaco 
T70V rreaoiv rov rjpcoa ov uTTOKplvo/jtaL. 

Ovro<; di'Tip ov Travcrerai rij/jt,epov tt/jo? yu.6 iroXXrj \ 2 
rfj aKTjvfi Kal rfj rpaywhia ■ypnofjievo';. 



A. Hermes I^ what a fine introduction you Iiave 
made, just like a professor of public speaking! 
Vou intend, I am sure, to add that your conversation 
was short, that you didn't come prepared to speak, 
and tliat it would be better to hear him tell it him- 
self, for really you have only carried in mind what 
little you could. Weren't you going to say that ? 
Well, there is no longer any necessity for it on my 
account ; consider that you have said everything so 
far as the introduction is concerned, for I am ready 
to cheer and to clap. But if you keep shilly- 
shallying, I'll bear you a grudge all through the 
speech and will hiss right sharply. 

B. Yes, I should have liked to say all that you 
mention, and also that I do not intend to quote 
him without a break and in his own words, in a long 
speecli covering everything, for that would be quite 
beyond my powers : nor yet to quote him in the first 
person, for fear of making myself like the actors 
whom I mentioned in another way. Time and again 
when they have assumed the role of Agamemnon or 
Creon or even Heracles himself, costumed in cloth 
of gold, with fierce eyes and mouths wide agape, 
they speak in a voice that is small, thin, womanish, 
and far too poor for Hecuba or Polyxena. There- 
fore, to avoid being criticised like them for wearing 
a mask altogether too big for my head and for being 
a disgrace to my costume, I want to talk to you with 
my features exposed, so that the hero whose part I 
am taking may not be brought down with me if I 

A. Will the man never stop talking so much 
stage and tragedy to me ? 

* Invoked as the god of orators. 



Kai firjv iravaofxai ye' 7rp6<; eKeii-a he i^hrj 
Tpeylro/xai. ?; fiev upxv '^^^^ Xo'ywv e7raivo<i i]v 

EXXaSo-; Kui roiv ^ AdijV)]aiv uvOpdoiTwv, oti 
(f)i\oao^ia Kat, irevia avvrpocfiOi elaiv Kol ovre 
Toiv aaroiv oure twv ^evwv ovSeva Tepirovjai 
opoiVTe^;, b? av rpv(f)7]v eccrdyew et? avTOV<; ^id^rjTac, 
aWa Kav ri<; a(f)iKrirat ■nap' avTov<i ovroi hiaKei- 
fjLevo<i, rjpepa re peOappoTTOuai koI irapaTraiZa- 
jcoyovai koX irpo'i lo KaOapov TTj'i SiaiTi]^ 
ixed Lender IV. 

' EpepvtjTO yovv ri i'0<; t iou Trokvxpvacov, o? iXdwv 1 3 

i\^0 1'jva^e fjidX' eiTicn^po'i Ka\ (^opTiKo<i ukqXovOcov 
^X^V '^^'' '^oiKikr] iaOTjTi fcal T^/OfCTw avTO<i p,kv 
(hero ^ifKwro<i eii'at rrdai. rot'? ^ A0r]vaiOL<i Kal cu? 
au evSaipcov aTrolSXeirecrdaL' T0i9 o dpa SvaTV^elv 
eBoKec TO dvOpjOTTLov, Kal rraiSeveiv eirex'^ipnvv 
avrov ov TriKpcos ouS' dvriKpvi diTayopevovTe<i ev 
eXevOepa rfj yroXei Kad^ ovriva Tponrov /SovXerai pi-j 
^Lovv dW eirel Kdv rol'i yvp-vaaloi'^ Kal Xovrpo2<; 
o^Xvpo'^ vv OXilBwv Tol<i oiKerai^ Kal areroxfopcov 
rou^ aTravTO)! Ta<;, i)avx>^) '^^'> ^^ vnecfiOey^aTO 
TrpocTTTOiovpevoq Xavddveiv, oxnrep ov Trpo'i avrov 
^Kelvov diroreivojv, AtSoiKe /mt) 7ra paTToXr-jrat 
fxera^v Xovop,evo<i- Kal pt]v elpijvTj ye paKpd Kare- 
^et TO iSaXaveloii' ovSev ovv 8ei (jTparo'nehov. o 
he uKovoiv dei,^ /j,era^v erraihevero. rijv 8e ecrdrjra 
Trjv TTOL'' lX^]]' Kal rd<; 7ropd)Vi i8a<i eK€Lva<i direhv- 
aav avrov dareiu)^ irdvv lo dvOrjpov tir i a kmttt ov- 
re^ Twv ^y9&>/xaT&)i/, "Eap ^]8ri, Xeyovre<i, /cat, 
Ilo^ei' rao)? ovra; Kai, Ta^a t/}? /x?;tpo9 eariv 
avTOV' Kal ra roiavra. Kal rd dXXa he ovro)^ 

' A*i R. Helm : & ^v MSS. 


B. Why, yes I I will stop, certainly, and will now 
turn to my subject. The talk began with praise of 
Greece and of the men of Athens, because Philosophy 
and Poverty have ever been their faster-brothers, 
and they do not look with pleasure on any man, be 
he citizen or stranger, who strives to introduce 
luxury among them, but if ever anyone comes to 
them in that frame of mind, they gradually correct 
him and lend a hand in his schooling and convert 
him to the simple life. 

For example, he mentioned a millionaire who 
came to Athens, a very conspicuous and vulgar 
person with his crowd of attendants and his gay 
clothes and jewelry, and expected to be envied by 
all the Athenians and to be looked up to as a happy 
man. But they thought the creature unfortunate, 
and undertook to educate him, not in a harsh wav, 
however, nor yet by directly forbidding him to live 
as he would in a free city. But when he made him- 
self a nuisance at the athletic clubs and the baths by 
jostling and crowding passers with his retinue, 
someone or other would say in a low tone, pretending 
to be covert, as if he were not directing the remark 
at the man himself: "He is afraid of beinjr 
murdered in his tub ! Why, profound peace reigns 
in the baths ; there is no need of an army, then !" 
And the man, who never failed to hear, got a bit of 
instruction in passing. His gay clothes and his 
purple gown they stripped from him very neatly by 
making fun of his flowery colours, saying, " Si)ring 
already ? " " How did that peacock get here ? " 
" Perhaps it's his mother's " and the like. His other 
vulgarities they turned into jest in the same way — 



uTreaKcDTrrov, tj tmv BuKrvXlcov to ttX^/^os" 57 t% 
K6/jbrj<i TO TrepLepyop 77 tt}? BiaiT7](; to uKoKaarov 
ware Kara jxiKpov iawSpoviaOr] Kal Trapa iroXv 
^eXrccov aiTrj\6e hrjixoata ireTraiBeu/u.ero^. 

"Otl 6' ouK ala')(yvovTat, ireriav 6/u,o\ojovvre<;, 14 
if^tefMvrjro 7r/30<? /xe (f)(ovrj^ tlvo<;, fjv aKovaai 
TrdvTcov e^Tj Koivfj irpoe/xevcov ev tu> dycjvL twv 
YlavaOrjvaiwv \i]^6evTa fxev 'yap riva rwv 7ro\i- 
rSiv ayeadat, irapd top uywvoOerrjv, otl ^ainov 
e')(^u)V i/xdrtov lOeoopei, rov^ 8e lS6vra<i iXerjaai re 
Kal irapaLrelaOaL Kal rod Kt]pvKo^ dvenrovro^;, 
on rrapa rov vop-ov irroli^aev ev roiavrij iadPjri 
Oewfxei 09, dva^orjaat /xia (f)0)vfj rrdvra'i warrep 
e(TKejjL/jLevov<;, avyyvco/jbrjv drrovefieiv avrw roiavrd 
ye dfiirexop-evrp- firj yap e')(eiv airov erepa. 

[aurd re ovv eTrrjvei. Kal rrpocreri ri]v eXevOepiav 
ri]V eKec Kal rf]<i 8tair7]<; to uveirl^Oovov, r^avxjiav 
re Kal drrpayfiocrvvt^v, a 8r) d(f)6ova rrap avrol^ 
earLV. drre^aive yovv (fiikocrocpia avixpSov rrjv 
rrapd rol^; roiovroi^ Siarpi/Srjv Kal KaOapov yOo^ 
(j)v\d^ai, hvvaixevTjv, arrovhairp re uvhpl Kal rrXov- 
rov Kara(f)poveiv rreTraiSevfievoi Kal rw 7rpo<; ra 
(fiucrei KaXd ^■i]v rrpoaipovpLevrp rov CKel ^iov 
fxdXtara rjpfinajj,evov. 6(Triq 8e rrXovrov epa Kal 15 
-)^pvc!(p KeK/jXijrat Kal rropcpvpa Kal Svvaareia 
/xerpet rb evSaifxov, dyevaro^ /xev iXevOepta<i, 
drreipara 8e 7rappr]cna<;, ddearo'i 8e a\ri6eia<i, 
KoXaKeia rd rrdvra Kal SovXeta avvrpocfio^, rj 
6ari<i ijZov]] rraativ ri]V yjrvxw emrpi^lrai; ravrr) 
fjLOVT} Xarpeveiv BiiyvcoKe, ^tXo? fxev irepiepycov 
rpaire^wv, (plXo<i 8e irorwv Kal dcfypoSicTLcov, 
arnvrXew? yor)r€ia<i Kal drrarrjq Kal y}rev8oXoyia<;, 



the number of his rings, the over-niceness of his 
hair, l.he extravagance of his life. So he was 
disciplined little by little, and went away much 
improved by the public education he had received. 

To show tliat they are not ashamed to confess 
poverty, he mentioned to me a remark which he 
said he liad heard everybody make with one accord 
at the Panathenaic games. One of the citizens had 
been arrested and brouirht before the director of the 
games because he was looking on in a coloured cloak. 
Those who saw it were sorry for him and tried to 
beg him off, and when the herald proclaimed that 
he had broken the law by wearing such clothing at 
the games, they all cried out in one voice, as if by 
pre-arrangement, to excuse him for being in that 
dress, because, they said, he had no other. 

Well, he praised all this, and also the freedom 
there and the blamelessness of their mode of living, 
their quiet and leisure; and these advantages they 
certainly have in plenty. He declared, for instance, 
that a life like theirs is in harmony with philosophy 
and can keep the character pure ; so that a serious 
man who has been tauglit to despise wealth and 
elects to live for what is intrinsicallv good will find 
Athens exactly suited to him. But a man who 
loves wealth and is entliralled by gold and measures 
happiness by purple and power, who has not tasted 
liberty or tested free speech or contemplated truth, 
whose constant companions are flattery and servility ; 
a man who has unreservedly committed liis soul to 
pleasure and has resolved to serve none but her, 
fond of extravagant fare and fond of wine and 

VOL. I. „ 


>') 6(Ti L<i aKOVoiv TepireTai KpoufidroiV re Kal 
Teperta/jLu-cov Kal hie^OopoTuw aa/xdrcov, Toi<; 
Br) TotovTOL<; irpsTreiv t7]v ivravda Scarpi^/jv 
fiearal jap avTot<i t(ov (^iXTarcov irdcrai /xev 16 
dyvial, irdcrai Se d'yopai' Trdpeari 8e irdaai^ 
irvKai'i Tr]V ij8iiv)]v Karahey^eadai, rouro fxev ht, 
6(f)0a\fio)v, TOVTO 8e 8l mtcov re koI pivcov ruvro 
he Kal Bid \aifJLOv Kal Si dcfjpoSiaLwu- vcj)' 979 Brj 
peovcTT]'^ devdy re fcal doXepda peupari irdcrai pev 
dvevpvvovrai oSor avvtiaepx^erai jdp poi)(^eia Kal 
(fiiXapyvpLa Kal eirtopKia Kal ro rotovro cpvXov 
Tcov rjSoi^cov, Trapaauperai Se Tr]^ ■^v^Tj'^ vttokXv^o- 
fi€vy]<i irdvToOev alBd)<i Kal dperr] Kal SiKaioavvi]' 
TCOV Be epi]po<; 6 ^(dipoi; y6v6p.6vo<i St'i^?;? del 
7np,7rpdpevo^ ^ dvOel 7roXX,ai<; re Kat, dypiai^ 

ToiauT7]v drrecfiaiie rrjv iroXiv Kai ToaovTWV 
BiBdcTKaXov dyaOwv. iyoi yovv, e<pr], ore to 17 
irpoiTOv eiravrjeLu drro T7}9 'EWaSo?, irXrialov ttov 
yev6p,€vo<; eTTi(TTi]cra<i epavTov \6yov dirrjrovv 
T^9 Bevpo dcpL^eco^, eKecva By] rd rod Op/]pov 

tlttt' avT, CO BuaTi]ve, Xlttcov (j)do<; t)eXioio, 
Ti]V 'KXXdBa Kal tijv evTV-^iav €Ke[pr]v Kal rijv 
eXevOepiav, i]XvO€<;, 6(j)pa 'iBr)<; rbv evravOa 
96pvj3ov, (TUKocfidvTa'i Kal Trpoaaynpevcrei^ VTrept]- 
(f)dvov<; Kal Bclrrva Kal KoXaKa^i Kal piai<^ovLa<i 
Kal BiaOrjKwv TrpoaBoKia^ Kal 0fXta? iiriTrXucnou'}; 
f] Tt Kal irpd^eiv Bieyva)Ka<i /ji]t dTraXXarTeaOai 
prjTe ')(^pr)a9ai tol<; KaOecTTCoai Bvvdpevo%l 



women, full ot trickery, deceit and falsehood ; a 
man who likes to hear twanging, fluting and emascu- 
lated singing — " Such folk," said he, " should live 
in Rome, for every street and every square is full ol 
the things they cherish most,^ and they can admit 
pleasure by every gate — by the eyes, by the ears 
and nostrils, by the throat and reins. Its ever- 
flowing, turbid stream widens every street ; it 
brings in adultery, avarice, perjury and the whole 
family of the vices, and sweeps the flooded soul bare 
of self-respect, vii'tue, and righteousness; and then the 
ground which they have left a desert, ever parched 
with thirst, puts forth a rank, wild growth of lusts." 
That was the character of the city, he declared, 
and those all the good things it taught. " For 
my part," said he, " when I first came back from 
Greece, on getting into the neighbourhood of Rome 
I stopped and asked myself why I had come here, 
repeating the well-known words of Homer^ : ' Why 
left you, luckless man, the light of day ' — Greece, 
to wit, and all that happiness and freedom — 'and 
came to see ' the hurly-burly here — informers, 
haughty greetings, dinners, flatterers, murders, 
legacy-hunting, feigned friendships .'' And what in 
the world do you intend to do, since you can neither 
go away nor do as the Romans do .'^ " 

^ A reminiscence of Aratus (Phaenom 2) : " And every 
human street and every square is full of the presence of 
God." « Odyss. 11, 93. 



OvTco 8r) ^ovXevadfievrx; koI Kaddirep 6 Zei"? top 18 
"^KTopa vTre^ajayoiv ifiavTov i/c /SeXioov, (pacrlv, 
€K T dvhpoKTaatri<i e/c d^ a'ifuno<i m re kv8oi/xov 
TO XoiTTOv oiKovpelv elXofirjv Koi ^lov riva 
rovTOv yuvacKcoSr] koI aro\fiov Tot9 iroXkol^ 
BoKOvvra 7rpoTLd€/jLevo<; aurf} (piXocrotpLa koi W\d- 
Tcovi KOI (WrjOeia irpoaXaXS), kclI Ka9iaa<i i/xavrov 
cocnrep iv Oedrpu) fivpidvBpa) acfioSpa irov fieTecopoii 
eTTta-KOTTCt) TO, jiyvofieva, v )uto /xev iroXXrjv "^v^a- 
ywyiav koI yeXcora irapexetv Bwdfieva, rovro ce 
Kal ireipav dv8po<i 6}<i dXyjOon ^e^aiov Xafietv. 

Et yap y^pii Kal KaKwv t7r xivov elTretv, fii-j inro- jg 
Xd^r]<; fiel^ov ri yup-vdaiov dpeT7]<i rj t/}? yp'V)^t]<; 
hoKLfJiacriav dXrjdearepav Tr]aSe t% 7r6Xea><i Kal 
rf](; ivravOa 8iarpt/3P](i' ov yap fxiKpov dvricrxelv 
Toaavrai^; [xev i7rt0v/j,iai<;, toctovtok Be dedfxacTu 
re Kal uKovcr/xaaL irdvYoOev eXKOvai kuI dvnXafi- 
^avofi€voi<i, dXXa dT€XV(t)<i Bel top ^OBvacrea fiifMr]- 
adfievov irapaTrXelv avra firj BeBe/xtvov ro) y^elpe 
— BeiXov ydp — p.y]Be to, wto. KT]p(p (ppa^d/btevov, 
dXX^ uKOvovra Kal XeXv/xevov Kal dX'>j6o)<i virepij- 
<pavov. evecrri Be Kal (^iXoao^iav 6av/xdaai irapa- 20 
deojpovvra ttjv Toaainrjv dvoiav, Kal tmv t/}? 
TV)(^T]<; dyaOcJv Karai^povelv opcovra cocnrep ev 
(TKT]vf} Kal 7roXv7rpocr(07r(p Bpdfiari top fiep e^ 
oLKeTOV Bea7roT>]P Trpoiopra, top S' dprl irXovaiov 
TTeprjTa, top Be (rarpdTrrjp e/c 7reprjT0<i rj /SaaiXea, 
TOP Be (f)LXop TovTOu, TOP Be ex^pop, top Be (f)vyaBa' 
TOUTO ydp TOL Kal to BeiPoraTOP earip, on KairoL 
fiapTvpo^ePTj^; !)}<; Tu)(^r]^ irai^eip ra tcop updpooTrcov 



" After communing with myself in this vein and 
pulling myself out of bowshot as Zeus did Hector 
in Homer/ 

From out the slaughter, blood, and battle-din, 

I decided to be a stay-at-home in future. Choosing 
thereby a sort of life which seems to most people 
womanish and spiritless, I converse with Plato, 
Philosophy and Truth, and seating myself, as it 
were, high up in a theatre full of untold thousands, 
I look down on what takes place, which is of a quahty 
sometimes to afford much amusement and laughter, 
sometimes to prove a man's true steadfastness. 

" Indeed (if it is right to speak in praise of what is 
bad), don't suppose that there is any better school for 
virtue or any truer test of the soul than this city and 
the life here ; it is no small matter to make a stand 
against so many desires, so many sights and sounds 
that lay rival hands on a man and pull him in every 
direction. One must simply imitate Odysseus and 
sail past them ; not, however, with his hands bound 
(for that would be cowardly) nor with his ears 
stopped with wax, but with ears open and body 
free, and in a spirit of genuine contempt. Further- 
more, one has cause to admire philosophy when he 
beholds so much folly, and to despise the gifts of 
fortune when he sees on the stage of life a play of 
many roles, in which one man enters first as servant, 
then as master ; another first as rich, then as poor ; 
another now as beggar, now as nabob or king ; 
another as So-and-so's friend, another as his enemy ; 
another as an exile. And the strangest part of it all 
is that although Fortune attests that she makes light 

» Iliad 11, 163. 



TrpdyfiaTa kcu o/jLoXoyovarj'i /bivSkv avTMV eivai 
fSe^atov, Oficoi; ravO^ oayfiepai /SXeTTOz^re? opeyivrai 
Kal ttXovtou Kai hvvacn eia<i kol /xearol 'jrepdacn 
7rdvTe<i ov 'yivofxevwy iXTrt^ayv. 

'^O Be 8r) €(f)')]v, on Kal yeXav ev Tol<i yiyvo- 21 
fxevot<i evecTTi kol yp'v)(^ayo)yeiadai, rovro ySrj aoi 
(ppdafo. TTCO? yap ou yeXoloi /xev 7r\ovTovi'T€<; 
avTol KOL Ta? 7rop(j}upiSa<; 7rpo(f)aLVOVT€<; koI roix; 
8aKTv\lov<; 7rpoT€LvovTe<; Kal iroWyv Kartjyo- 
povvre<i direipoKaXlav, to Be KaLvorarov, rov^ 
h>rvy'X^dvovTa<i dWoTpla (ficovfj TvpoaayopevovTe'i, 
dyairav d^iovvTe^, otl fiovov avrov<; rrpoaej^Xe- 
yjrav, ol Be ae^vorepoL Kal TrpoaKvveladai TrepLfie- 
vovre<i, ov iroppwdev ovB^ oi<; Ilepcra/? v6fio<;, dWd 
Bel TrpoaeXdovra Kal v7T0Kv"^avTa \ jrjv y^v^i^v 
TaTreivcoaai'Ta Kal to TrdOa avTi}^ e/iKpaviaavTa 
TTJ Tou acofiaTCi o/jLoiottjti, to (TTTjOci i) TYjv Be^idv 
KaTac^iXelv, ^ifKwTov Kai wepi^Xeinov Tolq fj,i]Be 
TovTOV Tvyx^dvovaiv o S' e'aTtjKev Trapey^wv eovrov 
ei<i irXeiw y^povov e^a7raT(i)[xevov. eiratvo) Be ye 

TaVT'T]<i aVTOV<i TJ}9 aTTavOpOiTTLa^, OTl fll] Kal TOt? 

aTOfiaaLV ?}/ia9 irpocnevTai. 

IloA.i' Be TovTtov ol 7rpo(Ti6vTe<; avTol Kal 22 
depairevovTe^ yeXoiOTepoi, vvkt6<; fiev e^avicrTd- 
fievoL fiear]^, 7reptdeovTe<i Be ev kvkXw ttjv ttoXlv 
Kal Trpo? Tw/^ oiKeTMV drroKXeio [xevoi, Kvve<i Kal 
K6XaKe<i Kal rd Toiavra uKoveiv virop.evovTe'i. 
yepa<; Be Ti]<; 7riKpd<i TauTJ]<; avTol<^ irepioBov to 
(popTCKOv eKelvo Btlirvov Kal ttoXXwv a'tTiov av/i- 

' vttoKv^avTa Schwartz: vTroKvy\iavTa ical nSppCudey MSS. :[koI 
{jTfOKvyf/avTei] Niliin. 



of human affairs and admits that there is no stability 
in them, and in spite of the fact that men see this 
demonstrated every day, they still yearn for wealth 
and power, and go about every one of them full of 
unrealised hopes. 

" But I have said that there is food for laughter 
and amusement in what goes on ; let me now explain 
it. To begin with, are not the rich ridiculous ? They 
display their purple gowns and show their rings and 
betray an unbounded lack of taste. Would you 
believe it? — they make use of another man's ^ voice 
in greeting people they meet, expecting them to be 
thankful for a glance and nothing more, while some, 
lordlier than the rest, even require obeisance to be 
made to them : not at long rancje, though, or in the 
Persian style. No, you must go up, bow your head, 
'humbling your soul and showing its feelings by 
carrying yourself to match them, and kiss the man's 
breast or his hand, while those who are denied even 
this privilege envy and admire you ! And the man 
stands for hours and lets himself be duped ! At any 
rate there is one point in their inhumanity that I 
commend them for — they forbid us their lips ! 

" Far more ridiculous, however, than the rich are 
those who visit them and pay them court. They get 
up at midnight, run all about the city, let servants 
bolt the doors in their faces and suffer themselves 
to be called dogs, toadies and similar names. By 
way of reward for this galling round of visits they 
get the much-talked-of dinner, a vulgar thing, the 
source of many evils. How much they eat there, 

^ The nomenclator : his proper office was merely to present 
the guests to his master, but in reality he often received 
them in his master's stead. 



<f)opa)v, iv a» iroa-a fiev i/xcfyayovre';, TToca 8i 
irapa •yvM/nrjv i/jL7ri6vTe<;, irocra 8e cov ovk eXPW 
d7ro\a\)]aai'T€<; •>; fxefx(f)6fjL€voi ^ to reXevTalov rj 
Svacfyopovvre^ airiaaLv rj 8iaj3a\XovTe<i to SelTrvov 
y) v^piv rj piKpoXoytav ijKaXovvTe'i. Tr\^pet,<i he 
avTcov epovvTOiV ol crT€vco7rol kuI tt/oo? Tol<i 'xapaL- 
TVireLoi<i paxo/jievcov' kol ped^ r)p,epav ol 7r\eiove<; 
avTMV KaTaKXidevTE^ laTpol<i irapexovaiv a(\wppa^ 
TreptoSatv evLoi pev 'yap, to KacvoTUTOv, ovBe voaelv 

'Eyo) pevTOi ye ttoXv t(ov KoXaKevopevcov i^o)- 23 
XeaTepovi toi)? KoXaKWi v7reLX^]cf)a, kol ^^(elov 
auTovf eKeiVoi'^ KadiaTaadai tt}? vTrepri(^avLa<; 
aLTiou<;' OTav yap aurcov t^]v Trepioucrlav Oavpd- 
crcocTiv Kal top ')(^pvaov erratvecTwa-iv KaX tov<; 
7rvX(ova<i ecodev epTrXrjcrcoaiV Kul TrpoaeXOovTe^ 
Mcrirep SeairoTa^ TrpoaeiTTcoaiv, tI kuI (ppovtjaeiv 
eKeivov; eiKo^; ccttiv ; el Be ye koivm hoypaTi. Kav 
TTpci oXiyov d'Tre<T')(^ovTo TpjaSe t/}? id eXoSovXela^, 
OVK dv ol'ei TovvavTLOv avTov-; iXdelv eVl ra? 
6vpa<; Tcov tttwx^cov heopevov; TOv<i TrXoualou^, prj 
ddeaTov avTOiv pijB^ dp,dpTvpov ti]V evSatju-ovlau 
KaTaXiirelv purjh^ dvovrjTov re Kai d)(pr]aTov twv 
TpaireKoiv to Kd\Xo<; kul t5)v o'lfcoiv to peye6o<i; 
ov yap ovTOi tov irXovTelv epcoaiv co? tov Bid 
TO TrXovTelv evBaip-ovl^ecrOai. Kal ovtoj Btj - e)(^ei, 
prjBev oi^eXo^ elvai 7r€piKaXXov<i olKLa^ Ta> 
oIkovvtl prjBe \puaov Kal eXe^acTo*?, el pyj Ti^ 
auTa davpd^oi. i)(pfjv ovv TavTrj KaOaipelv 
avTcbv Kill eTrevcovl^eiv ttjv BvvacrTelai' eVtrei^t- 

' fi fieu(p6/ MSS. : bracketed by Schwartz. 
' 5»> Hemsterhuys : Se MSS. 



how much they drink that they do not Avant, and 
how mucli they say that should not have been said ! 
At last they go away either finding fault or nursing 
a grievance, either abusing the dinner or accusing 
the host of insolence and meanness. They fill the 
side-streets, puking and fighting at the doors of 
brothels, and most of them go to bed by daylight 
and give the doctors a reason for making their 
rounds. Not all, though ; for some — would you 
believe it? — haven't even time to be ill ! 

" For my part I hold that the toadies are far 
worse than the men they toady to, and that they 
alone are to blame for the arrogance of the others. 
When they admire their possessions, praise their 
plate, crowd their doorways in the early morning 
and go up and speak to them as a slave speaks to his 
master, how can you expect the rich to feel ? If by 
common consent they refrained but a short time from 
this voluntary servitude, don't you think that the 
tables would be turned, and that the rich would 
come to the doors of the poor and beg them not to 
leave their happiness unobserved and unattested and 
their beautiful tables and great houses unenjoyed 
and unused ? It is not so much being rich that they 
like as being congratulated on it. The fact is, of 
course, that the man who lives in a fine house gets 
no good of it, nor of his ivory and gold either, unless 
someone admires it all. What men ought to do, then, 
is to reduce and cheapen the tyranny of the rich 
in this way, erecting in the face of their wealth a 



aavra^ tw 7r\ovTO)Ti]v vTrepoyfriav vvv he \arpev- 
ovre'i et<? airovoiav ayovcriv. 

Kat TO fxev avSpwi l8i(ora<i koX ava^avhov rrjv 24 
aTraiBevcriav ofioXojovvra^ to, TOiavra iroielv, 
[xerpiunepov av et/corco? vofiLaOeir]' to he Koi twv 
(f)L\oaocf)eiv Trpoarroiovpievwv ttoXXov^^ TroXXro 
en TovTwv ^yeXoLorepa hpav, tout ySr] to Beivo- 
TUTov idTi. 7rcb<i yap oiet ti~iv yjrvxv^ SiaTedeladai 
jjboi, OTav iSco TOVTCov Tivd, fiaXicTTa tcov irpo^e- 
/37)K0T0)v, dvafiefjujfjbevov koXukcov o^\(p koi tcov 
eir d^la<; iivd 8opv(j)opovvTa koi Toh eVt tu 
SeiTTva TrapayjeWovai KOivo\oyov/j,evov, eiri- 
crrj/xoTepov 8e ro)v ciWcov utto tov (T')(i][xaTO^ 
ovTa KoX (^avepciiTepov; koi o fiaXiaTa dyavaKTco, 
OTt fir) Koi T7]v aKevr/v fieToXa/ji^dvovcTC, to, dWa 
ye<; vTroKpivofievoc tov 8pdfiaT0<i. a /xev 25 
yap iv Tot<i avpuroaioL'^ epyd^ovTai, tivi t&v koKwv 
eiKdaofiev: ovk epcfiopovvTai pev direipoKaXcoTepov, 
pbeOvcTKovraL he ^avepd>Tepov, e^aviaTavTac he 
TrdvTcov vcTTaTOi, TrXeiay he dTrocpepecv tmv dXkwv 
d^iovcnv; ol he dcTTeiOTepoi 7roXXa/ci<? avTwv 
Kal dcrai TrpoiJx^^'^CLv. 

Kat TovTa jj-ev ovv yeXola yyelTO' pdXiaTa he 
e/xep,vr]T0 tcov tVt p.Ladu> (^lXocto^ovvtwv koX ti]v 
dpeTrjv lovLov locrirep e^ ayopd^ TrpoTidevTcov 
ipyacTTTjpia yovv eKdXei kul Kairrfkela Td<; toutcov 
hiUTpi^d'i- rj^iov yap tov ttXovtov KaTa(f)poveiv 
hihd^ovra TrpcoTov avTov 'irape')(eiv vy^rrfKoTepov 
X7]fj,/xdT(ov. dpeXet Kal irpdTTwv TavTu hieTeXei, ov 26 
povov TrpotKa xoi? d^iovat avvhtaTpi^tov, dXXd Kal 
rolf; heop,evoL<; eirapKwv Kal Trdarj<i Trepiovata^ KUTa- 
1 itoWovs Cobet : not iti MSS. 




breastwork of contempt. But as things are, thej 
turn tlieir heads with serviHty. 

" That common men who unreservedly admit 
their want of culture should do such things might 
fairly be thought reasonable ; but that many self- 
styled philosophers should act still more ridiculously 
than they — this is the surprising thing ! How do 
you suppose I feel in spirit when I see one of them, 
especially if he be well on in years, among a crowd 
of toadies, at the heels of some Jack-in-office, in con- 
ference with the dispensers of his dinner-invitations ? 
His dress onlj^ marks him out among the rest and 
makes him more conspicuous. What irritates me 
most is that they do not change their costume : 
certainly they are consistent play-actors in every- 
thing else. Take their conduct at dinners — to 
what ethical ideal are we to ascribe it? Do they 
not stuff themselves more vulgarly, get drunk more 
conspicuously, leave the table last of all, and expect 
to carry away more delicacies than anyone else.'' 
Some, more subtle than the rest, have often gone so 
far as to sing." 

All this, he thought, was ridiculous : and he made 
special mention of people w^ho cultivate philosophy 
for hire and put virtue on sale over a counter, as it 
were : indeed, he called the lecture-rooms of these 
men factories and bazaars. For he maintained that 
one who intends to teach contemj>t for wealth 
should first of all show that he is himself above 
gain. Certainly he used to put these ))rinciples into 
practice consistently, not only giving instruction 
without recompense to all who desired it, but 
helping the needy and holding all manner of super- 



(jipovcov, TocTovTov Sicov opejeaOui rwv ovSev Trpoa- 
rjKOVTwv, were fiTjSe tcov eavTou (pOeipoixevoiv 
TTOietadaL Trpovoiav, o<; ye koI dypov ov iroppw tt}? 
TToXeto? K€KT7]/jLevo<i ovSk i7nfi)]vai avrov iroWoiv 
eroiv rj^L(i)(T€i>, aXA,' ovSe ttjv ap')(r]v avrov eJvai 
Bico/xoXoyei, ravr olfiai v7r€i\'T](f)co^, on rovrcov 
(jivaei ftev ovBevo^; ia/xev Kvpiot, vofiw 8e koX Sia8o)(^f} 
Ttjv 'X^pfjaiv avTCJV ei? aopiarov 7rapaXafi^dv<)VT6<; 
oXiyo-^povioi SeaTTorat, vofxil^ofieOa, KcnreLhav rj 
TrpodeafjLia irapeXdr], TTjviKavra TvapaXa^oov a\Xo<i 
airoXavet rov ovo/j-aro^;. 

Ov fiiKpa Se ovSe cKeiva 7rape-)(^€i roL<; ^t]\ovv 
iOiXovcri TrapaSeiyfiara, t?;? Tpo(})i]<i ro airepLrrov 
Kol TCOV yviJLvaalwv to avixjieTpov kol tov irpoa- 
(OTTOV TO alSeaifiov koX rrj^ i<TdP]ro<i ro jxe- 
rpiov, e^' airaaL he rovroL<: ri]'i Biavola<i to 
rjpfioafxevov koI to rjpiepov rov rpoirov. rrap^- 27 
vet Se roc<i avvovcrt fxr^r dva^dWeaftai ro 
dyadov, oirep rov<; ttoWou? Troietv 7rpo9ecrpLia<i 
6pt^ofji€vov<; €opTa<; rj 7Tavr]yvpei<;, co? ttTr' ixelvcov 
dp^op.evov<; rov firj ^p-evaaadai Kal rov ra 
heovra iroLr^aai' rj^iov yap d/x6X\'t]rov eivai 
rrjv Trpo? to Ka\ov opfi)]v. SrjXo^; Se rjv Kal 
rmv roLOVTOiv KareyvaiK(i)<; (^tXocroc^wv, at rav- 
rrjv aaKrjCTiv dperrj<; vrreXajji^avov, rjv 7roWal<; 
dvdyKai<; kol 7r6voi<; T01/9 v€ov<; dvTe)(^eiv Kara- 
yvfxvdacoaiv, rovro fxev ■\}rv)(po\ovreiv ^ 01 ttoWoI 
Ke\evovre<i, aXkni he fiacrTiyoui're<;, 01 he 'xapie- 
arepot Kol cnh)]p(p rat eirKJ^avela^ avrwv Kara- 
^vovre<i. 7]yelTo yap ■)(^prjvaL ttoXv rrporepov ev 28 

' ^'UXpo^ouTejc E. Capps : oxihiiv (or oh Seiv) MSS. : Qupav\itv 
Schwartz : a.v\}-Kohy\Ti1v vulg. 



Huity in contempt. So far was lie from coveting the 
property of others that even when his own property 
was going to rack and ruin he did not concern 
himself about it. Although he had a farai not far 
from the city, he did not care to set foot on it for 
many years. More than this, he used to say that it 
was not his at all. His idea was, I take it, tliat we 
are not " owners " of any of these things by natural 
law, but that we take over the use of them for 
an indefinite period by custom and inheritance, and 
are considered their proprietors for a brief space ; 
and v/hen our allotted days of grace are past 
another takes them over and enjoys the title. 

He likewise sets no mean example for those who 
care to imitate him in his simple diet, his moderate 
physical exercises, his earnest face, his plain clothes 
and above all, his well-balanced understanding and 
his kindly ways. He always advised his disciples 
not to postpone being good, as most people do, by 
setting themselves a limit in the form of a holiday or 
a festival, with the intention of beginning from that 
date to shun lies and do as they should ; for he 
deemed that an inclination towards the higher life 
brooked no delay. He made no secret of his 
condemnation of the sort of philosophers who think it 
a course in virtue if they train the young to endure 
" full many pains and toils," ^ the majority 
recommending cold baths, though some whip them, 
and still others, the more refined of their sort, scrape 
the surface of their skin with a knife-blade. It was his 

' Evidently a quotation : the source is unknown. 



Tat? ■>\rv')^al<i to arippov tovto koI a'7raOe<i Kara- 
(T/cevdaai, Kai rov apiaTa iraiBeveiv avOpwirovi 
TrpoaLpovfievov tovto fxev -v^u^^ry?, tovto Se 
a(tifiaTo<i, TOVTO Se i]\t/cla<i re Kai tj}? irpoTepov 
dyco'yr]<; i(TTO)(^dcrOai, I'va fir] to, irapa 8vva/J,iv 
eTTtTaTTaiv €\ey')(o]Tai' ttoWoi)? yovv kul Tekev- 
Tciv e^aaKev ovT(o<i aXoyw? eirtT a9evTa<i' ei a Be 
Kol avTo^ elSov, 09 kuI yevcruij^evo'; tmv Trap 
€K€ivoL^ KUKCov, eTretS)] Td)(^L(TTa Xoywv d\rjOo}v 
eTTrjKouaev, afxeTaaTpeTnl (^evycov cd<; avTov 
dcpLKeTO Kai S/}Xo? r/v paov BiaKCifjievo'i. 

"HSt; Se TovTfov dTToaTci^ tmv dWcov av6i<i 29 
dv6pd)7rQ)v ifMe/u,v')]T0 Kai ra? ev Trj TroXei Tapa^d<i 
8t€^T]€i Kai Tov ooOt<T/jiov avTwv Kai Ta OeaTpa 
Kai TOV iTTTToSpo/jiov Kai Ta? T<bp rjvLO'^wv elKuva<i 
'cal TO, Tu>v iTTTTCOv oiw/xaTa Kai Toiji; ev Tot9 
jT€VC0TroL<; TTepl TovTwv SiaXoyovi' iroWrj yap 
ct)9 d\y]Oco<; 7) I'jrTro/u.avia Kai ttoWcov yti] gttov- 
Satcov elvai Sokovvtwv eTreiKriTTTat. 

Mera he TavTa eTepov 8pd/xaT0<i r/TrTeTO tcov 30 
d/jL(f)l Trjv veKvidv re Kai 8taO/]Ka^ KaXtvSov/xevcov, 
Trpo(TTi.6el<i oTi filav cf)0)v>]v 01 'Paypaicov TraiSa 
d\r]dP) Trap' oiXov tov ^lov TTpoievTac, ti]v ev 
Tal<i Siadi]Kai<; Xeywv, iva fii] uTToXavaaxn, tj}? 
(T(f>eTepa<i dXtjdeia'i. a 8e Kai /xeTa^v XeyovTo<; 
avTov yeXdv irpoi^xOyiv, OTi Kai crvyKaTopvTTeiv 
eauTOt? d^iovat Ta'i[a^ Kai t)]v dvaXyrjcnav 
eyypa(pov ofioXoyovaLV, ol fiev eVt'/^Ta? eavTOi<i 



opinion that this hardness and insensibility should 
be created rather in the souls of men^ and that 
he who elects to give the best possible education 
ought to have an eye to soul, to body, and to age 
and previous training, that he may not subject 
himself to criticism on the score of setting his pupils 
tasks beyond their strength. Indeed, he asserted 
that many die as a result of strains so unreasonable. 
I myself saw one student who, after a taste of the 
tribulations in that camp, had made off without a 
backward glance as soon as he heard true doctrine, 
and had come to Nigrinus : he was clearly the 
better for it. 

At length leaving the philosophers, he recurred to 
the rest of mankind, and told about the uproar of 
the city, the crowding, the theatres, the races, the 
statues of the drivers, the names of the horses, and 
the conversations in the streets about these matters. 
The craze for horses is really great, you know, and 
men with a name for earnestness have caught it in 
great numbers. 

Next he touched upon another human comedy, 
plaj^ed by the people who occupy themselves with 
life beyond the grave and with last wills, adding 
that sons of Rome speak the truth only once in their 
whole lives (meaning in their wills), in order that 
they may not reap the fruits of their truthfulness I ^ 
I could not help interrupting him with laughter 
when he said that they want to have their follies 
buried with them and to leave their stupidity on 
record, inasmuch as some of them leave instructions 

^ A famous instance is the case of Petronius, who expressed 
his opinion of Nero in his will and made the emperor his 



iceXevovre^ avyKaracfjXeyeadai tmv irapa top 
/3lov TifXioiv, oi Be Kal irapa/jLeveiv Tii'a<i oiKera^ 
T049 Td(f)Oi.<i, eviOL he Kal ai€(f>eiv rai^ cT^yXa? 
avOecTLv, €vijdei<i en Kal irapa ri]V reXevTiiv Bia- 
fi€vovT€<;. elKci^eiv ovv rj^iov, n ireTrpaKrai. rov- 31 
TOi'i irapa rov ^iov, el roiavra rrepl rcbv fiera 
rov /3lov e7ncrK)]7rrovcrL' rovrov<; yap elvai rov<i 
ro TToXureXe? o^jrov u>vov jxevovi Kal rov olvov ev 
Tot? avfX7roaiOi<; fiera KpoKwv re Kal dpojfidrojv 
eK^eovrai;, rov<; /xiaov ^et/xwi^o? ep,mTr\apLevov<i 
poScov Kal ro (nrdvLov avrcov Kal rrapd Katpov 
dyarr wvr as , raw 8' iv Kaipw Kal Kara cftvaiv eo? 
eureXojv h'nepri(f)avovvr a<i , rovrov^ eivat ^ rov<i 
Kal rd fivpa TTivovra^' o Kal p-dXiara Siecrupev 
avroiv, on firjSe yprjaOai, caaaiv ral^ eir tO v piai<; , 
dWd Kav ravraL<; irapaiofiovai Kal tou? opov^ 
avyykovcri rrdvroOev, rf] rpvcpf/ TTapaSovref au- 
rwv rd<i ■>^v)(^d<i rrarelv, Kal rovro Bt] ro ev rat<i 
rpay(pBlai<; re Kal KWjuwSiai^; Xeyofxevov, 7)87; Kal 
■napd Ovpav ela-^Lat^ojJLtvoL. aoXoLKicrfxov " ovv 
eKciXet, rovro rwv i)Bov(ov. 

'Atto Be t/}? avrrj<i yv(t)/j,r]<; KUKetva eXeyev, 32 
dre^VMi; rov ^^loo/xov rov Xoyov pi/xijadp.evo'i- co? 
yap eKCivo^ epe/x(f)ero rov ravpov rov BrjpiLOvpyov 
6eov ov TTpoOevra rcov 6(f)6aX/xo)v rd nepara, ourco 
Br) Kal avro<; rjridro rwv are(f)avovp,evo)v, on prj 
t'aacrc rov are(f>dvov rov rorrov el ydp roi, e(jirj, 

* TovTous thai MSS. ; bracketed by Schwartz. 

'^ Isidoriis defines a ' solecism ' as ' pliirimorum inter se 
verborum incoiiveniens conipositio, sicuc barbarisnius nnius 
verbi corniptio.' The point here is the incongruousneas of 
such pleasures. 



that clothing be burned with them which they prized 
in life, others that servants stay by their tombs, 
and here and there another that his gravestone be 
wreathed with flowers. They remain foolish even 
on their deathbeds. He thought he could guess 
what they had done in life when they issued such 
injunctions touching the hereafter : " It is they," 
said he, " who buy expensive dainties and let wine 
flow freely at dinners in an atmosphere of saffron 
and perfumes, who glut themselves with roses in 
midwinter, loving their rarity and unseasonableness 
and despising what is seasonable and natural because 
of its cheapness ; it is they who drink myrrh." And 
that was the point in which he criticised them 
especially, that they do not even know how to give 
play to their desires, but transgress in them and 
obliterate the boundary-lines, on all sides surrender- 
ing their souls to luxury to be trodden under foot, 
and as they say in tragedy and comedy, " forcing an 
entrance alongside the door." ^ These he called 
unidiomatic pleasures. 

From the same standpoint he made a comment 
exactly like that of Momus. Just as the latter found 
fault with the god - who made the bull for not 
putting the horns in front of the eyes, so he censured 
those who wear garlands for not knowing where 
they should go. " If it is the scent of their violets 

1 The phrase does not occur in any of the extant plays. 
As Greek houses were generally of sun-dried brick, it was 
not difficult to dig through the wall, but only an inveterate 
'wall-digger' (housebreaker) would choose that method of 
entry when the door was unlocked. 

•i Poseidon : see Hermotimus, 20. 



irj TTVOri TMV Imv re Kal pohatv -)(aipov(7iv, vtto rfj 
pivl fxdXiara e-)(^pT]V avTOv<i arecfyeaOai Trap' avTi]v 
a)<i olov re Ti]v avairvoi^v, "v co? irXelaTOP 

Kai firjv KCL/cdvovi SieyeXa tov^ 6av/j.datov 33 
TLva Ti]V aTTouSijV irepX ra hel-nva iroiov^evovi 
X^H-^^ Te iTOLKLkiaL<i Kal Tre/jLjudroov irepi.ep'yLaL'i' 
Kul yap av Kal tovtou^ e^aaKev oXtyoxpoviov 
T6 Kal ^paxeia^ rjSovi}^ epwTt iroWa'i irpay- 
fiar€La<i vTrofieveiV d7r€cf)aive <yovv reaadpcov 
SaKTvXcov auTOtf eveKa rrravra irovelcrOai rov 
TTovov, i(f)^ 6aov<; 6 fi^KiaTo^i dvdpooTrov \ai/-Lo<i 
eariV oure yap rrrplv e/j-^ayelv, dirdXaveiv ri 
roiv ewv^ipuevoiv, ovre /SptoOevrcov //Si'oj yeveaOai 
rrjv dirb twv iroXvreK.ecrrepwv 7rXr]a/uiov7]v' Xolttov 
ovv elvat rrjv iv T-rj irapohco yiyvo^evr]v i]Sovr]v 
ToaovTcov oDveiaOai ^^pT/yu-axtuv. elKora 8e irdcrx'^t'V 
eXeyev avTOv<; inr aTraihevaLa^ ra<i dXi]6eaTepa<i 
))8ova(; dyvoovvTa^, mv drraaMV (f>tXoao(pLa XopVJo<i 
eariv toU irovelv 7rpoatpou/j-tvoi<;. 34 

Uepl he Toov iv toi? l3aXaveioL<i SoMfxevcov 
TToXXa jxev hte^rjei, ro 7rXfjOo<i rcov eTro/xevcov, ra? 
v^pea, T0U9 e'7TtKei./uievov<i toU OLKeraifi Kal [MiKpov 
helv iK(f)€pofievou<:. ev 8e tl Kal p.dXiara jjnatlv 
icoKei, TToXv S' ev rfj iroXei rovro Kal roU /SaXa- 
veiOL<i eiTiX^pi'i^'^oV Trpolovra^ yap riva<; tmv 
oiKeTMV Set /3odv Kal -napayyeXXeiv irpoopdaOai 
rolv TToSotv, rjv v\p"r)X6v tl t) koTXov fieXXuxTiv 
vTrep^aiveiv, Kal vTropnixvi'ja-Keiv avTOV'i, to 
KaivoTarov, oti /3aBi^ovaiv. 8eivov ovv eTTOieiro, 



and roses that they like," he said, " they certainly 
ought to put their garlands under their noses, as 
close as may be to the intake of the breath, so as to 
inhale the greatest possible amount of pleasure." 

Another thing, he ridiculed the men who 
devote such a sui-prising degree of energy to dinners 
in the effort to secure vaiiety in flavours and new 
effects in pastry. He said that these underwent a 
great deal of inconvenience through their devotion 
to a brief and temporary pleasure. Indeed, he 
pointed out that all their trouble was taken for 
the sake of four finger-breadths, the extent of the 
longest human throat. " Before eating," said he, 
" they get no good out of what they have bought, 
and after eating, the sense of fulness is no more 
agreeable because it derives from expensive food ; it 
follows, then, that it is the pleasure of swallowing 
which has cost them so dear." And he said that it 
served them right for being uneducated and con- 
sequently unfamiliar with the truer pleasures, which 
are all dispensed by philosophy to those who elect 
a life of toil. 

He had much to say about their behavioui 
in the baths — the number of their attendants, their 
offensive actions, and the fact that some of them arc 
carried by servants almost as if tiiey were corpses on 
their way to the graveyard. There is one practice, 
however, which he appeared to detest above all 
others, a wide-spread custom in the city and in the 
baths. It is the dutv of certain servants, SToinff in 
advance of their masters, to cry out and warn them 
to mind their footing when they are about to pass 
something high or low, thus reminding them, oddly 
enough, that they are walking ! He was indignant, 



el aTO/Marot f^ev aXkorpLov 8eL7rvovvre<i fir] Seov- 
rat, fii]8e ^fipwi/, fiijSe tojv mtcov diC(ivovre<;, 
6(f)0a\fi'ov 8e vyiaivovr€<i aWorpieov heovrai 
7Tpou^ofiev(ov Kal dve)(^ovraL (^'ovh<; dfcovovre'i 
8v(TTV)(^ecnv dvdp(t}7rot<? Trpeirovaa^ koI TreTnrjpoi- 
fxevoL<;' ravra "yap avrd Trda'^ovcrLV ev raZ'^ dyopai<; 
I'lfiepa'^ fieaij^ Kal ol Ta<? TroXet? iTTLTerpafifievoi. 

Tavrd T€ Kal TroWa k'repa roiavra hieKdoov 35 
Kareiravae rov \6yoi\ iyco oe Te'o<i fiev ijKOVov 
aurov reOrjirdx;, jjli] ai'i<7r>'i(Tr) ire^o^rjuevo^' eiretht] 
he eTravaarOj tovto Btj to tcov (t>aidKcov 'irdOoq 
eTveTTovOeLv' iroXvv yap 8rj -^povov e? aiirov 
dire^Xeifrov KtKTjXrj/j^evo'i' elra nroWfj cvy^ycrei 
Kal IXiyyoj KaTeCS-Tq^nikvo^ tovto /xev IBpcoTL 
KaT€ppe6/jL7]r, TOVTO Be ^dey^acrdai ^ov\6/j.evo<; 
i^eTTLTTTOv Te Kal aveKOTTTOfirjv, Kal i] re (f)0)vrj 
i^eXeiTre Kal r) yXcoTTa SinfidpTave, Kal TeXof 
ihuKpvov dTTopovfievo';' ou yap e^ eV'TroA,/}? ouS* 
ft)? eTu-^ev r]iJ,oiv o \6yo^ KaOiKeTO, ^aOela Se Kol 
KaipLO<i 1] nrXriyrj iyeveTo, Kal fidXa €i(Tt6-^co<; 
eve^Oel<i o \0709 avTi]v, el olov re elirelv, SieKO-^e 
Tr]v -^vy^i^v' el ydp tl hel Kdfie 7]8t] (f)iXoa6(f)a)V 
7rpoad\lra(jdai Xoywv, c5Se irepl tovtwv vireiXiic^a' 
hoKel /xot drSpoii ev(bvov^ '^^XV /^dXa ctkottu) 36 
TLVL diraXS) TrpoaeoiKevai. TO^orai Se ttuXXoI fiev 
dvd TOP ISiov Kal fxeaTol ra? c})apeTpa<; voiKiXcov re 
Kal TravToSaTTCov Xoywv, ov /irjv TrdvTe<i evaToya 
To^evovcriv, dXX^ 01 fxev avToov a(f)6Spa to,^ veupa<; 
i7riTelvavT€<; evTovcoTepov tov SeovTO<; d^idaiv' Kal 
aiTTOVTat, /j.€v Kal ovToi^, TO, 8e /3e\'; avTcou ov 
fxivet ip TO) (TKoirm, dXX vtto Trj<; acpoSpoTrjTO'i 
* oZtoi, Soramerbrodt : ovroi rris 65ov MSS. 


you see, that although they do not need the mouths 
or the hands of others in eating or the ears of others 
in hearing, they need the eyes of otliers to see their 
way in spite of the soundness of their own, and 
suffer themselves to be given directions fit only for 
unfortunates and blind men. " Why," said he, 
''this is actually done in public squares at midday, 
even to governors of cities ! " 

When he had said this and much more of the 
same sort, he ended his talk. Until then I had 
listened to him in awe, fearing that he would cease. 
When he stopped, I felt like the Phaeacians of old,^ 
for I stared at him a long time spellbound. After- 
wards, in a great fit of confusion and giddiness, I 
dripped with sweat, I stumbled and stuck in the 
endeavour to speak, my voice failed, my tongue 
faltered, and finally I began to cry in embarrass- 
ment ; for the effect he produced in me was not 
superficial or casual. My wound was deep and vital, 
and his words, shot with great accuracy, clove, if I 
may say so, my very soul in twain. For if I too 
may now adopt the language of a philosopher, 
my conception of the matter is that the soul of a 
well-endowed man resembles a very tender target. 
Many bowmen, their quivers full of words of all 
sorts and kinds, shoot at it during life, but not with 
success in every case. Some draw to the head and 
let fly harder than they should : though they hit the 
target, their arrows do not stick in it, but owing to 
^Odyss. 11, 333. 


hiekdovra koI irapoSeuaavra k6XV^'^^(^^ ^lovov tw 
rpaufiarc rrjv "^vx^l^ aTreXtirev. aXXoi Se ttoXlv 
TOVTOL<; vTTevavTLWi- VTTO yap aa6ev€La<; re Kai 
arovia<i ovSe i(f)iKi'€lTat ra ^eXi] auTol<i cixpi' Trpo'i 
Tov (TKOTTov, a>OC eK\v6evT(i KaTaTTLineL ttoWuki^ 
6K /ieo-j;<? Tj}? 68ov- rjv Be irore xal i<pLKrjTai, uKpov 
pev eTnXij^Tjv ciiTTeTat, ^aOelav he ovk epjd^eTat 
7r\t]yr]V ov jap a7r' lax^pd'i ep^oXT]<i aireaTek- 
\€T0. oari<i 8e dyado^ to^ott;? koI toutw 37 
6poio<;, vpcoTov fiev uKpi/Bco'i o-yjrerat tov aKOirov, 
el fi)] a(})68pa paXaKO^;, el p,)] crTepporepo<; rov 
/3eA,of9- ylyvovrai yap 8)] Kal arproToi a/coTTOL. 
eTreiSav 8e ravra 'i8rj, TrjVLKavTa ')(,p'i(^a<i to /SeXo? 
ovTe l(p, KaOdirep to, %ku6o)V ■^P''^'^^''' ^^'^^ otto), 
KaOdirep tu Kovp/jTWP, d\X' '>}pep,a Biiktikco t€ 
Kul yXvKet (f)appdK(p, tovtco ;\;/9to-a? eL'Te;^ra)?^ 
eTu^euae- to Be eve^^^i' €v p,d\a ivTovco's koI 
SLaKoyjrav dxp^ toO 8ieXd€?v pbevei re Kal ttoXv tov 
(f)appdKou d(j)U]cnv, o 8)) aKiZvdpevov oXrjv ev 
kvkXu) Trjv -yjrvxhi' 'rrepiepx^Tai. tovto tol koI 
■tjBovTac Kal 8ai<pvov(n peTa^v dKovovT6<;, OTrep Kai 
auT09 liraaxov, ^)crvxri apa tov (pappaKov Tr)v 
•druyijv 7repi6eovTO^. eirijet S' ovv pot Trpo<i avTov 
TO eiTo'i eKelvo Xeyeiv, /5a\X' oi/t&)9, al Kev tl 
(f}6o)^ yev>]ai. wairep yap oi tov ^Ppvyiou avXov 
uKovovre^ ov 7rdvTe<; paivovTat, aA-V ottoctoi avT&v 
Trj 'Pea XapjSdvovTai, ovtoi 8e -rrpo^ to pueXo^ 
UTTopiLi.iv/iaKOVTai tov irdOov^, ovtco 8r] Kal 
(f}iXo(T6(f)(ov aKovovTe^ ov Travre? evdeoi Kal 
TpavpaTiat dirlacnv, aXV oh vTrrjv ti ev Ttj (})uaei 
(piXoao(pia<; crvyyevh. 

* ehrixvooi Sommerbrodt : or* x»''^> MSS. 



their momentum go through and continue their 
flight, leaving only a gaping wound in the soul. 
Others, again, do the opposite ; themselves too weak, 
their bows too slack, the arrows do not even carry 
to the target as a rule, but often fall spent at half 
the distance ; and if ever they do carry, they strike 
" with a mere fret o' the skin," ^ and do not make a 
deep wound, as they were not sped with a strong 
pull. But a good bowman like Nigrinus first of 
all scans the target closely for fear that it may be 
either very soft or too hard for his arrow — for of 
course there are impenetrable targets. When he is 
clear on this point, he dips his arrow, not in venom 
like those of the Scythians nor in vegetable poison 
like those of the Curetes, but in a sweet, gently- 
working drug, and then shoots with skill. The arrow, 
driven by just the right amount of force, penetrates 
to the point of passing through, and then sticks fast 
and gives off a quantity of the drug, which naturally 
spreads and completely pervades the soul. That is 
why people laugh and cry as they listen, as I did — 
of course the drug was quietly circulating in my soul. 
1 could not help quoting him the well-known line : 
"Shoot thus, and bring, mayhap, a ray of hope ! " ^ 
Not everyone Avho hears the Phrygian flute goes 
frantic, but only those who are possessed of Rhea 
and are put in mind of their condition by the music. 
In like manner, naturally, not all who listen to 
philosophers go away enraptured and wounded, but 
only those who previously had in their nature some 
secret bond of kinship with philosophy. 

1 Iliad 17, 599. =" Iliad 8, 282. 



'n? (TeiJLva Kal Oav/xdcria fcal dela ye, co 38 
kralpe, Si€\i]\vda<i, eXe\r;^ei9 Si fie ttoXXt}? w? 
aXr]da)<; t?}«? dfjt,/3poala<i koX tov Xcotou KCKopecr- 
p,evo^' ware Kal fxera^v aov \eyovro<i eiraax^ov ri 
ev rfj '^v)(^fi, KoX irava-ajxevov d)(6oiiaL koI I'va or; 
Kot Kara ere eliru), Terpw/xai' Kal /jltj Oav/xd(TT}<i' 
olada yap on Kal ol 7rpo<i rcov Kvvttiv rcov Xvcr- 
awvTWv h'>i')(divTe<i ovk avrol fjLovoi Xvaacocriv, 
dWa Kair Tiva<; erepov<;^ iv rfj fiavla to avTo 
lovTO hia6oi(Tiv, Kal avrol eK(f)pove^ •yiyvovrar 
avjjLfieTa^alvec ydp tl TovirdOovs dfj,a rw StjyfxaTt 
Kal TToXvynvelraL ?; vocra Kal ttoXXtj yiyvejai t?)? 
fxavia^ 8LaBo)(^7]. 

OvKovv Kal avro<; rjpAV fiaviav"^ o,uo\oyei'; ; 

Tldvv /j,€v GUI', Kal Trpuaeri heofial ye aov kolvt^v 
Ttva Tr/y d^paireiav eirivoelv. 

To TOV dpa Ti]\e<pov dvdyKrj iroielv. 

Woiov av \iyeL<s ; 

'Etti tov TpcocravTa ek6ovra<; IdaOai Trapa- 

* tTfpovs Schmieder: (Ttpovs koI avrol MSS. 
' uoviav A.M.H. : t'/jo;' MSS. 



A. What a noble, marvellous, — yes, divine tale 
you have told, my dear fellow ! I did not realise it, 
but you certainly were chock-full of your ambrosia 
and your lotus ! The consequence is that as you 
talked I felt something like a change of heart, and 
now that you have stopped 1 am put out : to speak 
in your own style, I am wounded. And no wonder ! 
for you know tliat peojile bitten by mad dogs not 
only go mad themselves, but if in their fury they 
treat others as the dogs treated them, the others 
take leave of their senses too. Something of the 
affection is transmitted with the bite ; the disease 
multiplies, and there is a great run of madness. 

B. Then you admit your madness? 

A. Why, certainly ; and more than that, I ask you 
to think out some course of treatment for us both. 

B. We must do as Telephus did, I sup/pose. 

A. What's your meaning n(jw } 

B. Go to the man who inflicted the wound and 
beg him to heal us ! ^ 

' Telephus had been grievously wounded by Achilles. 
Acting on the advice of tlie oracle at Delphi : " He who hurt 
will heal j'ou " {6 rpiaas Ka\ idaerai), he applied to Achilles 
for relief, and was at last cured with the rust of his spear. 



All that we know of Demonax derives from this essay, 
except for a few saj'ings elsewhere attributed to him. The 
authenticity of the essay has been repeatedly questioned, but 
should not be made to depend on the critic's opinion of 
Demonax's jokes, for - to paraphrase Lucian — we do not need 
a George Meredith to tell us tliat the flavour of a joke grows 
weak with age. 


^EfieWev dpa fxrjSe 6 kuO* rjfid^ ySt'o? to 1 
TTavTCLTraacv afioipo<; eaeadai uvBpcoi' \oyov Kal 
/j,vr]fir]<; d^iwv, dXXa Kal aco/xaro'i dperrjv VTrepcpvd 
Kal <yv(iilJ-r)v aKpco^ (ptXoaocpov eKcfyatvetv^ Xeyo) Se 
et'? T€ Tov HoicoTiov "Ecoarparov di>a(f)ep(ov, ov 
'HpaK\ia ol "EWr]ve<i eKoXovv /cat ojovto elvat, 
Kol [xdXiara el<i Ai]iii(t)vaf(Ta tov (f>L\6ao(f)or, ou<i 
Kal elSov avTO<; Kal ISciov iOaufiaaa, Oarepm Be rw 
Aij/jLCiivaKTL Kal €7rl pbrjKiaTov (Tui'eyei'O/jirjv. irepc 
fiev ovv Soiarpiirov iv aX\(p ^l^Klw fyey pavr a v 
fjLOt Kal 8e87]\a>Tai fieyt06<; re avT( Kal lij-)(yo^ 
v7Tep/3oXr} Kal rj v7Tai6po<; ev ru> Xiapvaacrcp 
Biatra Kal i) imTrovoq tvvrj Kal Tpo(f)al opeioi Kal 
epya ovk uTrwBd tov 6v6p.aTO<; oaa" r) /V??o-Ta<? 
aipoiv eirpa^ev rj oBottoicoi' to, d/3aTa rj yecfivpojv 
TO, BvcTTTopa. irepl Be AijfiuivaKTO^i i'jBi] BiKaiov "ke- 2 
yeiv dpcpOLV eveKa, &>? eKelvof re Bid fiv>']/j,T]<; eirj Tot? 
apL(TTOL<i TO ye KaT e/j.e Kal ol yevvaioTaTOt twv 
veoav Kal Trpo? <pt\oao(jilav 6pp,o)vie<; exoiev fii] 
7rp6<i Ta dp)(aia fiova twv TrapaBety/xuTcov a4id<i 
avTOUt pvOfii^eiv, dWd KdK tov i)pLiTepov jSiov 
Kavova TTpoTLdecrat Kal ^rjXovv eKelvov dpiaTov oiv 
olBa eycb (ptXacTocfxcv yevofieioi'. 

' tKcpalveiv MSS. : iKcpavtiv Cobet. 
3 S<ra K. Schwartz : Kal Haa MSS. 



It was on the cards, it seems, that our modern 
world should not be altogether destitute of note- 
worthy and memorable men, but should produce 
enormous physical prowess and a highly philosophic 
mind. I speak with reference to the Boeotian 
Sostratus, whom the Greeks called Heracles and 
believed to be that hero, and especially to Demonax, 
the philosopher. Both these men I saw myself, and 
saw with wonderment : and under one of them, 
Demonax, I was long a student. I have written 
about Sostratus elsewhere,' and have described his 
size and extraordinary strength, his open-air life on 
Parnassus, his bed that was no bed of ease, his 
mountain fare and his deeds (not inconsistent with 
his name ^) achieved in the way of slaying robbers, 
making roads in untravelled country and bridging 
places hard to pass. It is now fitting to tell of 
Demonax for two reasons — that he may be retained 
in memory by men of culture as far as I can bring it 
about, and that young men of good instincts who 
aspire to philosophy may not have to shape them- 
selves by ancient precedents alone, but may be able 
to set themselves a pattern from our modern world 
and to copy that man, the best of all the philosophers 
whom I know about. 

^ The treatise is lost. * The nickname Heracles. 


'Hv Be TO fMeu <yevo<; Kinrpio<;, ov twv a(^avSiv 3 
bcra et? a^Lco/xa ttoXltlkov Kal kti^ctlv. ov /J,i]v 
aWa Kai irdvTcov tovtwv virepuvoi yevofjievo^ Kal 
a^tcoawi eavTOv tmv KaWtaTCOv Trpo? (j)i\oao^i,av 
wpfxtiaev ovK ^KyadojduvXnv jxa Ai" ovhe A't]fir]- 
rpiov irpo avTov ovhe 'ETriKryrov iTreyeipavrcov, 
dWa Trdai fiev avveyevero tovtoi^ koI en Tifj,o- 
Kparet ru) 'HpaKXecorrj croc^fo dvhpl (f)(ovijv re Kal 
yvcofi'ijv fidXiara KeKocr/xi]/j.ep(p- aX)C 6 ye Ai]fi6i)va^ 
ovx ^"^o TOVTwi' rivo'i, 0)9 €(f)r]i>, TrapaKXTjOei'^, aXV 
UTT 0LKeLa<; 7rpo<i ra Ka\a op/j,)']<i Kal ifx^vTov 
irpo'^ (f)i\caocf)i'av epwro^ €k tralhcov ev0u<; KeKLvr]' 
/jL€VO<; virepelhev fiev rwy dvOpcoireicov dyaOwv 
diravTcov, oXov he TrapaSovf; eauTov i\ev9epla Kal 
irapprjcna hiereXeaev avr6<i re opOS Kal vyiel koX 
dveTTiXijirrfp /3i&) y^poipevo^; Kal rni<; opcoai Kal 
uKOVovai TrapdSeiypa rrape^^vv rrjv eavrov yfdypL^jv 
Kal rrjv iv rw (f)tXoao(f)eiv dXrjOeiav. ov /j.}]v 4 
dviTrroi^ ye Troaiv, ro rov Xoyov, tt/^o? ravra 
fj^ev, dXXa Kal 7ron]rat<i avvTpo'Po<i cyevero Kal 
rwv irXeLcrrcov ipet-ivrjro Kal Xeyeiv yrrKtjro Kal 
rd<; iv (j)iXocro(f)La TrpoaipicreL^ ovk eV oXiyov 
ovSe Kara t)]v Trapoip'tav aKpco rep SaKrvXo) 
dylrdpevo'i 'qTTiararo, Kal ro aoipa he iyeyvpvaaro 
Kal irpo'i Kapreptav hieTreirovrjro, Kal ro oXov 
epep.eXtJKei avrcp p')]hevo<; dXXov Trpoahed elvai' 
coare eVet Kal epaOev ovKert eavrw hiapKwv, eKoov 
dTTrjXOe rov ^lov rroXvv virep avrov Xoyov reZ? 
dpLcrroi^ raw 'KXX^vwv KaraXiTrcov. 

*i>i\ocTo(f)La^ he elho^ ovy ev aTrorep-opevo^, 5 
tlA-Xa iroXXd^ €<? ravro Karapi^a<i ov irdvv n 



He was a Cypriote by birth, and not of common 
stock as regards civic rank and property. Neverthe- 
less, rising above all this and tliinking that he 
deserved the best that life offers, he aspired to 
philosophy. It was not at the instigation of 
Agathobulus or his predecessor Demetrius or 
Epictetus, though he studied with all these men and 
with Timocrates of Heraclia besides, a wise man of 
great sublimity in thought as well as in language. 
As I was saying, however, Demonax was not 
enlisted in the cause by any of these men, but even 
from his boyhood felt the stirring of an individual 
impulse toward the higher life and an inborn love for 
philoso})hy, so that he despised all that men count 
good, and, committing himself unreservedly to 
liberty and free-speech, was steadfast in leading a 
straight, sane, irreproachable life and in setting an 
example to all who saw and heard him by his good 
judgment and the honesty of his philosophy. 
You must not conceive, however, that he rushed 
into these matters with unwashen feet, as the saying 
goes : he was brought up on tlie poets and knew 
most of them by heart, he was a practised speaker, 
his acquaintance with the schools of philosophy was 
not secured either in a short time or (to quote the 
proverb) "with the tip of his finger," he had trained 
his body and hardened it for endurance and in 
general he had made it his aim to require nothing 
from anyone else. Consequently, when he found out 
that he was no longer sufficient unto himself, he volun- 
tarily took his departure from life, leaving behind 
him a great reputation among Greeks of culture. 

He did not mark out for himself a single form 
of philosophy but combined many of them, and never 



e^e(f)aiv€ tlvl avrojv ex^ipev ewKet, he tw ^coKparei 
fidWov (pK€LO)aOai, el Kal tw o-;^/;/i,aTt Ka\ rr} rov 
/3lov paarcovrj rov ^ivwirea ^rjXovv eBo^ev, ov 
irapaxaparroiv ra el'i t)]V hiatrav, co? daufxd^ntro 
Kal ciTro/BXe'TrotTO vtto tmv evrvjx"'^'^^'^^^' "'^^ 
ouoSt'aiTO'? airacn koX 7reto<i o)v koI ovB ev o\l- 
701^ rvcpo) KUTOxo^ avv)]v kul avveiroKireveTO , Tr)v 
fxev Tov 1o)Kpdrov<i elpwvelav ou -Trpoaie/xevo';, 6 
■Xcipiro<i he 'ATTi/ci}? /zeaTa? cnrocpaivcov raq crvvov- 
(TLa<i, o)? TOi)? TTpo(TO/jii\.7]aavTa<i aiTievai firjre 
KUTacppoi'i'jaavTa^ co^ d'yevvov<i fxi'jre to aKvOpooTTov 
TOiv iiriTifJi'i^aediV dirocpeuyovTa^, 7ravT0L0v<; oe vir 
evc^poavv)]'^ jevofievovi koI KoapLiwTerovi irapa 
TToXv Kal (paihpoTepov<; Kal tt/so? to fieWov eveX- 
TT/Sa?. ovBeTTdoiroTe yovv M(fjOi] KeKpayco'i 7) virep- 7 
8iaTeiv6fjievo<; rj d'yavaKTMv, ovo ei, eiriTifxav to) 
hioi, dWa rwv /xev dp-apT^ip-djcov Kad/jirreTo, rot? 
he dfxapTdvov(7t ovveyivwaKev, Kal to Trapdheiyp-a 
irapd Tcoi' larpoiv ij^'lov Xa/x0dveiv ra /xev voajj- 
fiara Icofxevaw, opyf] he trpo'i tou? voaouvra<i ov 
Xp(i> P'^vwv j'jyetTO yap dvdpciiTTov fxev eivai ro 
djiapTdveiv, Oeov he rj dvhpb<i laodeov ra irTaia- 
devra eTravopBovv. 

ToiovTM hr] /3i(p %/9&)^ 61^09 €49 kavTov fJ.ev 8 
ovhevo<; ehecTO, (f)iXoi<i he avveirpaTTe rd cUora, 
Kal tou? fiev evrux^'i^v hoKovvraf; avrcov V7rep,i>jvr)- 
(7K€V o)? eV oXLyoxPOVioif; rot? hoKovcriv dyaOoU 
iiratpofievov?, toi)<? he r) ireviav ohvpcp.evov<i rj 
(f)vyT]V hvaxepalvovTa<; i) yrjpa<i i) voaov ahiw- 
fjbevov^ crvv yeXwTi TrapefivOetro, ovx opcovra^ on 
fMerd fjbiKpov avroU Travaerat fiev rd dviwvTa, 



would quite reveal which one he favoured. Probably 
he had most in common with Socrates, although he 
seemed to follow the man of Sinope^ in dress and in 
easy-going ways. He did not, however, alter the 
details of his life in order to excite the wonder 
and attract the gaze of men he met, but led the 
same life as everyone else, was simple and not in the 
least subject to pride, and played his part in society 
and politics. He did not cultivate the irony of 
Socrates : his conversations were full of Attic charm, 
so that his visitors, on going away, did not feel 
contempt for him because he was ill-bred or aversion 
to his criticisms because they were glooni}'^, but 
were beside themselves for joy and were far better, 
happier and more hopeful of the future than when 
they came. He never was known to make an 
uproar or excite himself or get angry, even if he had 
to rebuke someone ; though he assailed sins, he 
forgave sinners, thinking that one should pattern 
after doctors, who heal sicknesses but feel no ansrer 
at the sick. He considered that it is human to err, 
divine or all but divine to set right what has gone 

Leading such a life, he wanted nothing for 
himself, but heljied his friends in a reasonable way. 
Some of them, who were seemingly favoured by 
fortune, he reminded that they were elated over 
imaginary blessings of brief span. Others, who were 
bewailing poverty, fretting at exile or finding fault 
with old age or sickness, he laughingly consoled, 
saying that they failed to see that after a little they 
would have surcease of worries and would all soon find 

* Diogeffea. 


Xridrj Bi Tf? dyaOcbv Kal KaKwv koI iXevdepla 
fiuKpa TTcivTa^ iv oXlyco KaTakyj-yJreTai. efieXev Se 9 
avTW Kol aSe\(f)Ov^ araaLai^ovTa^ BiaWdrTeiv Kal 
yvvai^i Trpo? rot)? yeyaixr^Kora^ elprjvrjv irpvra- 
veveiv Kal irov Kal Br]fioi<; rapaTTO^evoL^ ifi/xeXo)^ 
8i€Xe)(^0Tj Kal rov<; irXeiaTov; avrwv eTreicrep 
uTTOvpyeiv rfj irarpiBb rd fierpia. 

Toto0ro9 Ti? y]v 6 Tpoiro^ tt}? <l)Ckoao(jiLa<; 
avTou, 7rpdo<; Kal rj/nepoi; Kal ({)aiSp6<;' fiovov 10 
avTov r]via (j)i\ou v6ao<i ?) 6dvaro<i, a)<i dv Kal to 
fieytcTTOv tS}V iv dvOpoorroc^ dyaOcov r>]V (piXuav 
i)yovfi€vov. Kal 8id tovto (})i,\o<i jxev rjv diracrL Kal 
ovK ecTTLV ovTiva ovK oiKelov ivofii^ev, dvOpwirov 
ye ovTa, irXeov Be rj eXarrov €)(^acpe crvvoov evLoi<; 
avTOiv, /u.6voL<i i^Lcrrdfievo^ oiroaot dv iSoKovv 
avrw vTvep ti]v t>}? Oepa7r€La<i iXTriBa Bia/iaprd- 
vetv. Kal Trdvra ravra /xerd Xa/otTfwi/ Kal ^Acfypo- 
BLTr]<i avTr)<i eTrparrev re Kal eXeyev, d><; del, ro 
Kco/xiKov eKeti'O, ti)v ireiOdi Tot<i ')(el,Xecnv avrov 

Toiyapouv Kal ^ A.6rjvalwv 6 re (TvpLrKa<i B^jfiof; 1 ] 
Kal 01 iv reXet virepcfivcb^; eOav/xa^ov aurov Kal 
BieTeXovv co? riva rcov Kpeirrovwv 7rpocr^Xe7rovTe<;. 
KauTOC iv dp-)(rj TrpoaeKpove T0i9 vroXXoi? avrwv 
Kal fitcTO'i ov fielov tov irpb aurov^ 7rapdroL<; irXri- 
deaiv iKTr]cjaTO iirl re rf] Trapprjcrla Kal iXev- 
depla, Kal Tive<; eV avrbv auvearrjcrav "Avvtoi 
Kai MeXrjTOi rd avrd Kar7jyopovvT€<; direp kcikcI- 
vov 01 Tore, ore ovre Ovcov m^Otj TrdiTTore ovre 
i[xvi]dr} ix6vo<i dirdvroiv ral^ ^EiXevaiviai^i' 7rpo<i 

• Trph avTod A.M.H.: not in MSS. 


oblivion of their fortunes, good and bad, and lasting 
liberty. He made it his business also to reconcile 
brothers at variance and to make terms of peace 
between wives and husbands. On occasion, he has 
talked reason to excited mobs, and has usually per- 
suaded them to serve their country in a temperate 

Such was the character of his philosophy— kind, 
gentle and cheerful. The only thing which dis- 
tressed him was the illness or death of a friend, 
for he considered friendship the greatest of human 
blessings. For this reason he was everyone's friend, 
and there was no human being whom he did not 
include in his affections, though he liked the society 
of some better than that of others. He held aloof 
only from those who seemed to him to be involved 
in sin beyond hope of cure. And in all this, his 
every word and deed was smiled on by the Graces 
and by Aphrodite, even ; so that, to quote the 
comedian, "persuasion perched upon his lips." ^ 

Hence all Athens, high and low, admired him 
enormously and always viewed him as a superior 
being. Yet in office he ran counter to public opinion 
and won from the masses quite as much hatred as 
his prototype ^ by his freedom of speech and action. 
He too had his Anytusand his Meletus who combined 
against him and brought the same charges that their 
predecessors brought against Socrates, asserting that 
he had never been known to sacrifice and was the 
only man in the community uninitiated in the Eleu- 
sinian mysteries. In reply to this, with right good 

^ Eupolis, quoted in the note on " Nigrinus" 7. 
2 Socrates. 



airep dvSpeico<; iidXa aTecfyavaxxd/xevo^ Koi KaOapov 
tfidriov dvaXa/3o)!' Koi irapekdoov ei<? T/)y ckkXt]- 
aiav TO, fxev eyu.yu.eXw9, ra Se koI Tpa^vrepov ?) Kara 
rr}v eavTOV irpoaipecnv dTrekoyrjaaro' 7rp6<; piev 
yap TO yur; reOvKevai ircoTTore rfj ^AOrjva, Mt; 
davp.d(7r]Te, €<pr], o) avBp€<; *A6t]vatoi, el pLt] 
Trporepov aurfj eOvaa, ouSev yap heladat avrijv 
T(bv Trap' ipbov dvaiwi' vTreXdfi^avov. TTyoo? Be 
ddrepov, TO tmv pbvcjTrjpiwv, ravTqv ec^rj ex^i^v 
alrlav rov pbv KOivcovrja-ai (T(f)iai rr}<; TeXeT/)*?, OTt, 
civ Te (f)avXa y ra /itu<TT)]pia, ov cncoirrjaeTai 7rpo9 
Toij^ pb'ijSeTTco p6fivr]p,evov(;, dXX diroTpeylret avTou^ 
roiv opylwv, av re KoXd, irdaiv avra e^ayopevcrei 
vTTQ (^iXavd poiTTLa<i' ware tou^ ^Adtjvaiov^ ijSrj 
Xidov<i iir' avTov ev ralv yepolv e^^ovra'i irpdov^ 
avTW KoX t\e&)? yeveaOai avTiKa koX to dir 
e/ceCvov ip^apevov<; rtp^dv koi alSetadai kuI ra 
reXeuraia Oavptdl^etv, Kairoi eudv^ ev dp)(f} rcbv 
77/909 avTOv<i Xoycov rpaynjrepcp e'y^pijaaTO tw 
irpooipiifp' ^ Avhpe<i yap ci^y-j ^Ad)]vatoi, ep,e pev 
opo)VTe<i ecTTe^avwpbevov vpel^i i'jSr) Kape Kara- 
Ovaare, to yap Trporepov ovk eKaXXiepi]aare. 

BouXoynai Se evia TrapaOecrOai rwv evar6')(w<i 12 
Te ayua koi dareiwi vtt' avrov XeXeypevcov 
dp^aaOat he diro ^PajSwpivov kuXov kuI oiv irpo^i 
eKelvov elirev. eirel yap ^afio)plvo<; dKovawi 
rivo<; ft)9 ev yeXcori irototro ra<; 0yu.tXta9 avrov Kai 
pdXiara rcov ev avrai<i p-eX(^)v to e^ir LtceicXaa puevov 
a(j)6Spn (y9 dy€vve<; Kal yvvaiKelov koI (jiiXocrocjiLa 
riKiara irperrov, irpoaeXOoov r] pear a rov /\}]p,(i)V- 
UKra, Tt'? a)v ')(Xevd^oi rd avruO' "AvOpcorra, 


-i^-' « DEMONAX 

courage he wreathed his head, put on a clean cloak, 
went to the assembly and made his defence, which 
was in part ^ood-tempered, in part more caustic than 
accorded with his scheme of life. Regarding his 
never having offered sacrifice to Athena, he said : 
" Do not be surprised, men of Athens, that I have not 
hitherto sacrificed to her : I did not suppose that she 
had any need of my offerings." Regarding the other 
charge, the matter of the mysteries, he said that he 
had never joined them in the rite because if the 
mysteries were bad, he would not hold his tongue 
before the uninitiate but would turn them away from 
the cult, while if they were good, he would reveal 
them to everybody out of his love for humanity. So 
the Athenians, who already had stones in both hands 
to throw at him, became good-natured and friendly 
toward him at once, and from that time on they 
honoured, respected and finally admired him. Yet 
in the very beginning of his speech he had used a 
pretty caustic introduction, " Men of Athens, you see 
me ready with my garland : come, sacrifice me like 
your former victim, for on that occasion your offering- 
found no favour with the gods ! " 

I should like to cite a few of his well-directed 
and witty remarks, and may as well begin with 
Favorinus^ and what he said to him. When 
Favorinus was told by someone that Demonax was 
making fun of his lectures and particularly of the 
laxity of their rhythm, saying that it was vulgar and 
effeminate and not by any means appropriate to 
{)hilosophy, he went to Demonax and asked him : 
' Who are you to scoff" at my compositions? " "A 

1 An eunuch from Aries, of considerable repute as a 


ecf)T], ovK evaTrdrrjra €)^o)v to, ayra. iyKei/xivov Be 
Tov (TO(f)i(rTov Kai ipwTcovrof;, rlva he koI e(f)68ia 
e')(U)v, c5 Arj/jiMva^, e/c TraiBeiai; et? (piXoaocpLav 
rjKei<i ; "Op;^ef 9, €<f>t-}. 

' AWoTe 8e TTore o avro^ irpoaeXOoiv rjpcoTa 
TOV Ai]/j,a)vaKra, riva aipeaiv aaira^cTai /iidXXov 
ev ^L\,0(TO(pLa' o Be, Tt? yap croc elirev otl 
(f)i\o(TO(f)(o ; Kai aTTicov ijBrj Trap avrov fiaXa rjBu 
iyeXacrev' tov Be epoiT^(TavTO<;, e0' 0T(p yeXd, 
eKelvo^ e<p7], FeXoiov jjlol elvat eBo^ev, el cru airo 
TOV ircoywvo^ a^(ol<i KpLvea6ai.T0u<; (piXoaocpovvTa^ 
auT09 TTcoycova ovk e-)((ov. 

Tov Be SiBcovLOV TTOTe (Toi^KjTov ^AOrjvrjaiv 14 
evBoKi/xovvTO<; hal \€yovTo<; virep avTOv eiraivov 
Tiva TOiovTov, oTi 7rdcrr]<; (f)t\oao(f)ia<i TreireipaTai 
— ov ')(elpov Be aVTo, elrrelv a eXeyev 'Ear ^ApicrTo- 
Te\'r]<i fjie KaXfj eVi to Avfceiov, e-yjro/jiaf av TLXutcov 
eirl Tr]v AKaBri/xiav, d(f)i,^o/ av Ztjvoov, ev ttj 
TioLKiXr] BiaTpixjro)' av Ylvdayopa^; KoXf], cnutTrrj- 
aofxai. avaara<i ovv eK jxeacov twi/ aKpocopercov, 
OuT09, ecpr] irpoaeiTTOiv to ovofta, KaXel ere 

Ilv9a)vo<i Be Tivo<; tmv ev Ma/ceSoj/a evirapv- 15 
^(liv veaviaKov Mpaiov epe(Tyn]\ovvTO<i avTov Kai 
TrpoTeLvovTO<; epooTrjfid tl (TocfiicrTiKov Kai /ce- 
\evovTO<; eiTretv tov avWoyicr/xov ti]v Xvcnv, "^v, 
e<j)r], olBa, TeKvov, oti Trepaivei. dyavaKTrjaai>To<i 
Be i/celvov eVt tm ryq d/j,(f)i/3o\ia<i aKd)jjifi(iTt Kai 
avvaireLkrjaavTO<i, Avtlku aoL fiaka tov uvBpa 



man with an ear that is not easy to cheat," said 
he. The sophist kept at him and asked : " What 
quahfications had you, Demonax, to leave school 
and commence philosophy ? " " Those you lack," he 

Another time the same man went to him and 
asked Vvhat philosophical school he favoured most. 
Demonax replied : " Why, who told you that I was 
a philosopher ? " As he left, he broke into a very 
hearty laugh ; and when Favorinus asked him what 
he was laughing at, he replied : " It seemed to me 
ridiculous that you should think a philosopher can 
be told by his beard when you yourself have none." 

When the Sidonian sophist ^ was once showing 
his powers at Athens, and was voicing his own 
praise to the effect that he was acquainted with all 
philosophv — but I may as well cite his very words : 
" If Aristotle calls me to the Lyceum^ I shall go 
with him ; if Plato calls me to the Academy, I shall 
come ; if Zeno calls, I shall spend my time in the 
Stoa ; if Pythagoras calls, I shall hold my tongue." ^ 
Well, Demonax arose in the midst of the audience 
and said : " Ho " (addressing him byname), "Pytha- 
goras is calling you ! " 

When a handsome young fellow named Pytho, 
who belonged to one of the aristocratic families 
in Macedonia, was quizzing him, putting a catch- 
question to him and asking him to tell the logical 
answer, he said : " I know thus much, my boy — 
it's a poser, and so are you ! " Enraged at the 
pun, the other said threateningly: "I'll show you 
in short order that vou've a man to deal with 1 " 

^ Otherwise unknown. 

* Alhiding to the Pythagorean vow of silence. 


hel^oi, Be avv jiXcoTi r]p(iiTr]aev, Kal tyap dvBpa 

'Evrel Be Tt9 a6\rjTri<; KarayeXacrdel^; vtt' 16 
avrou, on, eaOrjTa a)(f)0>] avdivjjv dfX7r€-)(^6fievo<; 
'OXvfM7noviKT]<; cov, irrrdTa^ev avrov et9 ttjv kc- 
<^a\r)v "kidM KOI alfxa ippvrj, ol fxev 7rap6vTe<; 
rjyai'aKTovv &)9 avTO<i eKaaro'i rervirrripLevo^ kcu 
ejBowv Trpo? ^ tov dvOvTrarov levai, o Be Ay]fjL(t)ua^, 

M.TjBapM's, €(pr], 0) dvBpe^, 77/30? TOV dvQvTzaTOv, 

aA-A, eiTi TOV taTpov. 

'ETrel Be TTOTe koX j^^pvaovv BaKTvXtov 6Bu> 17 
^aBi^cov evpev, ypa/xparelov iv dyapa 7rpo9el<i 
r)^LOu TOV d'iro\e(xavTa, oaTC^ e'lrj tov BaKTvXi'ov 
BecnroTrj^;, I'^Ketv koI elirovra oXktjv avTOV Kal 
\i6ov Kal TVTTOV d7ro\ajjbl3dveLV ■r]Kev ovv tcs 
fieipaKiCTKO'i copalo^ avTO'i diroXcoXeKevai X67&)i/. 
eiret oe ovoev vyie<i eXeyei', Attioi, etpr], o) iraL, Kat, 
TOV kavTOv BaKTvXiov (f)v\aTT€, TovTov yap ovk 

Tmv Be drro Tyj<i 'Vwfiatwv ^ov\rj<i ti<; ^KOrjvrjcrtv 18 
vlov avTM Bei^a^ irduv oopalov, driXvBpiav Be Ka\ 
BiaKeKXaafievoi', Tlpoaayopevei are, e(f)>], o e'/io? 
uto? oiiToai, Kal 6 Ar]p,o)va^, KaXo?, ecf))], Kal aov 
d^LO'i Kal TJi /xrjTpl 6poLO<;. 

Tw Be KvviKov Tov^ ev dpKTOu BepfiaTc (j^tXocro- 19 
(j)ovvTa ov)^ 'OvcopaTov, ojcnrep covojud^eTO, dX)C 
^ApvealXaov KaXeiv rj^iov. 

'KpcoTijaavTO^ Be tivo<;, rt? avTw opof euBai- 
jxovia^ elvai Boxet, /xovov euBaipova e(^i] tov 
iXevOepov eKeivou Be (p/jaavTO^ ttoWoik; eXevOe- 
pov^ elvat, 'AX,A,' eveivov vofii.^(o tov pn'jTe eXiri- 20 
^ trpls Cobet : tir\ MSS. * rhv Rothstein : not in MtiS. 


whereupon Demonax laughingly inquired : " Oh, 
you will send for your man, then ? " 

When an athlete, whom he had ridiculed for let- 
ting himself be seen in gay clothes although he was 
an Olympic champion, struck him on the head with 
a stone and drew blood, each of the bystanders was 
as angry as if he himself had been struck, and they 
shouted " Go to the proconsul ! " But Demonax 
said " No ! not to the proconsul — for the doctor ! " 

Finding a bit of jewelry one day while he was out 
walking, he posted a notice in the public square 
asking the one who owned it and had lost it to 
come and get it by describing the weight of the 
setting, the stone, and the engravings on it. Well, a 
pretty girl came to him saying that she had lost it ; 
but as there was nothing right in her description, 
Demonax said : " Be off, girl, and don't lose your 
own jewel : this is none of yours ! " 

A Roman senator in Athens introduced his son 
to him, a handsome boy, but girlish and neuras- 
thenic, saying : " My son here pays his respects to 
you." "A dear boy," said Demonax, "worthy of 
you and like his mother ! " 

The Cynic who pursued his philosophical studies 
clad in a bearskin he would not call Honoratus, 
which was his name, but Ursinus. 

When a man asked him what he thought was 
the definition of happiness, he replied that none but 
a free man is happy ; and when the other said that 
free men were numerous, he rejoined : " But I have 



^OVTO, ri firjTe ZeZiora- 6 Se, Kat ttco? av, e<f)r), 
TOVTO Ti9 SvvaiTO ; airavTe<i yap &)? to ttoXv 
TOVTOi<; BehovXcofieda. Kal firjv el KaTavor](TeL<i 
ra Twv avOpcoTTcov Trpajfiara, evpoL<} av avra 
ovre eXTTtSo? ovre (f)6^ov a^ia, iraucro/xivcov 
irdvrw; koI rwv aviapoyv Kal rcov rjBecov. 

UepeypLvov Be rod Upcoreco'? i7riTifi(0VT0<; avT<S, 21 
on ije\a to, ttoWo, Kal T0t9 av9pu)'not,<? nrpocre- 
nrai^e, Kal \eyovTO<i, Aij/xMva^, ov Kvva<i, aire- 
Kpivaro, Uepeypive, ovk av0pQ)7ri^ei<;. ixrjV Kal ^vaucov Tiva rrrepl Ttbv clvtittoScov 22 
SiaXeyo/xevov avacrrr]cra<; Kal eVl (ppeap ayayoiv 
Kal Set^a? avT(p t^]v iv ra> vBaTC cxKiav ijpeTO, 
ToiovTov; apa TOv<i avTiiroBa^ elvai \eyet<; ; 

'AWa Kal fidyov Tivo'i elvai Xeyovro<; Kal 23 
eVft)Sa9 ex,eiv lax^pd'i, ft)? vtt avrSiv airavra^ 
dvaTTeiadyjvai, ^ Tvapexeiv avrco oiroaa ^oiiKerai, 
M^ Oav/xa^e, e(f)r]' Kal yap avTo<i 6/x6rexvG<; el^l 
aoc, Kal el ^oiiXei, errrov Trpo? Tr]v dpT07r(t)\iv Kal 
o-y^ei [xe Sid fiid^; eVwSj;? Kal fiiKpov tov ^ (papfidKOv 
ireidovra avrrjv Sovvat fxot tmv dpTonv, atvir- 
TOfievo^ TO vojJLLcrixa ft)9 Ta taa rfj iircpof] 
Svvd fievov. 

'ETret Be 'H/3«S^9 o Trdvv eirevOei tov 24 
TioXvBevKr) irpo &pa<i diroPavovTa Kal rj^lov 
oyrjfia l^evyvvcrOai avTco Kal 'L7nrou<; Trapiaraadai 
ci)9 dva/3i](T0fiev(p Kal Belirvov TrapaaKevd^eadai, 
TrpoaeXOcov, Hapd UoXvBevKOv;, ecpt], KOfil^w <tol 

' ovoTTf iffOfjj'aj Schwartz : avairtldnv koI MSS. 
* TOV MSS. : TOV Fritzsche. 



in mind the man who neither hopes nor fears any- 
thing." "But how can one achieve this? For the 
most part we are all slaves of hope and fear." 
" Why, if you observe human affairs you will find that 
they do not afford justification eitlier for hope or for 
fear, since, whatever you may say, pains and pleasures 
are alike destined to end." 

When Peregrinus Proteus rebuked him for laugh- 
ing a great deal and making sport of mankind 
saying: " Demonax, you're not at all doggish!" he 
answered, " Peregrinus, you are not at all human ! " ^ 

When a scientist was talking of the Topsy-turvy 
people (x^ntipodes), he made him get up, took him 
to a well, sliowed him their own reflection in the 
water and asked : '• Is that the sort of topsy-turvy 
people you mean ? " 

When a fellow claimed to be a sorcerer and to 
have spells so potent that by their agency he could 
prevail on everybody to give him whatever he 
wanted, Demonax said : " Nothing strange in that ! 
I am in the same business : follow me to the bread- 
woman's, if you like, and you shall see me persuade 
her to give me bread with a single spell and a tiny 
charm" — implying that a coin is as good as a spell. 

When Herodes,2 the superlative, was mourning 
the premature death of Polydeuces and wanted a 
chariot regularly made ready and horses put to it 
just as if the boy were going for a drive, and dinner 
regularly served for him, Demonax went to him and 
said : " I am bringing you a message from Polydeuces." 

^ Peregrinus Proteus, of whose death and translation to a 
higher sphere Lucian has written in " The Passing of Pere- 
grinus," carried his ' doggishness ' (Cynicism) to extremes. 

* Herodes Atticus. Polydeuces was a favourite slave. 



riva eTTiaTokrjv. rj<T0evTO<i Se CKeivov koX olrjdiv- 
TO? OTi Kara ro kolvov koL avro^ roi? aWoi^ 
a-vvrpex^i ro) irdOet avrov, koX eiTrovTo^, Ti ovv, 
0) Ar}iJ.o)va^, Ilo\u8€UK7-j<; a^tot; AiTidrai ere, e^rj, 
on 1X1] 7]8r] 7rpb<; avTov airei. 

O o avro<; vlov irevdovvri kol iv (Jkotco 25 
eavrov Kadelp^avri irpoaeXOcov eXe'yev fidyo^ re 
eii^at /cat hvvaaOat, avrS) dva'ya'yelv rov TraiSb'i to 
etSfoXov, el fzovov avrch rpeLf Tiva<; dv0pco7rov<; 
oi'o/jidaeie fXT/Siva TrcoTroTe 7re7rev6r]K6ra<;' ctti 
TToXv oe eKBLVov ivSoidaavTa Kal diropovvra — ov 
yap elji^ev riva, oi/xai, elirelv toiovtov — Etr', €(f}i], 
o) yeXote, fiova u(f)6pijTa irdcr^eiv vo/j.i^€L<i fii^heva 
opoiv irevOov^ a/xocpov; 

Kal fxrjv KUKeLVcov Karayekdv ■t)^'LOV rcov iv 26 
Tai9 o/XL\iai<i irdvv dp')(^aiOLq Kal ^evot<i ovo/xaai 
Xpw/jbevcov evl yovv ipcojrjdevri utt' avrov \6yov 
Tiva Kal vTreparrcKux; aTroKpiOevTi, ^Ryco piv ere, 
€(f)r], Si eralpe, vvv ripcoTijaa, av 8i jjlol &)9 eV 
'Ayap.6fXV0V0<; diroKpivr]. 

^liTOVTof; Se TLvo<i Tbiv eraipoov, ^Krfriwp.ev, 27 
SrjpLMva^, et? to ^ AaKXr^irielov Kal nrpoaev^oip.eOa 
virep Tov viov, Tldw, €(j)y, KCixfibv ijyf/ rov 
AaKXrjTTiov, ec firj hvvarai KavrevOev ■))p,biv 
eu')(^opLevoiv uKoveiv. 

^Xhoiv Se TTore Svo riva<; (j)i\ocr6(f)Ov^ Kop^cSr} 28 
aTraiSeuTco^; iv ^rjrrjcreL ipitovra<i Kal rov fiev 
droira epcorwvra, rov he ovSev tt/jo? \6yov drro- 
Kpivo[xevov, Ov SoKet vpuv, e(f)7], w c^ikoi, 6 /xev 
erepa rourcov rpdyov dfiiXyetv, 6 8e aurco 
KoaKivov vTroridivai; 

Aya0OK\eov<; Be rov UepiTrarTjriKov fieya (f)po- 29 



Herodes was pleased and thouglit that Demonax, like 
everyone else, was foiling in with his humour ; so he 
said : Well, what does Polydeuces want, Demonax ? " 
" He finds fault with you," said he, " for not going 
to join him at once ! " 

He went to a man who was mourning the death 
of a son and had shut himself up in the dark, and 
told him that he was a sorcerer and could raise the 
boy's shade for him if only he would name three 
men who had never mourned for anyone. When the 
man hesitated long and was perplexed — I suppose he 
could not name a single one — Demonax said : " You 
ridiculous fellow, do you think, then, that you alone 
suffer beyond endurance, when you see that nobody 
is unacquainted with mourning ? " 

He also liked to poke fun at those who use 
obsolete and unusual words in conversation. For 
instance, to a man who had been asked a certain 
question by him and had answered in far-fetched 
book-language, he said : " I asked you now, but you 
answer me as if I had asked in Agamemnon's 

When one of his friends said : " Demonax, let's 
go to the Aesculapium and pray for my son," he 
replied: "You must think Aesculapius very deaf, 
that he can't hear our prayers from where we 

are ' ' 

On seeing two philosophers very ignorantly de- 
bating a given subject, one asking silly ipiestions and 
the other giving answers that were not at all to the 
point, he said : " Doesn't it seem to you, friends, 
that one of these fellows is milking a he-goat and 
the other is holding a sieve for him ! " 

When Agathocles the Peripatetic was boasting 




SiaXeKTiKwv, ecjiTj, Kal jiitjii, to ^ ArjadoKXei^, el /xev 
irpSiTO^, ov /jl6vo<;, el de /j.ovo<;, ov 7rp(OT0<i. 

Y^eOrj'^/ov he rov viraTiKov, oTTore Sta rrj-i 30 
'EWaSo? et? Tf]V 'Acrtay airrjei irpea^evawv T(p 
Trarpi, iroWa KarayeXaara koI Xeyoi^TO, Kal 
TTOiovvTo^, eireihl] tmv eralpwy ri? opoiv ravra 
eXejev avTOV [xeya Kd6ap/xa eivai, Ma tov At , 
€(j)rj 6 A7]fio)i'a^, ouSe /xeya. 

Kal 'AttoXXooviov Be rrore tov (f)iXoao(f)ov 31 
lBa>v fxera ttoXXmij tmv p,a6i]T0)v e^eXauvovra — 
t^St] Be LLTTrjei AteTaTre/iTTTO? co? eirl TratBeia rco 
^acnXel avveao/j-evot; — Upoa€p)(^eTai, €(f)r], 'AttoA.- 
Xcovio'i Kal 01 ^Apyovavrai avrov. 

"AXXou Be TTore ipofxevov el aOdvaTCi av7a> 32 
7] •^f%»/ BoKei elvat, ^AddvaT0<i, €(f>r], aXX co? 


Uepl fiivTOi 'HpcpBou eXeyev dXt]Oeveiv rov 33 
YlXdrcova cf)dp,evov, ov p-iav r]/j.d<i -^vxh^' e'xetj'* ou 
yap elvat rrj^ aurr]<i '^V')(fj^ PyyiXXav Kal IIoXu- 
BevKT] o)? ^oivra<i ecmdv Kal ra roiavra fieXerdv, 

^FiToX/jLtjae Be Trore Kal ^ AOi-jvalov^ epcorfjcrat, 34 
BrjfiocTLa T)]<i 7rpopp/jaea)<i d/coycra?, Bia nva acnav 
diTOKXtiovai rov<; /3ap/3dpou<i, Kal ravra rov rrjv 
reXerr]i' avrol<; Karacrrrjaa/xevov JLvfioXirov /3ap- 
^dpov Kal SpaKQii ovra. 

'Evrei Be rrore TrXelv fieXXovri avrw Bid 35 
X^ei/J.MVO'i e'(/)r; ra rcov (f^lXcov^ Ov SeSot/ca? /xt) 
dvarparrevro<i rov crKd^ovi vrro l^dvcov Kara- 



that he was first among the logicians — that there 
was no other, he said: "Come now, Agathocles; it 
there is no other, you are not first : if you are first, 
then there are others." 

Cethegus the ex-consul, going by way of Greece 
to Asia to be his lather's lieutenant, did and said 
many ridiculous things. One of tlie friends of 
Demonax, looking on, said that he was a great good- 
for-nothing. " No, he isn't, either," said he — '•' not a 
great one ! " 

When he saw Apollonius the philosopher leaving 
the city with a multitude of disciples (he was 
called away to be tutor to the emperor), Demo- 
nax remarked : " There goes Apollonius and his 
Argonauts ! " ^ 

When a man asked him if he thought that the 
soul was immortal, he said : " Yes, but no more so 
than everything else." 

Touching Herodes he remarked that Plato was 
right in saying that we have more than one soul, 
for a man with only one could not feast Regilla^ and 
Polydeuces as if they were still alive and say what 
he did in his lectures. 

Once, on hearing the proclamation which pre- 
cedes the mysteries, he made bold to ask the 
Athenians publicly why they exclude foreigners, 
particularly as the founder of the rite, Eumolpus, 
was a foreigner and a Thracian to boot ! 

Again, when he was intending to make a voyage 
in winter, one of his friends remarked : " Aren't 
you afraid the boat will capsize and the fishes will 

' Alluding to Apollonius of Rhodes and his poem on the 
Argonauts, and implying that this was another quest of the 
Golden Fleece. ^ Wife of Herodes. 



^pcodrji;; ^Ajvco/Jwv av ehjv, ecjir], ofvcov vtto 
l^dvwv KareSeadPjvat ToaovTOv<i avrb^ l')(dv<; 

'Fy'jTopi Si TLVi KuKicTTa /xeXeTijaai'TL avve^ov- 36 
\evev dcTKelv koI yvfivd^eadar rov Se etTroi^TOf, 
'Aet eV i/xavrov Xeyo), EtVoTw? roivvv, €(})7], 
Toiavra Xey€L<; fxwpM dfcpoarfj ■)^p(i}p.€vo<;. 

Kal fidvTiv 8e irore IScov Brjftoala eTrl fiiadw 37 
ixavrevofxevov, Oi);^ opoi, e(f)rj, icf)' orw rov fiKrOov 
d'Tranel<i' el jxev yap 609 dWd^at ti huvdjxevo^ 
Twv iiriKeKXcoafieioiv, oXijov aiTel'i ottoctov av 
atT^9, 6t 8e w? SeSoKTai tm dew irdvra ecnai, rt 
(Tov Bvvarac 1) jxavriKt']; 

Upecr^vrov Be tivo<; 'Vcojxaiov evacofiarovv- 38 
T0<> TTjV ivoirXiov avru) fxd)(7]v 7rp6<i Trdrra'kov 
eTTiBei^a/iievou Kal epo/xevov, Xlco? aoi, ArjfiMva^, 
/uLefj,a)(^rja6at eBo^a; KaXw9, e(f)7), av ^vXivov top 
dvraj(ovi(7Tr]v e;^???. 

Kat /jir]v Kal Trpo? rd<i uTropov^ rcov epaui]- 39 
aecov Trdvv evcrTO)(^co<i TrapeaKevaaro' ipofxevov ydp 
TLVo<i eirl ')(\evaafX(p, Et ')(^i\,ia<; p,vd^ ^v\cov 
Kavcraifii, w Ar]ixcova^, Troaac fival av Kairvov 
yevoivro; %Tr](Tov, e^^, rrjv (tttoBov, kuI to \017rov 
irdv KUTTVo^ ecTTai. 

HoXv/Siov Be rivo^, KO/jiiBrj diratBevTOV dvOpdy- 40 
TTOf Kal (ToXoLKov, eL7r6vTo<;, 'O ^acriXev'i fie 
rfi 'VwixaLwv iroXiTeta TeTL/irjKev Et^e ae, €(})r], 
' EAX?7j/a /iiaXXov i) Tco/xaioi' ireTrou^Kei} 

^IBoiv Be TLva TO)v ev7rapv(po)v iirl rco rrXdret 41 
T^9 7rop(f)vpa<; p,eya (ppovovvra, Kv\lra'j avrov 
TTpo<i TO 0^9 Kal T?}9 e(T6Pjro<; X(i/36fxevo<; Kal Bei^a<i, 

^ ireiToiiiKd Bekker : viiroii)Ktv MSS. 


eat you?" "I slionld be an inf^rate," said he, "if I 
made any bones about letting the fishes eat me, 
when I have eaten so many of them '" 

An orator whose delivery was wretched was 
advised by him to pi-actise and exercise ; on his 
replying : " I am always reciting to myself," 
Demonax answered: "Then no wonder you recite 
that way, with a fool for a hearer ! " 

Again, on seeing a soothsayer make public forecasts 
for money, he said: "1 don't see on what ground you 
claim the fee : if you think you can change destiny 
in any Avay, you ask too little, however much you 
ask ; but if everything is to turn out as Heaven has 
ordained, what good is your sootiisaying? " 

When a Roman officer, well-developed physic- 
ally, gave him an exhibition of sword-practice on a 
post, and asked : " What did you think of my 
swordsmanship, Demonax?" he said : " Fine, if you 
have a wooden adversary ! " 

Moreover, when questions Avere unanswerable he 
always had an apt retort ready. Wlien a man asked 
him banteringly : " If I should burn a thousand 
pounds of wood, Demonax, how many pounds of 
smoke would it make ? " he replied : " Weigh the 
ashes : all the rest will be smoke." 

A man named Polybius, quite uneducated and 
ungrammatical, said : " The emperor has honoured 
me with the Roman citizenship." " Oh, why 
didn't he make you a Greek inctead of a Roman ? " 
said he. 

On seeing an aristocrat who set great store on 
the breadth of his purple band, Demonax, taking 
hold of the ganiient and calling his attention to it. 



TovTO jxevTOi irpo aov Trpo^arov i(f)6p6i koX tjv 

'Eirel pevTOi \ov6pevo<; lOKV^crev €9 to vScop 42 
^iov ip^Pjvac, koI yrcdaaro Ti<? to? aTroheiXid- 
aavra, Eliri fioi, e<^7], virep TrarpiSo^ avTO irelcTe- 
adai ep^eXXov; 

'Epo/xevou Si rivo'i, Uola vofii^ea elvai ra iv 43 
"AiSov; Hepifieivov, e(^rj, KUKeWiv <tol emareXoi. 

'ABp,7]Tcp Be Ttvi TTOirjrf} cj^avXcp XeyovTC yeypa- 44 
(pevac povodTLXov eirlypappa, oirep iv rat? SiaOij- 
Kat<i /ceKeXeuKev iiri'ypa(^rjvav avTov tj; a-TifX.y — 
01) ')(elpov he KoX avrb elirelv, 

Taia Xa/3" A6/a?;tou eXvrpov, ^vj S' et? Oeov 
avT6<i — 

jeXda-a^ el-jrev, Oina koKov ea-nv, w "ASfirjre, 
TO €7riypajjip.a, coare ijSouXopirjv avTO 7/8/; eVi- 

'iScby Be Ti9 eVt rcop crKe\wv avrov ola roh 45 
yepovaiv iirieiKO)'; ytverai, rjpeTO, Tt toOto, co 
krjpLMva^; 6 8e /netSidaa'^, Xdpcov p-e eSuKev, €(f>7]. 

Kal pevroL koX AaKfSaip-oviov riva IBoov top 46 
avrov olKeT7]v paa-Tiyovvra, Uavcrai, e(j>y], op.o- 
Tip,ov craurov rov SovXov dirocfiinvwv. 

Aavdrj'i Se Tiz/o? 7rpo<; rov d8e\(j)OV 8tK7]v 47 
exovo-r]<;, Kpldrjri; ecfjrj, ov yap el Aavdrj rj 
AKpicrlov Ovydrrjp. 

MdXicTTa 8e eTTo\ roi? ou 7rpo<? d\i]9eiav 48 
dWd 7r/?09 iTTiSei^cv c^tXoaoc^ovcnv' eva yovv ISwv^ 
KvviKOV Tpu/Scova p-ev koI ir/jpap exovra, dvrl Be 



said in his ear : " A slieep wore this before you, and 
he was but a sheep for all that ! " 

When he was taking a bath and hesitated to 
enter the steaming water, a man reproached him 
with cowardice. " Tell me," said he, " was my 
country at stake in the matter ? " 

When someone asked him : " What do you 
think it is like in Hades?" he replied: "Wait a 
bit, and I'll send you word from there ! " 

A vile poet named Admetus told him that he 
had written an epitaph in a single line and had given 
instructions in his will to have it carved on his tomb- 
stone. I may as well quote it exactly : 

" Earth, in thy bosom receive Admetus's husk ; he's 
a god now ! " 

Demonax said with a laugh : " The epitaph is so fine 
that I wish it were already carved ! " 

A man saw on the legs of Demonax a 
discoloration of the sort that is natural to old 
people, and enquired : " What's tliat, Demonax ? " 
With a smile he said : " The ferryman's tooth- 
mark ! " 

He saw a Spartan beating a slave, and said : 
''Stop treating him as your equal ! " ^ 

When a v/oman named Danae had a dispute 
with her brother, he said : " Go to law I Thougli 
your name be Danae, you are not the daughter of 
Acrisius (Lawless)." 

Above all, he made war on tliose who cultivate 
philosophy in the spirit of vainglory and not in the 
spirit of truth. For example, on seeing a Cynic with 
cloak and wallet, but with a bar (hyperon) for a 

' Whipping was a feature of the Spartan training. 



TTy? lBaKrY}pia<i virepov, KaX KeKpa'yora ical Xiyovra 
on ^AvTia6evov<; koI KpdrrjToii koI Atoyevovi ecrrl 
^r]\Q)T7]<i, M?7 ylrevSou, ecfii], av yap 'TirepelSov 

'ETret fievToi 7ro\'X.ov<; twv adX^jTMV ecopa 49 
fcUKOfia^^ovpraf; koL irapa top vofxov tov evayctiVLOV 
uvtX tov irayKpaTid^eiv SaKvovra^, Ovk diret- 
k6tw<;, tcjiT), TOV<; vvv d6\r)Ta<i ol TrapofiaprovvTe^ 
\eovTa<; KaXovaiv. 

^AaTelov Se kukcivo ainov /cat Stjktikov apxi 50 
TO Trpo<i TOV dvOviraTov elprjfievoi'' i]v /Jiev yap 
TMV irLTTOvjievoiv Ta cTKeXr) Kat to awfia oXov 
KvviKov Si Tivo<; cttI \i9ov dvafiai'T0<i Kab auTO 
TOVTO KaTt'iyopnvvTO'; avTov Kal et? KivatSiav 
8ia^dWovTO<;, dyavaKTi^cra^ Kal KaTaa-7raadi)vai 
TOV KvviKov K€\eva-a<i e/xeWev rf ^uXoi<; ovvTpi- 
■\^eLV rj Kal ^vyfi ^rj pudia eiv dXX 6 ye Arjficova^ 
TrapaTvx^v Trapr^TeiTO avyy vdopbi^v ex.'^LV avTa> 
KaTa Tiva TrdTpiov rot? }s.vvLKol<i 7rappj]cnav 
Opacrvvopevcp. el7r6vTO<; he tov dvdvirdTov, NCv 
fiiv not d^irjpn, avTOV, av he vcrTepov tolovtov tc 
To\p.^<Trj, Tfc TraOelv d^i6<; ecTTiv ; Kal o ArjpMva^, 
ApwTraKiadfjvat totg avTov KeXevcrov. 

"AXX(p he TLVL aTpaTOirehcov dpa koI eOrovi 51 
tov fieyi<TTOv ttjv dpxv^ ifiincrTevdevTi e/c ^acrt- 
Xeo}<i ipop,ei'cp, ttw? dpicTTa dp^ei; 'Aop7?;T&)9, 
e(f>r], Kal oXtya p,ev XaXwv, rroXXa he aKovayv. 

^Epop,epa> he tlvc el Kal avTo<i TrXaKovvTa^ 52 
ecrOioL, Ot'et ovv, e^rj, Tol<i /x(opol<i Ta9 peXlaaas 
Tidevai ra Kijpia; 

1 66 


staff, who was making an uproar and saying that he 
was the follower of Antisthenes, Crates, and 
Diogenes, Demonax said : " Don't lie ! You are 
really a disciple of Barson (Hyperides ^) I " 

When he saw many of the athletes fighting 
foul and breaking the rules of the games by biting 
instead of boxing, he said : " No Avonder the athletes 
of the present day are called ' lions ' by their 
hangers-on ! " 

His remark to the proconsul was at once 
clever and cutting. This man was one of the sort 
that use pitch to remove hair from their legs and 
their whole bodies. When a Cynic mounted a stone 
and charged him with this, accusing him of 
effeminacy, he was angry, had the fellow hauled 
down and was on the point of confining him in the 
stocks or even sentencing him to exile. But Demonax, 
who was passing by, begged him to pardon the man 
for making bold to speak his mind in the traditional 
Cynic way. The proconsid said : " Well, I will let 
him off for you this time, but if he ever dares to do 
such a thing again, what shall be done to him ? " 
" Have him depil;ited ! " said Demonax. 

One to whom the emperor had entrusted the 
command of legions and of the most important 
province asked Demonax what was the best way to 
exercise authority. " Don't lose your temper ! " said 
he : " Do little talking and much listening ! " 

When someone asked him : " Do you cat honey- 
cakes ? " he replied : " What ! do you think tlie 
bees lay up their honey just for fools ? " 

^ Perhaps an unknown Cynic ; but the name may be used 
just for the sake of the pun, without reference to a definite 



IIpo9 Se rfi TLoiKiXj) avSpidvra IScov rrjv xelpa, 53 
aTTOKeKO/jb/xevov, o-ijre €(f)t] KOrjvaLov; eiKovi y^aXKJ] 
TeTifiijKei'ai tov K.vv€j€t-pov. 

Kal fii]V KoX Pov(j)Lrov tov K.V7rptov — Xeyo) 54 
8r] TOV ')((jd\ov TOV e/c tov TrepcirdTOV — ISoov ejrl 
TToXv Tol<i irepiTraTOL'^ ivSiaTpi^ovTa, OvBev ecTTiv, 
e(f)T], avaia'\^vvTOTepov ^(^coXov TIepLTraT'tjTtKov. 

EiTTei Se TTOTe o 'K7rLKTt]T0<; iTriTifiMV dp.a awe- 55 
^ovXevev avTw d'ya'^/eadai yuvauca /cal Traiho- 
TTOirjaaadac — TrpeTreiv yap Kal tovto (fiiXoaocfjo) 
dvSpl GTepov dvT avToD KaToXiTrelv ttj cf)va-ei — 
iXejKTiKdOTaTa rrpo^ aurov aTreKpLvuTo, Ovkovv, 
0) ETTt/CTJ^re, ho<i p.oc jxiav tcov cravTov Ouyarepoov. 

Kai p.r]v TO TT/JO? 'Epfilvov tov ^ XpiaTOTeXiKov 56 
ci^LOv u7rop.vy]fiovevaar elSax; yap aurov iray- 
KOLKLCTTOv pev ovTa Kal pivpta KaKa epya^opevov, 
TOV ApiaTOTeXi] S' eTraivovvTa^ Kal Sid aT6p,aT0<i 
avTOv xa? hexa KaTr]yopLa<i e^ovTa, 'Kpplre, 
ecprj, aXr]6(b'i d^LC^ el St'Ka KaTTjyopicov. 

AOnvaiwv he aKeTTTop^evrov KaTa ^rjXov tov irpo^ 57 
Kopivdlov^i Ka.TaaTi'/craaOat Oeav piovop.d')(^cov, 
TrpoeXOoov et? avTov'i, M^ irpoTepov TavTa, & 
'AOrjvaloi, ^ln](f)Lar](jO€, dv p,r] tou 'EX-eof tov 
jBwpLov KaOeXrjTe. 

EttsI he el'i OXupb-niav Trore eXOovTL avTw 58 
HXeiOi eiKova ^dXKi]v iy^i)<^iaavT0, ^li^hapoi^ 
TOVTO, ecfiTj, CO dvhpet ^HXeloi, fxrj h6^i]Te oveihi^eiv 
TOL'i Trpoy6voL<i vpwv, oti p,7jTe XcoKpdTou^ A'-'yTe 
\ioyevou<i etKova dvaTedeiKacnp. 

^ 5' (iraivovi-Ta A.M.H. : 5f 6aLi,ua^jcTa Fritzsclie : 'ApiffTo- 
TfArj Ka\ MSS., Nil6n, wlio sets the comma after 'hpiaroriKv 

1 68 


On seeing near the Painted Porch a statue \vith 
its hand cut off, he remarked that it was pretty 
late in the day for the Athenians to be honouring 
Cynegirus ^ with a bronze statue. 

Noting that Rufinus the Cypriote (I mean the 
lame man of the school of Aristotle) was spending 
much time in the walks of the Lyceum, he 
remarked : " Pretty cheeky, I call it — a lame 
Peripatetic (Sti-oller) ! " 

When Epictetus rebuked him and advised him to 
get married and have children, saying that a philoso- 
pher ought to leave nature a substitute when he 
is gone, his answer was very much to the point : 
" Then give me one of your daughters, Epictetus ! " - 

His reply to Herminus the Aristotelian deserves men- 
tion. Aware that, although he was an out-and-out 
scoundrel and had done a thousand misdeeds, he sang 
the praises of Aristotle and had his Ten Sentences 
(the Categories) on his tongue's end, Demonax 
said : " Herminus, you really need ten sentences ! 

When the Athenians, out of rivalry with the 
Corinthians, were thinking of holding a gladiatorial 
show, he came before them and said : " Don't pass 
this resolution, men of Athens, without first pulling 
down the altar of Mercy." 

When he went to Olympia and the Eleans voted 
him a bronze statue, he said : " Don't do this, men 
of Elis, for fear you may appear to reflect on your 
ancestors because they did not set up statues either 
to Socrates or to Diogenes." 

^ Brother of Aeschylus, who lost his hand at Marathon, 
and the Painted Porch was so called from a fresco by Poly- 
gnotus representing the battle. 

* Epictetus was not married. 



"H/coucra Be avrov nrore kuI 7rpo<; tov ... 59 
Tov^ Twv voficov efMTretpov ravra Xeyovro^, otl 
KivBvvevovaLV d'^^pTjcrrot elvat ol i'6/j.oi, civ re 
7rovT]pot<; av re uya9oL<; ypc'Kpcovraf ol /.lev yap 
ov heovTUL voficov, ol Be vtto vofjbcov ovBev /SeXrlov^ 

T6i)v Be 'Ofiijpov arlypv eua jJSey fidXicna — 60 

Kardav ofxco^ 6 t aepyo<; dvrjp o re TroWa iopyco^;. 

'ETTjy'i/et Be koI rov Sepalryjv ct)9 K^vvt/coi' rwa 61 

^Ep(i)T7]6el<; Be Trore, t/? avrw apecrKOi rcov 62 
(f)L\oa6(f)(t)v, €(f)i], IldvTe<i p-ev dav/naaroi' iyoi Be 
XoyKpdrr) fiev ae^w, Oavp,d<^o) Be Aioyeryj koI ^Ckw 


^E/3lov Be err) oXiyou Beovra rcov efcarov livo- 63 
cro9, a\vno<;, ovBeva evo-^rjcra'i tl ?) alri'jaa<;, 
c^tXoi? ')^pr'](Tt/j,o<i, e)(9pov ovSeva ovBeTrcoTrore 
ecr'^rjKOi^' Ka\ Toaovrov epatra ea^ov irpo^ avrov 
W6i]va2oi, re avrol kuI diraaa t) 'EXXa?, cocrre 
rrapiovrc vTre^avlarraaOat, puev rov<i dp-)(^ovra<i, 
(TLcorrrjv Be yiveaOai irapa irdvrcov. to reXevralov 
he yBrj v7repyr]p(o<; mv aKKrjros Ci? rjv rv)(0L Trapitov 
OLKLav eBeliri'ei, koI cKdOevBe, ro)v evoiKovvrccv 
6eov Tiva €7ri(f)dveiai> i)yQVf.Lev(ov ro rrpayp.a Kai 
riva dyaOov Bal/xova elaeXrjXvOevai avroL<i ei? 
rrjv olKiav. irapiovra Be al dproirdiKiBe'i dvdtlX- 
Kov irpb'i avrd^ eKaarrj d^iovaa irap' avrrj<i \au,- 
jBdveiv rcjv dprcov, koX rovro evrvx^iav kavrrj^i 17 
BeBwKvla (pero. koI firjv /cal ol ■rralBe'i oTrdtpa^ 
TTpocrecjiepov avra> irarepa ovopLa^ovre^;. ardae(o<; 6-1 

^ irphs rhv . . . Tt>»' A.M.H.: nphs rhv MSS. 



I once heard him say to . , ., the lawyer, that 
in all likelihood the laws were of no use, whether 
framed for the bad or the good ; for the latter had no 
need of laws, and the former were not improved by 

From Homer the one line he most frequently 
quoted was : 

" Idler or toiler, 'tis all one to Death." ^ 

He had a good word even for Thersites, calling 
him a mob-orator of the Cjniic type. 

When he was once asked which of the philoso- 
phers he liked, he said: "They are all admirable, 
but for my part I revere Socrates, I wonder at 
Diogenes, and I love Aristippus." 

He lived almost a hundred years, Avithout illness 
or pain, bothering nobody and asking nothing of 
anyone, helping his friends and never making an 
enemy. Not only the Athenians but all Greece 
conceived such affection for him that when he passed 
by the magistrates rose up in his honour and there 
was silence everywhere. Toward the end, when he 
was very old, he used to eat and sleep uninvited in 
any house which he chanced to be passing, and 
the inmates thouglit that it was almost a divine visi- 
tation, and that good fortune had entered their 
doors. As he went by, the bread-women would pull 
him toward them, each wanting him to take some 
bread from her, and she who succeeded in giving it 
thought that she was in luck. The children, too, 
brought him fruit and called him father. Once when 

» Iliad 9, 320. 



Se TTOre *A6/]Pi]cn jevofievrj^; elarfkOev et? r7]v 
€KK\r]criav KoX (pavel^; /jlovov aicoTrav eTTOiTjaev 
avTov<;' 6 Be ISwv yBrj /xeTeyvcoKOTa^ ovBev elircov 
Kol avTO<; aTTTjWayr]. 

"Ore Be avprJKev ovKed^ ol6<; re wv avrw iiriKOV- 65 
pelv, elirayv Trpo? rou? 7rap6vTa<i rov ivajcvviov 
rcbv KrjpvKwv iroBa 

A.rjyeL fiev aycov tmv KaWicnwv 
aOXoov rafXLa<;, Kaipo<; Be KuXel 
pLTjKeTi fxeWeiv, 

Koi iTcivTcov aTro<T')(piJLevo'^ airrfkOev rov 0lou 
(jiaiBpo<; Kol 6lo<i ae\ tol<; ivrvy^^^dvovcnv e(j)aLveTO. 
oXiyov Be irpo Tr)<^ Te\evrrj<; epn/j,evou rivo^, 66 
JJepl Ta(i>/9 Tt AreXeuei?; M^ TroXvTrpayfiovelre, 
€(j)7}' 7] yap oB^rj fie ddypei. (^ajievov Be eKeivov, 
Tt ovv; ovK al(T')(^pov 6pveot<; koI Kval /3opav 
TTpOTeOr^vaL TrfkiKovrov dvBpo<; (TOifJua; Kal firjv 
ovhev droTTOv, e(j)r], rovro, el /neXXo) kol cltto- 
OavoiV ^cpot<; tktI ')(^pi]aiixo<i eaeaOat. ol /xevroi 67 
^AOTjvaiot KoX edayjrav avrov Brj/jioaia fieyaXo- 
TrpeTTco? Kal eirl ttoXv eirevOrjcrav, koi top Oclkov 
rov \Wlvov, iff)' ov elcodet orroTe KUfivot, dvairave- 
crdai, irpoaeKTuvouv koI iarecfydvovv e<? Ti/xrjv rov 
dvBp6<;, rjyovfievoi lepbv elvai koI rov \i9ov, ecf) ov 
eKaOe^ero, eirl fxev yap rrjv eK^opdv ovk eariv 
6ari<; ovk aTn'jvrrjcrev, Kal fidXiara roiv (fyiXoao- 
cficov ovroi /xevroi vTroBvvre^ i/cofit^ov avrov d')(pL 
7r/309 rov rd(j)Ov. 

Tavra okiya rrdvv e'/c ttoWwv dTrefivrjfjiovevaa, 
Kol ecrriv diro rovrwv rot? dvayivd)crK0V(7i. Xoyt- 
i^eaOai ottoIo^ eK€ivo<i dvr)p eyevero. 



there was a party quarrel in Athens, he went into 
the assembly and just by showing himself reduced 
them to silence : then, seeing that they had already 
repented, he went away without a word. 

When he realised that he was no longer able 
to Avait upon himself, he quoted to those who 
were with him the verses of the heralds at the 
games : 

Here endeth a contest awarding the fairest 
Of prizes : time calls, and forbids us delay. 

Then, refraining from all food, he took leave of life 
in the same cheerful humour that people he met 
always saw him in. A short time before the end 
he was asked : " Wliat orders have you to give 
about your burial?" and replied: "Don't borrow 
trouble ! The stench will get me buried ! " The 
man said : " Why, isn't it disgraceful that the body 
of such a man should be exposed for birds and 
dogs to devour .'' " "I see nothing out of the way 
in it," said he, " if even in death 1 am going to be 
of service to living things." But the Athenians 
gave him a magnificent ])ublic funeral and mourned 
him long. To honour him, they did obeisance to 
the stone bencli on which he used to rest when he 
was tired, and they put garlands on it ; for they felt 
that even the stone on which he had been wont to 
sit was sacred. Everybody attended his burial, 
especially the philosophers ; indeed, it was they who 
took him on their shoulders and carried him to the 

These are a very few things out of many which I 
might have mentioned, but they will suffice to give 
my readers a notion of the sort of man he was. 



The concluding words of this piece show that, like 
DionynuH, Heracles, and Amber, it was the introduction to a 
lecture or a course of lectures. 


Etra AXe^avBpo'i fiev eTreOv/XTjaev iv tw \ 
¥ivov(p \ovaaa6at koKov t€ koi Biavyi} rov irora- 
fxov ISoDV Kol a(T(^a\oi<i /3a6uv koI 7rpoar]vco<; o^vv 
Kal V7]^aa0ai I'jSvv kuI depovq Spa ^Irv^pov, ware 
Kat iirl TrpoSi'jXcp rfj vocrw r)v ivoarjcrev air avrov, 
SoKei fioL ovK av rov \ovrpov arrocrykcjdai' oIkov 
he Tf9 ISwv fxeyiOet ixeyiarov kol KciWei KciXkiorov 
Kat (peon (paiSporarov Kal ')^pva(p crrtXirvorarov 
Kal <ypa^ah avdrjporarov ovk av eTn6u[Jii]aeLe 
Xoyovi; iv avrw diadeadai, el rvxoi rrepl rovrov<; 
hLarpi^wv, Kal ii evhoKLp^rjcrai Kal iWapTrpvvacrdai 
Kal ^07]^ ip,'7rXi'](Tac Kal ox; evi paKiara Kal avrbf; 
p,epo<i rov KciXXovi avrov yeveadai, aXXa irepi- 
crK07rrja-a<; aKpc/3co<; kuI 6avp,daa<i piovov aireLcri, 
K(o(f)ov avrov Kal ciXoyov KaraXiTTcov, p,7}re 
7rpo(T€i7rcou p.7]r€ Trpo(TopbiX/]cra<;, coairep ri^ dvavSo<; 
)) ^Oovcp aiWTrdv €yvwKco<i; 'H/oa/cXet?, ov 0tXo- 2 
Kokov rivo<i ovhe irepl rd ev/j-opcpurara ipcoriKov 
z6 epyov, dypoLKia Be 7ro\Xr] Kal d-TreLpoKaXla Kal 
TTpoaert ye dpbovaia, rd)v {jhiarcov avrov dua^LOvv 
Kat, row KaXXicrrcov drro^tvovv Kal pLij avvievai 
ft)9 ovx 6 avr6<i irepl rd Oedp,ara vopuo'^ IStcorait 
re Kal 7re7raiS€vp.evoc<; avSpdaiv, dXXd tow p^ev 
dTToxpv TO Koii'ov rovro, ISeiv povov koi irepi- 
/SXeyjrat Kal ru) 6(p9aXpbd> irepieveyKelv Kal tt/jo? 


Alexander longed to bathe in the Cydnus on 
seeing that the stream was fair and clear, safely 
deep, agreeably swift, delightful to swim in and cool 
in the height of summer; even with foreknowledge 
of the fever which he contracted from it, I do not 
think he would have abstained from his plunge. 
Then can it be that on seeing a hall beyond compare 
in the greatness of its size, the splendour of its 
beauty, the brilliance of its illumination, the lustre 
of its gilding and the gaiety of its pictures, a man 
would not long to deliver speeches in it, if this 
were nis business, to seek repute and win glory in 
it, to fill it with his voice and, as far as lay in him, 
to become part and parcel of its beauty ? Or after 
looking it over carefully and admiring it, would he 
rather go away and leave it mute and voiceless, 
without according it a word of greeting or a particle 
of intercourse, as if he were dumb or else out of ill- 
will had resolved to hold his tongue ? Heracles ! such 
conduct would not be that of a connoisseur or a 
lover of beauty ; it would be very vulgar, tasteless, 
even Philistine to despise what is sweetest, to reject 
Avhat is fairest, and not to comprehend that in all 
that appeals to the eye, the same law does not hold 
for ordinary and for educated men. No, for the former 
it is enough to do the usual thing — ^just to see, to 
look about, to cast their eyes everywhere, to crane 



Trjv 6pa(f)7]V uvaKv^ai kuX ri^v xelpa iTriaeiaai 
Kol KaB^ r](TV)^Lav i)aOf]vai Seet, rod firj av Svvrj- 
Oijvai a^cov Ti rcov (SXe-noixevcov elirelv, oari'i Be 
fiera TraiSe a? opa to, icakd, ov/c civ, olfxat, dyaTri]- 
aeiev o-^et. p-ovij Kapircoadfievo^ to Tepirvov ovK 
dv uTTO/xeivat d(^avo<i deuTi]'; tov kuWov; jeiiaOai, 
Treipdcrerai Se to? olov re Koi ivSiarpiyfrai Kal 
Xoyoi dfMei-yJraadat rrjV Oeav. r] he dfioi^r] ovk 3 
e7raLvo<; tov olkov fxovov — touto [xev yap I'cr&j? 
i/cecvM Tc3 vi](TccoTr) /leipaKbfp errpeTre, ttjv Mei'eXdov 
otKcav v'7TepeKTTe7T\rj-)(dai koi irpo<i rd ev ovparw 
Ka\d TOV iXe(pavTa Kal tov -^pvaov avTrj<i direi,- 
/cd^eiv, are /JLrjSev ev jfj koKov ti dWo ecopaKOTi — 
dWd Kal TO euTre^v ev avTw Kal TOu<i ^eXTLCTTovi 
avyKaXeaavTa \6y(ov eTrtSei^iv iToi/jaacrdat fiepo<i 
TOV eTTaivov Kal tovto ykvoiTo dv. 

Kal TO Trpdyfjua inreprjh'crTov, ol/nai., ockcov 6 
KdWicTTO^; e? inrohoy^rjv \6y(ov dvaireTTTn fxevo^; 
Kal eTTaivov Kal ev(f)T]pia<; /j,eaTo<i cov, rjpe/ja Kal 
avTO<; coaTtep Ta dvTpa avve7rr]')(^a)V Kal Tol<i Xeyo- 
/xevoi'i 7TapaKo\ov6(ov Kai irapaTeivayv Ta Te\evTata 
T^9 (f)a)vi]<i Kal Toi<i vcrTdToi.<i twv \oyo3V ep/3pa- 
Svi'cov, fidWov Be &)? dv Ti? evfj,adi]<; dKpoarrj'; 
BLaixvt'ip.ovevwv Ta elprj/xeva Kal tov \eyovTa 
eTracvcov Kal dvTiBoaiv ovk dfiovaov iroiovjjievo'i 
7rpo<i avTa- olov ti Trdaxovai 7rpo<r Ta avXi^jxaTa 
TMV TToijxevwv al aKoirial CTravXovaai, tP]^ ^coz'j}? 
i7raviova7]<; KaTa to dvTLTVirov Kal tt/jo? avTrjv 
avaaTpe(^ovaii<;' ol Be IBiMTat vo/jui^ovai irapOevov 
Tivd elvai ttjv d/iet/3op,a'r]v tou? aBovTa'i r) 



their necks at the ceiling, to gesticulate and to take 
their joy in silence for fear of not being able to say 
anything adequate to what they see. But when a 
man of culture beholds beautiful things, he will not 
be content, I am sure, to harvest their charm with 
his eyes alone, and will not endure to be a silent 
spectator of their beauty ; he will do all he can to 
linger there and make some return for the spectacle 
in speech. And such a return does not consist 
simply in praising the hall. No doubt it was fitting 
for Homer's island boy ^ to be astounded at the house 
of Menelaus and to compare its ivory and gold to the 
beautiful things in heaven because he had never seen 
anything else on earth that was beautiful. But to 
speak here, to collect an audience of cultured men 
and show one's eloquence is also a form of praise. 

It is very delightful, I think, that the fairest of 
halls should be flung open for the harbourage of 
speech and should be full of praise and laudation, 
re-echoing softly like a cavern, following what is 
said, drawing out the concluding sounds of the voice 
and lingering on the last words ; or, to put it better, 
committing to memory all that one says, like an 
appreciative hearer, and applauding the speaker and 
gracefully repeating his phrases. In some such way 
the rocks pipe in answer to the piping of the shep- 
herds when the sound comes back again by reper- 
cussion and returns upon itself. The untaught think 
it is a maid who answers all who sing and shout, 

^ Telemachus {Odyss. 4, 71) : he compares the house of 
Menelaus to the palaces of the gods. 

vol.. I. G 


^0(ovTa<;, iv fiiaofi irov rots" Kprj'xvol'i KaroiKOvaav 
Koi XaXovaav €k twv Trerpcov ei'hoOev. 

'E^ol <yovv hoKel koi avve^aipeadac oIkov 4 
rroXvTekda rj rod \iyovTO<; yvcofxr] kol irpo'i Tov<i 
\6yov<i eTreyeLpeaOat, KaOaTrep rt koX viro^ak- 
Xovar]<i T?}? dewi- ax^hov yap elcrpel tl Bia t5>v 
6(f)6a\p.(ov eVl rr)v y\rv)(i]v kuXov, elra 7rpo<; auro 
Koap,i]aav eKTripLTrei, tou? A.070U9. i) tw fiev 
'A%iX\et TTiaTevopev rrjv oyjnv tcop ottXcov eiri- 
relvai Kara tmv ^pvycov rrjv 6py7]v, Kol eirei 
eviBv avra Tretp'jOjxevo';, eirapdrivai koi TrrepoidTjvai 
TTOO? T)]V rov TToXe/iou eTTiOv/xLav, \6yov he 
aTTOuBijV fir) eTrtTeiveaOai 7r/309 KoXXr} '^copi,(ov; 
Katroi SooKpciTet /xev a7re%/37;cre ifkajavo^ ev4>vr]q 
Kol iroa evda\)]'i koI irr^yi) 8Lavyr]<; puKpov niro 
Tov 'Wicjaov, KuvrauOa Kad€^6/M6vo<i ^auBpov re 
rov 'Mvppi.vovaiov Kareipcovevero kol tov Avatov 
rov KecfidXov \6yov hi.i'fKeyX'^ '<^^'' 'T"'? Mowcra? 
eKoXei, KOL irricrrevev ij^eiv avra<; eVl t^ eprjp^iav 
avWi]-^oiieva<i ^ rcov irepl rov e/?wT09 Xoywv, Koi 
ovK rjayvvero ykpwv avQpwwo^ rrapaKokoyv rrap- 
devov<i avvaaopievasr ra TraiSepacrriKd. €9 8e ovrw 
KoXov ^((lipiov OVK av olopeOa^ Kol uKXyrovi avra^ 

Kal firjv ov Kara ye aKiav povi-jv ovhe Kara 5 
trXardvov kuWo^ ?} viroSox^h ovS' av rrjv iirl r& 
'Wiaau) KaraXLTTOiv rtp' /3acri\e&)9 Xeyr}<i rr]v 
Xpva-fjv e'/ceiVr;? p,eu yap eV rfj rroXvreXela povrj 
TO OavfjLa, rex^V Se 17 /caX\o9 17 Tep^L<i rj ro 

' avWv^ofifyas Nilen : aviJ.irfpi\7]^^ofi.ivas MSS. 
"^ avvxaofxtvas Scluvartz : o-uveo-OjUf »'«s MSS. 
!* olojliQa. r, S : oliiiJ.eea fi. 



abiding somewliere in the heart of the cliffs and 
talking from the inside of the crags. 

To me, at least, it seems that a splendid hall 
excites the speaker's fancy and stirs it to speech, as 
if he were somehow prompted by what he sees. 
No doubt something of beauty flows through the 
eyes into the soul, and then fashions into the like- 
ness of itself the words that it sends out. In the 
case of Achilles, the sight of his armour enhanced 
his anger at the Trojans, and when he put it on to 
try it, he was inspired and transported with the lust 
of battle.^ Then are we to believe that the passion 
for speech is not enhanced by beautiful surround- 
ings } Socrates was satisfied with a fine plane-tree 
and lush grass and a spring of clear water not far from 
the Ilissus : sitting there, lie plied his irony at the 
expense of Phaedrus of Myrrhinus, criticised the 
speech of Lysias, son of Cephalus, and invoked 
the Muses, believing that they would come to a 
sequestered spot and take part in the debate on 
love, and thinking no shame, old as he was, to invite 
maids to join him in amorous ditties.^ May we not 
suppose that they would come to a place as beautiful 
as this, even without an invitation ? 

In truth, our shelter is not to be compared with 
mere shade or with the beauty of a plane-tree, not 
even if you pass over the one on the Ilissus and 
mention the Great King's golden plane.^ That Mas 
wonderful only on account of its cost ; there was no 

1 Iliad, 19, 16 ; 384. « pi.^to, Phaedrus, 229 sen. 

» Herod. 7, 27. 



crv/xfierpov rj to eupvdfiov ov (Tweipyacrro ovSe 
KarefxejiiLKTO to) ypvao), aX\ rjv /3api3apiKov to 
deap,a, ttXoOto? fiovov koI (^dovo<^ roiv loovtwv kul 
€v8aipoviap,6<i Tcov i'^ovrojv' eiraivo^ he ovhafxov 
irpocrrjv. ovSe yap e/xeXe toI<! ^Ap(TaKLSaL<i tmv 
Kokoiv ovhe nrph'i to Tepirvov iiroLovvTO tw; 
eTTtSet^ei? oyS' i(f)p6vTi^ov el iiraLvecrovTac oi 
deaTai, aX)C oirwi eKir^ayrjaovTai. ov ^lXokoXoi 
jdp, aWa ^iKoifkovTOi elcriv at jBapl^apoi. tov- G 
Tov he TOV OLKOV TO KciWof; ov Kara /Sap^apt- 
K0v<i TLva^ 6<j)6a\pov<i ovBe kutu UepaiKyjv a\a- 
^oveiav 7] /3aaLXiK7]v /jbejaXavx^iav ovSe 7revr]T0<i 
pbovov, aXka ev(})vov<; 6eaT0v Seop^evov Kac otw /jlt] 
ev TTj oyfrei rj KpLai^, aXXa xi? kul \o'yi,a'pio<; €7ra- 
Ko\ov6el TOW ^\e7ropevoL<i} 

To <yap tt}? Te i)p.epa<; tt/oo? to KaWiaTOV airo- 
/SXeireiv — KaXKiarov B?]'^ avTP]<i koL iroOeivoTaTov 7) 
^PXV — '^'^^ "^^^ 7]\iov vTrepKv^jravTa ev6v<i uTToSe^e- 
adat KoX TOV cf)(0T6<; ipTTLTrXaaOat e? Kopov 
dvaireTTTapievaiv tcov Ovpcov [/caW' o Kal to. lepa 
^XeiTOVTa eiroLovv ol iraXaioi],^ Koi to tov prjK0v<i 
7rpb<i TO TrXaTO'i koX dp.(f)oiv 7rpo<; to v-^a evpvdp,ov 
Kal Twv (jxoTaycoyMv to eXevOepov koi Trpo'^ copav 
cKaaTyv ev e)(pv, 7rct)<; ovx vSea tuutu irdvTa Kal 
eiraivcov d^ia; 

"Etc Se OavpLaaeiev av ti<; Kal t>}<? opo(^ri<; ev 7 
TU) evfiopcficp TO d-nepiTTOV kciv tw evKoapw to 
dveTrlXrjTTTOv Kal to tov -y^pvcrov e? to evTrpeire^; 

^ P\eirofx4vots Seager : Xfyoixefois MSS. 

2 5), A.M.H.: 5^ JNISS. 

^ Kad' t — TToAaioi " in the direction in which the ancients 
used to face their temples": a gloss on Th...a.Tro0\fvetv. 
A. M. H. 



craftsmanship or beauty or charm or symmetry or 
grace wrought into the gold or combined with it. 
The thing was barbarous, nothing but money, a 
source of envy to those who saw it, and of felicita- 
tion to those who owned it. There was nothing 
praiseworthy about it. The Arsacids ^ neither cared 
for beauty nor aimed at attractiveness in making 
their display nor minded whether the spectators 
]iraised or not, as long as they were astounded. The 
barbarians are not beauty-lovers ; they are money- 
lovers. On the contrary, the beauty of this hall 
has nothing to do with barbarian eyes, Persian 
flattery, or Sultanic vainglory. Instead of just a 
poor man, it wants a cultured man for a spectator, 
who, instead of judging with his eyes, applies thought 
to what he sees. 

It faces the fairest quai-ter of the day (for the 
fairest and loveliest is surely the beginning) ; it 
welcomes in the sun when he first peeps up ; light 
fills it to overflowing through the wide-flung doors ; 
the proportion of length to breadth and oi both to 
height is harmonious ; the windows are generous 
and well-suited to every season of the year. Is not 
all this attractive and praisewoi'thy ? 

One might also admire the ceiling for its reserved 
modelling, its flawless decoration, and the refined 
symmetry of its gilding, which is not unnecessarily 

1 Anachronism ; the possessors of the tree were the Achae- 
menid princes. 



crv/x^eTpoi', dWa fir] irapa ^ ra<; ^peta? etrli^Oovov, 
aXX,' oiToaov av kcu 'yvvaiKl awcppovL Kol KaXfj 
dpKear} €7rLar]/xor€pov epydcracrdai to KdWo<i, rj 
irepl rfi Betpf] XeTrro? rt? 6p/j.o<i ?) irepl rut haKrvKw 
cr(^evh6vr] ev(f)opo<; ?) iv roiv mtolv iXXo^ia i) iropTrrj 
Ti9 rj raivia to d^eTov Trj^ Ko/j,y]<; avvZeovaa, 
ToaovTOV TT] ev/xop(f)i.a irpoaTidelaa ocrov Trj eadfJTi 
■q 7T0p(f)vpa' al he ye kTolpai, koI /xaXiaTa al 
dfiopcfyoTepai avTOiv, koI ttjv eaOrjTa 6Xy]v irop^v- 
pdv Kcd Trjv Setpyjp ')(^pvcrrjv TreTroLi]VTai, tw 
TToXvTeXel dijpco/j^evat, to eiraywyov kcu to evheov 
T(p KoX't) Trpocrdeaei tov e^coOev Tepirvov Trapafiv- 
Ooufievai' i)yovvTai. yap kul Tr]v wXevqv avTat<; 
(TTiXTTvoTepav (^aveladat crvva7ro\dp.7rovaav tS> 

y^pVaU) Kol TOV TToSo? TO flT] eVTTeplypa^OV \i](7£LV 

vTTo ■y^pvau) aavSaXcp KaX to TrpoawTrov avTo 
epacF jJLidiTepov yevy]aea6at tco (jjaeivoTdTO) crvvo- 
pcofievov. aXX,' i/celvaL fxev outco?" ?; he ye crdxfypcov 
^pvcru> ^ fiev to, dpKovvTa koX [lovov to, dvayKoia 
irpocr^^pijTai, to S' auTj}? KdWo^ ovk av ala-'^v- 
voLTO, oljiiai, Kal yvpinj heiKvvovaa, 

Kal TOivvv -tf Tovhe tov oIkov opo(f)i], /xdWov 8 
he Ke(^a\rj, euTrpocrwTro? fiev Kal Kad^ eavTijv, tw 
■^pvaw he i<i toctovtov KeKoa/mijTaL, eV ocroi^ Kal 
ovpavo<i ev vvktI vtto twv daTepwv ck hiaaTij/xaTO'i 
7repi\afX7r6fievo<; Kal eK hia\ei/j-p,aTO<^ dvdcov tco 
TTvpi. el he ye irvp rjv to irdv, ov Ka\o<; av, dXka 
(popepa rjfiLv eoo^ev. looi o av Ti? ovo apyov 
evTUvda TOV -x^pvaov ovhe [xovov tov TepirovTO'; 
e'iveKa tui Xociro) Koajxcp avvecnrapfievov, dWa 

' irapa Gesner : irepl MSS. 

* ffuKppasv xpva^ edd. : aaicppwv yJ/c/a XP""''? MSS. 



lavish, but only in such degree as would suffice a 
modest and beautiful woman to set off her beauty — 
a delicate chain round her neck, a light ring on her 
finger, pendants in her eai-s, a buckle, a band that 
confines the luxuriance of her hair and adds as much 
to her good looks as a purple border adds to a gown. 
It is courtesans, especially the less attractive of 
them, who have clothing all purple and necks all 
gold, trying to secure seductiveness by extravagance 
and to make up for their lack of beauty by the 
addition of extraneous charms ; they think that their 
ai-ms will look whiter when they are bright with 
gold, and that the unshapeliness of their feet will 
escape notice in golden sandals, and that their very 
faces will be lovelier when seen together with 
something very bright. This is the course they 
follow ; but a modest girl uses only what gold is 
sufficient and necessary, and would not be ashamed 
of her beauty, I am sure, if she were to show it 

The ceiling of this hall — call it the face if you 
will — well-featured itself, is as much embellished by 
the gilding as heaven by the stars at night, with 
sprinkled lights and scattered flowers of fire. If all 
were fire, it would be terrible, not beautiful, to us. 
You will observe that the gilding yonder is not 
purposeless, and not intermingled with the rest of the 
decorations for its own charm alone. It shines with a 



Koi av'^r]V rcva rjSeiav aTToXd/jLiret Kai rov 
oIkov 6\ov eTTLXpfJ^vvvai tCo epvOt'jjj.aTL' orrorav 
yhp TO </)ft)<> TrpoaTrecrov icfidyp-rjTai. kcll dvafMiX^V 
T(b vpvacb, Koivov Ti dTraaTpciTTToucn /cal otTrXa- 
crtav rov epvoij/j-aro^; eKcpaLvovai ttjv aiopLUV. 

Ta fjitv St] v-\{rri\a Kal Kopv(^aia rov o'ckov 9 
TOidSe, 'Oprjpov Tivo'i Seopeva eTraiverov, Xva 
avTOV Tj vyjrcopocfyov &)? rov 'K\evr](; 6d\ap.ov rj 
al'ykrjevTa &)? Tov"0\vp,7rov eliroL' rov Se ctWov 
Kocrpov Kol ra roiv roi')((iiv ypdp.para koX ro)V 
y^pcopidrwv ra koXXt] koX ro €vapye<i eKdcrrov Kai 
rb dKpt^e<; Kal ro d\r)6e<i eapo'i o^fret Kal Xeip^wvL 
Se evavdtc /caX&i? dv exot rrapaj^aXelv rrXrjv Trap 
ocrov eKetva pev d'wavOel Kal fiapatverai Kat, 
dWdrrerai Kal diro^dWei ro KdWo<i, rovrl he 
TO eap ^ dcStov Kal Xet/xwf dp-dpavro'^ Kat dv9o<i 
dddvarov, are ix6vri<; rrj<; oi/^e&x? i^a7rrop-evj]<i Kai 
8pe7ropIvr)<; ro tjSv rcop /BXeTrc/xevcov. 

Td Br] roaavra Kal roiavra rt? ovk av 10 
rjaOecTj ^Xirrcov rj ri<; ovk dv rrpodvp.yjdei'ii Kal 
irapd ry-jv 8vvap.iv iv avrol<; Xeyeiv, etScb? al'axio-'''ov 
6v diroXeKpOrjvat rwv opwpievwv; iiraywyorarov 
ydp ri T) 6-^i<i roiv KaXdv, ovk eV dvdpooTrwv 
fxovov, dXXd Kal 't7nro<; i'jSiov dv olpLat Spd/xoi Kara 
Trpavov'i irehiov Kal fiaXaKov, irpoa-qvSi'i Ze-)(,opevov 
rrjv fidatv Kai rjpepia vireLKorro'; rCo nrohl Kai prj 
dvrirv7rovvTO<; rfj ottX^- diravri jovv rare xp^^rai 
TCO Bpoaro Kal oXov eViSou? eavrov ria rdyei 
uficXXarai Kat rrpo'i rov rreoov ro Ka\\o<;, 
6 Se ra(o<; 7]po'i dp^opievov 'jrpo<i Xei/xcjva 11 

1 tap and &v0os Schwartz : rh tap, rh ivGos MSS. 


sweet radiance, and colours the whole hall with its 
flush ; for when the light, striking the gold, lays 
hold of it and combines with it, they gleam jointly 
and make the flush doubly brilliant. 

Such is the top, the summit of the hall : it 
needs a Homer to praise it by calling it " high- 
ceiled" like the chamber of Helen^ or "dazzling" like 
Olympus.- The rest of the decoration, the frescoes 
on the w^alls, the beauty of their colours, and the 
vividness, exactitude, and truth of each detail might 
well be compared with the face of spring and with a 
flowery field, except that those things fade and 
wither and change and cast their beauty, while this 
is spring eternal, field unfading, bloom undying. 
Naught but the eye touches it and culls the 
sweetness of what it sees. 

Who would not be charmed with the sight oi 
all these beautiful things } Who would not want to 
outdo himself in speaking among them, aware that 
it is highly disgraceful not to be a match for that 
which one sees ? The sight of beauty is seductive, 
and not to man alone. Even a horse, I think, would 
find more pleasure in running on a soft, sloping plain 
that receives his tread pleasantly, yields a little to 
his foot, and does not shock his hoof. Then he puts 
in play all his power of running, gives himself over 
to speed and nothing else, and vies with the beauty 
of the plain. The peacock, too, at the opening 

1 II. 3, 423 ; Od. 4. 121. 

2 /Z. 1, 233 ; 13, 243 ; Od. 20, 103. 



Ttva iXOciov, oTTore koI to, avdrj irpo^ioLV ov 
irodeivorepa /.loi'ov, uWa kol to? av eliTov Ti9 
avOrjpoTepa Kal Ta<; j3a^a<i Kadapcorepa, Tore kuI 
0VT0<; e/c7reTacra<» ra wrepa koX avahel^a's tw rjXiM 
Kot Trjv ovpav eirdpa^ kol iravroOev aiiru) nrepi- 
crrrj(Ta<i iTTiSetKi'vrat, ra avOrj ra avrov /cat ro eap 
T(bv iTTepwv wairep avrov 7rpoKaXovvro<i rov 
XeifMMvo^ 69 rrjv apuXXav e'marpecf)ei youv iavrov 
Kal ireptd'yeL Kal i/XTro/xrrevet ra KaWei- ore Sr] 
Kal Oavfiaaiddrepo^ cpatveraL Trpo^ rrjv av'yrjv 
dWarro/xei'cop avrco ro)v 'X^pcofidrcov Kat fiera- 
/3aiv6vro)v rjpepa Kal tt/jo? erepov evpiopcpia^ etSo9 
rp€7ro/xev(ov. 'Trdcr'^ei Ze avro fxaXiara em rcov 
kvkXcov, 0U9 eV dxpoi'^ e%ei T0t9 irrepoi'i, iptSoi; 
rtva eKaarov 'Trepi6eovai-)<;- o yap riw^ ')(^a\Ko<i 
r)v, rovro iyKXivavra oXijov ')(pv(To<i cjcpd^i, Kat 
ro UTTO ru)rjXL(p Kvavavyh, el aKiaaOeu], ')(Xoavy€<; 
ecrriv ovrco fxeraKoafielraL 7r/509 to ^w9 r) 
TTTepcocTK;. on fiev jap Kal t) ddXarra iKavr) 12 
TrpoKaXeaaaOac Kal et9 eTridv/nLav einaTrdcraaOaL 
ev yaXrjVij ^avelcra, tare, Kav yu.77 eiTro)' ore, ev 
Kal Travrdiraaiv 7i7re[.pcorr)<; Kal direipoirXovi rL<; 
etr], -ndyrfof; av edeX-)]aeie Kal auT09 i/J-^)]vai Kal 
TrepiTrXevaat Kal ttoXv d-Tro t?'}9 7''}9 dTroairaaai, 
Kal fxdXiara el ^Xeirot, r)]v fiev avpav Kov(j)co^ 
i-TTOvpid^ovcrav ri-jv 666vr]v, rrjv 8e vavv trpoai-jvoi'i 
re Kal Xeico^ eV aKpcov i^pepua BioXicrddvovcrav rcov 

Kat rolvvv Kal rovSe rov o'ikov ro KaXXo<; 13 
LKavov Kal Trapopfxrjcrat €9 XGyov<i Kal Xeyovra 
iireyetpat Kal irdvra rpo-nov evhoKipLy]aai irapa- 
aKevdcrac. iyo) fiev Bt] rovroi'; Treldofxac Kal i]Sr] 



of spring goes to a field at the time when the 
blossoms wliich it puts out are not only lovelier, but, 
in a manner of speaking, more blossomy and brighter 
of hue ; spreading his v/ings and showing them to 
the sun, lifting his tail and surrounding himself with 
it, he, too, displays his blossoms and the April of his 
wings, as if the field were challenging him to vie with 
it. At all events, he twists and turns and puts on airs 
with his beauty. Now and again he is a sight still 
more wonderful, when his colours change under the 
light, altering a little and turning to a different kind 
of loveliness. This happens to him chiefly in the 
circles that he has at the tips of his feathers, each 
of which is ringed with a rainbow. What was pre- 
viously bronze has the look of gold when he shifts a 
little, and what was bright blue in the sun is bright 
green in shadow, so much does the beauty of his 
plumage alter with the light ! For you know with- 
out my telling you that the sea has power to invite 
and provoke longing when it is calm. At such a 
time, no matter how much of a landsman and a 
lubber a man may be, he wants at all costs to get 
aboard ship and cruise about and go far from land, 
above all if he pei'ceives the breeze gently swelling the 
canvas and the vessel sweetly and smoothly gliding 
along, little by little, over the crest of the waves. 

Certainly, then, the beauty of this hall has 
power to rouse a man to speech, to spur him on in 
speaking and to make him succeed in every way. I 
for my part am trusting in all this and have already 



iri'ireLcr jxat koX e? tov oIkov eVt \o'yoi,^ Trapeki'jkvOa 
wcTTrep VTTo ivjyo^; tj Se/p^/ o<? tw KuXXet €XK6/xevo<i, 
iXiriSa ou /xiKpav 'i'xoyv, el Kol Tew? i)fuv dfio^^oL 
7)<Tav ol \6<yoL, Ka\ov<; avTov<i <})aveiadat KaOdrcep 
eaOrjTL Ka\fj KeKoa/xrjjxevovi. 

"Ere/oo? 8e Ti? ovk a<y€vvrj<; Xoyo'i, aWa Kai 14 
TTavv y€i'vato<;, (09 (brjcrc, kol ixera^v fxov Xeyovro^ 
vireKpove koL SiaKOTrrecv eTreipaTO tt^v pfjaiv koX 
eTreiSt] ireTrav/jiai, ovk akridrj ravra \e<yeLV (ptjai 
jxe, aXka dav/xd^eiv, el ^daKoipn eTriTTjSeioTepov 
elvai 7rp6<; Xojcov eiriSet^LV ot/cov KdXXo<i ypacfyfj 
Kol ')(^pv(Tw KeKoafjbrjfxevov avro <ydp ttov rovvav- 
Ttov d'7ro/3aiveiv. p,dXXov Se, el So/cet, avTO<i 
irapeXOiov X6'yo<; virep eavrov KaOdirep ev hiKacr- 
Tal<i vpZi' etTrarct), orrr) XvaireXeaTepov 'qye'cTai 
Tco XiyovTi evreXeiav olkov koX d/xop(j)Lav. i/iov 
p,ev aKrjKoaTe 77877 Xeyovro'i, cocrre ovBev heopbac Si? 
irepX ro)v avrcov elirelv, he 7rapeX6a)vy8rj Xeyerw, 
Kayoi aicoinjaofiai koX irpo^ oXiyov avTfo fieracnr)- 

"A.vhpe<i Toivvv StKaaraL, (fyyalv o X0709, 15 
fiev irpoeLTTCov p/jrcop TroXXd koI fieydXa rovSe tov 
oIkov eirrjveae kul tw eavrov Xoyeo eKocrixTjaev, 
iycb 8e TOcrovTov Bew -^oyov avrov Bie^eXevcreaBai, 
coare Kcu rd vir eKeivov irapaXeXet/nfieva irpoaOrj- 
aeiv fioL hoKOi' 6(Xm yap dv vpuv KaXXicov (paivr]- 
rai, roacpSe vTrevavrlo^; ttj tov Xiyovro^ XP^^^ 

Kal trpwrov ye eVetS^ yvvaiKwv koX Koa/iiov 
Kal 'X^pvaov eKelvo^ epuvqpovevcrev, ku/xoc iirt- 
rpe-^aTe 'yp}]aaa6ai rat TrapaheiypLaTi' (prjfil 
yap ovp Kal yvvai^l KaXals ov^ ottoj? avXXap,- 



trusted in it ; in coming to the hall to speak, I vv^as 
attracted by its beauty as by a niacjic wheel or a 
Siren, for I had no slight hope that even if my 
phrases were homely before, they would seem 
beautiful if adorned, so to speak, in fine clothing. 

There is, however, another point of view, not 
insignificant but very important, if you take Mr. Point 
o' View's word for it ; he kept interrupting me 
as I spoke and trying to break up my speech, and 
now that I have paused he says that I am mistaken 
in this matter : he is surprised that I should say a 
beautiful hall adorned with painting and gilding is 
better suited for the display of eloquence, as the case 
is entirely the reverse. But if you approve, let Mr. 
Point o' View himself take the floor in his own behalt 
;ind tell you as he would a juiy wherein he thinks a 
mean and ugly hall more advantageous to the speaker. 
You have heard me already, so that I do not need to 
speak again to the same topic ; let him take the 
floor now and say his say, and I will be still and 
yield to him for a time. 

" Well, gentlemen of the jury," says Mr. Point 
o' View, " the last speaker has made many striking 
points in praise of the hall, and has adorned it with 
liis words. I myself am so far from intending to 
criticise it that I have in mind to add the points 
which he omitted, for the more beautiful you think 
it, the more hostile to the speaker's interest it will 
be, as I shall show. 

" First, then, since he has mentioned women, 
jewelry and gold, permit me also to make use of the 
comparison. I assert that, far from contributing to 
the good looks of a beautiful woman, abundant 



^dveiv i<i TO evfiopfporepov, dWa koI ivavTiovadat 
Tov Koa/jLov Tov TToXvp, oTTOTav TWf ivTvyvavovTcov 
€Ka(no<i vno tov ')(pv(Tov kul tcov Klucov rwy TroA-f- 
TeKoov iK7rXay€l<; civtI tov eTraivelv 7) y^poav rj 
/3X€/u,f^a rj ^eLprji/ rj Trrjyvv rj SaKTvXov, 6 Be TavT 
d(pei<i €9 Tr]v aapSo) rj tov afidpaySov rj tov op/J-ov 
11 TO ■y^e\Lov u7ro/3\e7rr}, oiqTe d)(^doiTO dv elKOTWt; 
irapopcj/Mevy] Bia tov Koafjuov, ovk dyovTwv a-^oXrjv 
etraivelv avTrjv TOiv 6eaT(ov, dWd irdpepyov avTij<i 
TTOiovfiivcov Trjv deav. oirep dvdjKrj, ol/xai, 16 
iradeiv Kol tov ev ovtco Kd\oi<i €pyoL<; Xoyovi 
heiKwovTa' \av6dvet yap iv tw fieyedec tcov 
kuXmv to Xe^^^ev kul d/xavpovTai koX avvapird^e- 
rai, Kaddirep el Xv'xvov ti<; et? irvpKaidv fMeydXrjv 
(pepwv ifi^dXXoi rj ixupfii-jKa iir eXe<^avTO^ rj 
Kajxifkov SeiKvvoL. tovto re ovr^ cfivXaKTeov tco 
XeyovTi, Kai irpoaeTt fxrj koI t)]v (pcovrjv auT7]v 
eTTLTapdTTrjTaL ^ ev ovtco^ eucjicovrp koX rj^i'-jevTi 
OLKM Xeycov avTicfiOeyyeTat yap koI dvTKpcovel 
Kat avTiXeyet, /xaXXov 8e eTriKaXuTTTec ttjv /3o7]v, 
oiov Ti KUi craXTTLy^ Spa tov avXov, el avvavXoiev, 
rj Tou? KeXeu(TTa<i 77 OdXaTTU, oiroTav 7r/309 Kvyua- 
T09 riypv eTtdheiv Trj elpeala deXwaiv iiriKpaTel 
yap 1) fxeyaXocpwvLU koI KUTacncoTrd to rjTTOv. 

Kal [xrjv KdKeivo, oirep €(f)t] 6 dvTL8iK0<i, &)? 17 
dpa eireyelpei KaXo<i olKO'i tov XeyovTa kol 
Trpodv/jLorepov TrapaaKevd^ei, e^ol SoksI to evav- 
TLOV TTOieiv eKTrXr'jTTei yap kuI ^ajBel kuI tov 
Xoyia/jLov SiuTapdTTei Kal BetXoTepov epyd^eTai 
iv6vjj,ovfievov o)? dirdvTwv ccttIv ULa^taTOV ev 

^ re ovv Bekker : yovv MSS. 

* fii] — fTrirapd.TTr]Tai Bekker: /j,^v — iiriTapaTTirai MSS. 



jewelry is actually a detriment. Everyone who 
meets her is dazzled by her gold and her expensive 
gemSj and instead of praising her complexion, her 
eyeSj her neck, her arm or her finger, he neglects 
them and lets his eyes wander to her sard or her 
emerald, her necklace or her bracelet. She might 
fairly get angry at being thus slighted for her 
oi'naments, when observers are too occupied to pay 
her compliments and think her looks a side-issue. 
The same thing is bound to happen, I think, to a man 
who tries to show his eloquence among works of art 
like these. Amid the mass of beautiful things, what 
he says goes unheeded, vanishes and is absorbed, as if a 
candle were taken to a great fire and thrown in, or 
an ant pointed out on the back of an elephant or a 
camel. This danger, certainly, the speaker must 
guard against, and also that his voice be not disturbed 
when he speaks in a hall so musical and echoing, for 
it resounds, replies, refutes — in fact, it drowns his 
utterance, just as the trumpet drowns the flute when 
they are played together, and as the sea drowns 
chanty-men when they undertake to sing for the 
rowers against the noise of the surf. For the great 
volume of sound overpowers and crushes into silence 
all that is weaker. 

" As to the other point which my opponent made, 
that a beautiful hall spurs a speaker on and makes 
him more ambitious, I think it does the opposite. 
It dazzles and frightens him, disturbs his thought 
and makes him more timid, for he reflects that it is 
disgraceful beyond everything that his discourse 



evfiop^co ^wyotft) /xii 0/xoiof 9 (^aiveaOai rov<; \o'yov<;. 
iXey)(^(x'V "yap ovro<; ye o (f)avepwTaro<;, uxnrep av 
el Tf9 iravoifkiav KaK.rjV €vBv<i eireira (fyevyoL irpo 
roiv aXkwv, iTnarj/xoTepoq &>v SetXo? utto tojv 
ottXcov. tovto 8e fj,oi So/cet \oyiad/jL€vo<i Koi o 
rov 'Ofi7]pov ptjTcop €K€ivo<i ev^opi^LW^ iXa^KJTOv 
(ftpoi^Tiaai, fxaWov Be kuI Trat'TeXco? d'lBpei (pcorl 
iavTov direiKaaai, iva avroi irapaBo^orepov (^aivi^- 
rai Twv \6ya>v to kuWo^ eK t)}? tt/so? to a/jiop(f)o- 
Tepov i^erdaeco^;. aA-Xw? re dvdyKrj Trdaa Kat rijv 
rov XeyovTO^ avrov hidvoiav da')(o\ela6aL irept 
rrjv Oeav koI t^9 (f)povTL8o<; rb dKpt^€<i eKXveiv tt}? 
6\lrea)<; eTnKparovcrrj'i koI ttoo? aurrjv KoKovarj^ 
/cat Tco \uy(p irpoaey^eiv ovk eoiarj^. (ocne Tt? 
firj-^avrj fjur) ou;^t TraFict)? eXajrov ipelv avrov t?)? 
yjrvxi]'; Btarpi0ovari<; irepl rov tcov opco/jLevcov 

'Eco yap Xeyeiv on koX ol irapovre^ avrol 18 
Kol Trpo^ rrjv aKpoaaiv 7rapeiX-)]p.fievoi eTreiBau el<i 
roiovTOV oIkov TrapeXdaxriv, dvTt aKpoaroiv Oearai 
KaOiaravrai, koX oi)% ovrw A7]p,68oKO<; 7) ^r)[XLo<; rj 
©aut.p'S' 17 ^AjJi(f)LO)v rj ^Op(f)ev<i Ti? Xeywv eanv, 
coare aTTOcnrdaaL rrjv Btdvoiav avrcov diro t/}? 
^ea?' aOC ovv 'iKacrro^, iireiBav fxovov inrep^fj 
rov ovBov, d6p6(p TO) KaXXet 'TrepL-)(y9el<i Xoywv 
ixev eKeivwv rj oKpodaeox; aXXij^; ^ ovBe rrjv dp-)(^)iv 
atovri eoLKev, 6Xo<i Be tt/jo? rot? opwfievoif; ianv, 
el n.rj Tv^oi' Tf9 TravreXco'i ti/^Xo? wv rj iv vvktI 
wairep 1) e| ^Apetov irdyov ^ovXrj ttoloIto rijv 
uKpoacrcv. on yap ovk d^to/xaxov Xoycov tcrx^'i 19 
oyp-ei dvTaywvi(Tci(x6ai kol 6 Setp/jvtov fivdo<i 
' &KKj)s Schwartz : a\\' MSS. 



should not match so beautiful a place. For such sur- 
roundings put a man most clearly to the proof. It is 
as if he should put on a handsome coat of mail and then 
take to his heels before the rest, making his cowardice 
only the more conspicuous for his armour. This, 
I think, is the consideration which causes Homer's 
famous orator i to think very little of good-looks and 
even make himself appear ' an utter know-nothing ' in 
order that the beauty of his words may seem more 
striking by comparison with that which is uglier. 
Besides, it is inevitable that the speaker's own mind 
should be occupied in looking, and that the accuracy 
of his thinking should be disturbed because what he 
is looking at gets the better of him, attracts him and 
does not allow him to attend to what he is saying. 
So how can he help speaking very badly, when in 
spirit he is busied with the praise of all that he sees ? 
"I forbear to say that even those who are 
present and have been invited to the lecture become 
spectators instead of hearers when they enter such a 
hall as this, and no speaker is enough of a Demo- 
docus, a Phemius, a Thamyris, an Amphion or an 
Orpheus to distract their minds from looking. Why, 
every one of them is flooded with beauty the instant 
he crosses the threshold, and does not give the least 
sign of hearing 2 what the speaker says or anythino- 
else, but is all absorbed in what he sees, unless he is 
stone-blind or like the court of the Areopagus, 
listens in the dark ! That the power of the tongue 
is no match for the eyes, one can learn by comparing 
1 Odysseus: II. 3. 219. 2 II. 23, 430. 


iraparede\<i rw irepl twv Topyovcov SiBd^eiev av 
'iKelvat fxev yap eKt'jXovv rov<; 7rapa7rXeovra<; 
p,e\(p8ouaai Koi Kokanevouaat toI<; aapacriv Kai 
Kara7r\ev<7avTa<i eVt trokv Karelxov, Kol oXw? to 
€pyov avTMV e'Seixo TLvo<i Siarpi,8Pi<;, Kai irov Ti9 
avra'i Kai irapeirXevcTe Kai rov p,e\ov<; 7rapi]Kova6' 
TO Be Tcbv Topjovcov KuXXo^, UTe ^caioTaTov re ov 
Kai TOt? KaipiroTa.TOt'i t% '^^XV'* opikovv, eu^u? 
e^i(TTrj TOi"? ISovTa^ Kai acpcovovi eVotet, o)? 8e o 
pvdo<i ^ovXeTat Kai XeyeTai, \Wivoi ijiyvovTo 
vTTO davpaTd. waTe Kai ov vTrep tov Taco \oyov 
elite 7rpo<i vpd<; puKpov epurpoadev, virep ep,avT0v 
elprjaOai vop^i^co' Kai yap eKeivov ev ttj oylrei,, ouk 
ev tT] (f)(oi/fj TO TepTTvov. Kai el ye Tt<? TrapaaTrj- 
adp,evo<; ttjv drjSova rj tov kvkvov aSeiv KeXevoc, 
peTa^v he dSovTcov irapahei^eie tov raw atw- 
TTWvTa, ev oIS' oti eV eKelvov p€Ta^/]aeTai, rj 
yjrvxv pLaKpd xP-lpeiv (ppdaacra to2^ eKeLVWv 
aap^aaiv oi^rw? dpuayov ti eoiKev elvai i) 
hi 6y\rew^ 7)hovrj. Kai eycoye, el ^ovXecrde, 20 

pdpTvpa vplv Trapa(XTi](Jopai, ao^ov dvSpa, 09 
avTiKa p.oi p.apTVp)j(Tet &>? iroXv eTTiKpaTeaTepa 
eaTL TMV aKOVopbevwv to, opoij-ieva. Kai, p,oc av 
tjBt] 6 Krjpv^ TrpoaKdXet avTov 'llpoBoTOV Av^ov 
' AXiKapvaaoOev Kaireihi^ /caXw? imtcov viDjKova-e, 
papTvpe'iTOi TrapeXOoov dvaSe^acrOe Be avTov 
'lacrrl tt/oo? vpd<i \eyovTa uxrirep avTW e^o?. 

'AXry^ea TuBe 6 X0709 vp,lv, dvBpeq BiKaaTai, 
p,v6eeTai Kai ol -rreWeaOe ocra av \eyr] TovTecov 
irepi 6-\\nv dKorj<i irpoTip^eoiv ajra yap Tvy^dvet 
eovTU diriaTOTepa ocjidaXjxcov. 



the story of the Sirens with the one about the 
Gorgons. The Sirens charmed passing voyagers by 
making music and working on them with songs, and 
held them long when they put in. In short, their 
performance only exacted a delay, and no doubt one 
or another voyager went by them, neglecting their 
music. On the contrary, the beauty of the Gorgons, 
being extremely powerful and affecting the very 
vitals of the soul, stunned its beholders and made 
them speechless, so that, as the story has it and 
everyone says, they turned to stone in wonder. 
For this reason I count what my opponent said 
to you a moment ago about the peacock a plea for 
my side : surely his attractiveness is in his looks, 
not in his voice ! If anybody should match a night- 
ingale or a swan against him, letting them sing 
and showing the peacock silent while they were 
singing, I know well that your soul would go 
over to him, bidding a long farewell to their songs. 
So invincible, it seems, is the delight of the eyes ! 
If you wish, I will produce you a witness in the 
person of a sage, who will testify on the spot that 
what one sees is far more effective than what 
one hears. Crier, summon in person Herodotus, son 
of Lyxus, of Halicarnassus. Since he has been 
so kind as to comply, let him take the stand and 
give his testimony. Suffer him to speak to you in 
Ionic, to which he is accustomed. 

" ' Master Point o' View telleth ye true herein. 
Believe whatso he sayeth to this matter, esteeming 
sight over hearing, for in sooth ears be less trusty 
than eyes.' ^ 

' Only the last clause is really Herodotean {I, 8, 3). 



^AKOvere tov ixdprvpo<; a (fyrjcrtv, co? ra irpwra 
rf] 6-^ei a.'TTehwKev; ti«oT&)9. ra fxev jap eirea 
rrrepoevrd ecrrc /cal o'i')(eraL ajxa tw TrpoeXdelv 
diroTTTcipeva, rj 8e TOiV 6pcop,ero)v rep'^i^; del 
rrapeaTcocra kuI irapafievovaa irdvTW^ tov dearr]v 

Tla)<; ovv ov '^aXeiro^ tco XejovTo avrayco- 2] 
i/iCTT?)? olfco<i ovTco KaXo<i Kol TTept/SXeTTTO? wv; 
p.dXXoi> he TO ixeyLUTOv ovherray (prjfML- v/j,€c<; yap 
avTol ol BiKaaral Koi fiera^v Xeyovrwv yj/xcov e? 
TJ]V 6po(f)7]v aTTe/SXeTrere Kal tol"? tol'^ov^ eOav/ua- 
^ere koi Ta<? jpacfid'i e^yjrd^ere irpoi; eKdaTi]v 
dTToarpecpop^evoi. kul fitjSev ala-yvvOrjTe' avy- 
yvciipLTj yap, el tl nvOpcairtvov TreTrovdare, dWQ)<;Te 
Kal 7rpo<; ovrco Ka\d<; Kal 7roiKL\a<i ra? viroOeaei'i. 
rf]^ yap re^vrj'i to dKpi/3e<; Kal tt}? i(nopLa<; p-era 
TOV dp)(aLOV TO d)^e.\ip.ov eiraywyov 0)9 aXi]Oco<i 
Kol TreTTaihevpevwv Oearcbv Seouevov. Kai iva p.r) 
Trdvra eKelcre d7ro/3Xe7rr]Te r)pd<i d7ro\t7r6vTe<;, (f>6p€ 
(hf olov re ypd-yjrcopac ^ avrd vp,LV t&j Xoyrp' 
i-jcrOrjaeade ydp,, aKOVovTe^ a Kai opwvTe<; 
Oavpd^eTe. Kal iaQ}<i av p,e Kal 8t avTo erraive- 
(xaiTe Kal tov uvtiSikov irpoTipLijcraLTe, cd? Kai - 
avTov eiTLCei^avTa jcal hnrXacndaavTa ^ ttjv 
i)Sovi]V. TO ^aXeirbr Be TOV ToX/ir;yu.aTO? opdre, 
avev 'X^pcop.drcov Kal a')(^]pidTU)v Kal tottov avaTr]- 
cracrOai ToadvTa<; eUuva^' -v^iX^ ydp Tf9 rj ypaipij 
T(bv Xoywv. 

1 ypa^oij-Lai MSS. : ypa.'^ Guyet. 

^ &)s Kol Reitz : du fxri Kai MSS. edd. sinre Jacobitz. 

* avrhv evtSfi^avra Kal SiTrAacnauarTO MSS.: avroii ^iriSef- 
^avros Ka\ SivKaffiaaavTos edd. since Jacobitz, with two Re- 
naissance codices and the first edition. 



" Do you hear what the witness says, that he gives 
the palm to sight ? With reason, for words are 
winged and go flying off the instant they have left 
the lips, while the beauty of things seen is always 
present and lasting and entices the spectator, will 
he, iiill he. 

" Is not then a hall so beautiful and adraii'able 
a dangerous adversary to a speaker ? But I have 
not yet mentioned the principal point. You your- 
selves, gentlemen of the jury, have been regarding 
the roof as we spoke, admiring the walls and 
examining the pictures, turning toward each of 
them. Do not be ashamed ! It is excusable if you 
have felt a touch of human nature, especially in the 
presence of pictures so beautiful and so varied. The 
exactness of their technique and the combination of 
antiquarian interest and instructiveness in their 
subjects are truly seductive and call for a cultivated 
spectator. That you may not look exclusively in that 
direction and leave us in the lurch, I will do my best 
to paint you a word-picture of them, for I think you 
will be glad to hear about things which you look at 
with admiration. Perhaps you will even applaud me 
for it and prefer me to my opponent, saying that I 
have actually described the hall, and that I have 
made your pleasure double. But the difficulty of the 
task is patent, to represent so many pictures with- 
out colour, form or space. Word-painting is but a 
bald thing. 



*Ei/ Be^La fxev ovv elacovTi, ^Apyo\iK& fivdcp 22 
avafie/xiKTai TrdOo'i AWiottikov 6 Uepaein: to 
KrjTo<i (f)oi'€vei Kol ri-jv 'AvBpo/J-eSav KaOaipel, koI 
pLCTo, fiiKpov fyaji^aei kol aireLcnv avT^jv aycov 
Trdpepyov touto Trj<; iirl Topyova<i irrrjaew^. ev 
^pa-x^el he iroWa 6 Tex^^T^'i epbLfxi]a-aTO, alSo) 
vrapdivov koX (po/Sov — emaKOTret yap fJiaxv^ avw- 
6ev €K T?"}? 7reTpa<i ^ — koI veaviov roXfxav ipcoTtKr]v 
Kal d^Tpiov 6-^LV aiT pba ixayov Koi ro fiev eireiai 
7re0pi/co9 rat? uKavOai^ Koi ZehiTTopbevov rw 
^^a'cr/iart, o Yiepaev'i he rfj \aia jxev irpoheiKwai 
Tr]v Topyova, rj] he^ia he KaOiKvelraL tw ^i(j)ec' 
Kal TO fiev oaov rod ki]tov<; elhe ri-jv ^lehovcrav, 
ijhi] Xtda ecrriv, ro 8' oaov efx^p^v^ov fxevec, rfj 
apiTr] Koirrerai. 

'E^f;9 he /.lera TjyVSe rrjv elxova erepov hpapa 23 
yey pairrai hiKaiorarov, ov ro apykrvrrov o 
ypacf)ev<; irap" KvpiTTihov 77 "EofpoKXeovi hoKel 
fiot, Xa^elv eKtlvot yap ofiouav eypa-^av r)]v 
eiKova. Tft) veavia rco kraipu) Ylv\dhi)<i re 
^o)Kev<; Kol 'O/oeo-TT/? hoKwv ')']hi] redvdvat Xa- 
dovr €9 ra ^aaiXeia^ irapeXOovre t^ovevovaiv 
dp-(f)a) Tov A'lytadoV rj he K^uratfiv^arpa -qhr] 
dv/ip-qraL Kal eV evvi]? tlvo? tj pLiyv p^vos TTpoKeirat 
Kal deparreia Tvaaa, eKTre-nXriypievoi ro epyov ol fiev 
warrep ^owaiv, ol he rcv€<i otttj (pvycoan 7repi/3Xe- 
TTOuai. o-efivov he n 6 ypa(f)ev<; eirevoiicrev, ro p.ev 
dae^e<i rrj<i eiri'X^eiprjaew'i heL^a<i povov Kal &)? i'jhrj 

* Punctuation A.M.H. 

* Text Cobet : \a66vTf to. 8acr(A«ia koi MSS. 



•* On the right as you come in, you have a com- 
bination of Argolic myth and Ethiopian romance. 
Perseus is killing the sea-monster and freeing 
Andromeda ; in a little while he will marry her and 
go away with her. It is an incident to his winged 
quest of the Gorgons. The artist has represented 
much in little — the inaid's modesty and terror (for 
she is looking down on the fight from the cliff 
overhead), the lad's fond courage and the beast's 
unconquerable mien. As he comes on bi-istling with 
spines and inspiring terror with his gaping jaws 
Perseus displays the Gorgon in his left hand, and 
with his right assails him with the sword : the part 
of the monster which has seen the Medusa is already 
stone, and the part that is still alive is feeling the 
hanger's edge.^ 

" Next to this picture is portrayed another right- 
eous deed, for which the painter derived his model, 
I suppose, from Euripides or Sophocles, inasmuch as 
they have portrayed the subject in the same way.^ 
The two youthful comrades Pylades of Phocis and 
Orestes (supposed to be dead) have secretly entered 
the palace and are slaying Aegisthus. Clytemnestra 
is already slain and is stretched on a bed half-naked, 
and the whole household is stunned by the deed — 
some are shouting, apparently, and others casting 
about for a way of escape. It was a noble device on 
the painter's part simply to indicate the impious 
element in the undertaking and pass it over as an 

1 Cf. Claudian {Gigantom. 113), of a <;iant slain by Athena : 
pars moritur ferro, partes periere videndo. An echo of the 
same source ? 

2 In the Electra of each. But this description is modelled 
on Sophocles (1424 fif.). 



ireirpa^ixevov irapaBpaficov, efx^pa8vvovTa<; Be Tovf; 
veavKTKQV^ epyaad/jievo'i tw tov /jloi^ov c^ovm. 

Mera he rovro ^ec<? iariv €Ufiop(f)0<; koI 24 
/xecpaKiov oipaiov, epcoriKrj rtf iraLhid' o Bpd'yx^o'i 
eirl ireTpa<i Kade^6fievo<i dvex^i Xaycbv koL Trpocr- 
irai^ei tov Kvva, o Se TrrjSrjcrofiivw eoiKev eV avrbv 
649 TO vy^o<;, Kol ^ AttoXXcov Trapecnioq fxeiSid rep- 
TTOfievo'^ dfj,cf)olv Kol T(p TTacSl Trail^ovTi kol ireipoi- 
fjbivq) TU) KvvL 

'Ett* he TOVTOi^ Tlepcrev<i irdXiv to, irpo 25 
TOV KriTOV<i eKelva toX/jImv koX rj M.ehovara Te/x- 
uofievr} Trjv Ke^aXrjv Kal ^AOrjvd (TKeirovaa tov 
Ylepcrew 6 he Trjv fiev ToXfxav ecpyacrTai, to he 
epyov ovx ewpaKev, irXrjv ^ eVt t?/9 dcnriho's t?}? 
Vop'yovo'i Triv eiKova' o\he yap to TrpoaTi/jLov Trj<i 
d\r}Oov<i oyjreco^. 

Kara he tov /xeaov toZ')(ov dvco tj}? dvTi- 26 
dvpov^ A6i]va<i vao<; ireTrouirai, rj deo'^ \i6ov 
XeuKou, TO (TX^I/J'Ci 01) 7ro\e /j,iaT}jptov , aXX,' olov 
dv yevoiTO etprji'rjv dyovarj^ Oeov 7ro\€/j,L/c7]<;. 

Etra fieTa Tavrrjv dWnj 'AOyji-'d, ov Xt^o? 27 
avTT} ye, dWa ypacpr] TrdXiv " licf)ac(TT0<i t. Wrjv 
hicoKct epo)v, 1] he (^evyei, kuk t?}? hiu)^e(t}<; 
^pL')(d6vL0<i yiyveTai. 

TavTr} eireTai iraXaid rt? dWrj ypac^iy 'flpiwv 28 
<^epei, TOV KrjhaXLcova TV(f)X6<; cov, 6 8' avTco 
(TrjfMaivei Ty]v 7rpo<? to (f>co<; ohov eVo^oUyticyo?, 
/cat ' HXt09 (f)av6l<; luTai' ttjv Trijpcoaiv, Kol 29 
o ' H^af(TT09 ArjfivuOev eiriaKoirel to epyov. 

^Ohvcr<Tev<i TO /xeTa tovto hrjdev /jLe/jLr]vu)<;, utc 30 

' ■ir\i]i' Schwartz : irw MSS. 

^ iivTiOvpov Guyet (cf. tj -irapdBvpos) : avTidupos MSSt 



accomplished fact, and to represent the young men 
lingering over the slaying of the adulterer. 

"Next is a handsome god and a pretty boy, a 
scene of fond foolery. Branchus, sitting on a rock, 
is holding up a hare and teasing his dog, while the 
dog is apparently going to spring up at him ; Apollo, 
standing near, is smiling in amusement at the tricks 
of the lad and the efforts of the dog. 

"Then comes Perseus again, in the adventure 
which preceded the sea- monster. He is cutting off 
the head of Medusa, and Athena is shielding him. 
He has done the daring deed, but has not looked, 
except at the reflection of the Gorgon in the shield, 
for he knows the cost of looking at the reality. 

"In the middle of the wall, above the postern ^ 
is constructed a shrine of Athena. The goddess is 
of marble, and is not in harness but as a war-goddess 
would appear when at peace. 

"Then we have another Athena, not of marble 
this time, but in colours as before. Hephaestus is 
pursuing her amorously ; she is running away and 
Erichthonius is being engendered of the chase.^ 

" On this there follows another prehistoric picture. 
Orion, who is blind, is carrying Cedalion, and the 
latter, riding on his back, is showing him the way 
to the sunlight. The rising sun is healing the 
blindness of Orion, and Hephaestus views the in- 
cident from Lemnos. 

"Odysseus is next, feigning madness because 

^ Or perhaps " rear window." 

8 Motlier Earth gave birth to him, not Athena. 



avarpareveiv ^ rol<} ''ArpeihaL^ fir) OeXwv Trdpeiai 
Be ol 7rpea^ei<i i'jSrj KaX.ovvT€<i. koI ra fiev rti^i 
viroKptaeai'i TriOava iravra, rj aTnpri, to rwv 
vire^evy iJLev(i)v uavfMcpcovov, i) avoia'^ roiv hpwpLevwv 
e\e^-)(erai Se ofj,co<i rrp ^pecf>€L- IIa\afi7]8i](i yap 
Tov NavTrXtou crvvel'i to yiyvopevov, up7rdcra<i 
Tov Tri\epa)(ov aTretXel (jiovevaeiv irpoKwirov 
e-xcov TO ^Lcf)o^, Kol 7rpo<i Tr]v t?}? pavia<; inro- 
Kpiatv opytjv Kal outo? dvOviroKplveTai. 6 he 
'OSucrcrei)? tt/so? tov (po^ov tovtov acocpporet 
Kal iraT-iip yiyveTat kol Xvet tjjv viroKpicnv. 

TcrTUTT] Be y M.T]Beia yeypaiTTai tw "C^rfKui 31 
BiaKar]^, Toi iralBe VTrofiXeTrovaa KaL to Seivov 
ivvoovaa' e%ei yovv yByj to f/^09, tco S' uOXlco 
Kadrjadov yeXoiVTe, fir/Bev twv fMeXXovrcov elBoTC, 
KUi TavTa opoDVTe to ^i(f)o<i iv lalv ')(epolv. 

Tavra iravTa, o) avBpe<i BiKaaTai, ovy 
opuTe 07rco<i drrdyei fiei' tov uKpoaTi^v koI 7rp6<; 
Trjv deav dTroaTpe<^ei, fiovov Be KaTaXeiiret, tov 
Xeyovra; Kal eytuye Bi€^)]X6ov avTa, ov^ "va tov 
dvTiBiKov ToX[xripov vTToXa^uvTe'i Kal Opaavv, el 
Tol<i ouTco BvaKoXoiii kavTov eKwv (pepcov iire/SaXev, 
KaTayvb)T€ Kal pnai'^a-^iTe Kal iirl twv Xoycov 
eyKaTaXiTrrjTe, aXX iva jxaXXov avTU) avvaycov- 
la'ijcrde Kal co? olov ts KaTapvovTe<; dK0V7]Te twv 
Xeyofxevcov, Xoyi^o/uievoi tov irpdypLaTO'^ ttjv Bvaye- 
peiav fioXii; yap av ovtco BwrjOeir} ov BcKaaTat<; 

^ are a-vaTpaTeveiv Gn3'et, Gesner : ore avOTparevfi MSS. 
(but (TuffTpaTfvfiv Z and correction in VV). 
2 i] Svoia Schwartz : iyvoia MSS. 



he does not want to make the campaign with the 
sons of Atreus. The ambassadors are there to 
summon him. All the details of his pretence are 
true to life — the wagon, the ill-matched team,^ the 
folly of his actions. He is shown up, however, by 
means of his child. Palamedes, son of Nauplius, 
comprehending the situation, seizes Telemachus and 
threatens, sword in hand, to kill him, meeting 
Odysseus' pretence of madness with a pretence of 
anger. In the face of this fright Odysseus grows 
sane, becomes a father and abandons his pretence. 

" Last of all Medea is pictured aflame with 
jealousy, looking askance at her two boys with a 
terrible purpose in her mind — indeed, she already 
has her sword — while the poor children sit there 
laughing, unsuspicious of the future, although they 
see the sword in her hands. 

"Do you not see, gentlemen of the jury, how 
all these things attract the heai*er and turn him away 
to look, leaving the speaker stranded ? My purpose 
in describing them was not that you migiit think 
my opponent bold and daring for voluntarily attack- 
ing a task so difficult, and so pronounce against him, 
dislike him and leave him floundering, but that on 
the contrary you might support him and do your 
best to close your eyes and listen to what he says, 
taking into consideration the hardness of the thing. 
Even under these circumstances, when he has you 

^ He yoked an ass and an ox together. 



aWa arvvayoJi'iaralf; v/j,iv y^prjo-dfxevo'i fi7] iravrd- 
iracriv dvd^LO<i rrj^; rov olkov TroXyTeXeLw; vo/jli- 
(T6i)vai. el Be inrep avriSi/cov ravra heofxai, //,r, 
dav/jida7]Te' xjtto yap rov rov olkov (jyiXeiv Kat 
TOP ev avTw \e<yovra, 6aTi<i av y, ^ouXoifMijv av 



as supporters, not judojes, it will be just barely pos- 
sible for him to avoid being thou::rht altojjether un- 
worthy of the splendour of the hall. Do not be 
surprised that I make this request in behalf of an 
adversary, for on account of my fondness for the hall 
I should like anyone who may speak in it^ no matter 
who he is, to be successful." 



If this piece had not come down to us among the works of 
Lucian, nobody would ever have thought of attributing it 
to him. 


Oti /lev ovSev jXvKiov 179 TrarpLho^, ^ddvei ] 
TT pored pu\'>]/u.€Vov. ap" ovv rjSiov fxev ovSev, aep,- 
uorepov 8e ri koI Oetorepov dWo; koL /xr)v oaa 
crefiva koX Oela vofit^ovaiv dvdpwTrot, tovtcov 
irarpi^ atria Kal SiSdaKaXo^, yevvrjaa/jLevi] Kal 
dvadpeylrafievrj Kal 7Tai,Sevtra/Mevr]. iroXerov fxev 
ovv p-eyedy] Kal \ap,'7rp6rr]ra(} Kal 7roXfTeXeta9 
KaraaK€V(bv davp^d^ovai iroWoi, irarpiha'i 5e 
arepyovat ircivra' Kal roaovrov ovSeU e^i^irari'idii 
roiv Kal rrdvv KeKparrjpbevwv viro rrj<i Kara rrjv 
Oeav 7j8ovP]<i, dx; viro rr)<; VTT€pl3o\ri<i rcbv irap 
aWoL<; davpbdrwvXrjOriv TTou'jaaaOaL rf]<;7rarpLSo<;. 
oartf fzev ovv aep^vvverai TroXirrj'i wv evhal- 2 
p,ovoi 7ro\€co<i, d'yvoetv fioi BoKel riva xph Tcp.rjv 
d'TTOvep.eiv ry irarplht, Kal 6 roiovro^ 8/'}Xo9 iariv 
d-xp6p,evo<i dv, el p.erpiwrepa<i eXa^e t^9 TrarplSa' 
€p,ol 8e ySiov avro npidv ro ry]<i 7rarpiSo<; 6vop.a. 
7roXeL<i /jL€v yap nrapajSaXelv Treipcofieva) TrpoarjKeL 
/.leyeda i^erd^eiv Kal KoXXo'i Kal rrjv rwv mvlcov 
ncpOovLav OTTov S' aipeai'i ian troXewv, ovZelq dv 
eXotro rip Xapnrporepav edaa^i rr]v rrarpiha, dXX 
ev^airo puev dv eivai Kal rrjv TrarplSa rai<; evSat- 
/.loai irapairXricnav, eXoiro 3' dv rrjv orroLavovv. 
ro S' avro rovro Kal 01 SiKaiot rcov rraiScov 3 



" Nothing sweeter than one's native land " ^ is 
already a commonplace. If nothing is sweeter, then 
is anything more holy and divine ? Truly of all that 
men count holy and divine their native land is cause 
and teacher, in that she bears, nurtures and educates 
them. To be sure, many admire cities for their size, 
their splendour and the magnificence of their public 
works, but everyone loves his own country ; and 
even among men completely overmastered by the 
lust of the eye, no one is so misguided as to be foi-get- 
ful of it because of the greater number of wonders 
in other countries. Therefore a man who prides 
himself on being citizen of a pi-osperous state does 
not know, it seems to me, what sort of honour one 
should pay his native land, and such an one would 
clearly take it ill if his lot had fallen in a less 
pretentious place. For my part I prefer to honour 
the mere name of native land. In attempting to 
compare states, it is proper, of course, to investigate 
their size and beauty and the abundance of their sup- 
plies ; but when it is a question of choosing between 
them, nobody would choose the more splendid and 
give up his own. He would pray that it too might 
be as prosperous as any, but would choose it, no matter 
what it was. Upright children and good fathers do 

1 Ody»s. 9, 34. 


VOL. 1. H 


TrpaTTovaiv koX ol 'X^prjcrToi tcov irarepccv ovre 
•yap veo'i Ka\o<; KciyaOo'i aWop av TrpoTi/xijaai 
Tov Trarpo'i ovre irarrjp Kara/uieX/jaa^ tov 7rai8b<; 
erepov av arep^ac veov, aWa rocrovrov ye ol 
Trarepe? viKcofievoi irpoavefxovai rot? Traiaiv, (ocrre 
Koi KaWicTTOi Kal /xeyicTTOi kclI roi? iraaiv apicrra 
KeKoa/ji7jp,evoi ol jratSe^ avTOt<; elvai BoKovcriv. 
oaTL<i he pby-j Toiovr6<; iari SiKacrT7](; tt/oo? tov vlov, 
ov SoKel fiat, Trarpo'i 6cf)6aXpiov<; ex^iv. 

Yiarpiho^ rotvvv to ovofia irpfoTov olfcetoTarov 4 
TrdvTcov ovSev yap 6 rt tov 7raTpo<; ocKeioTepov. 
el Se Tt? aTTovepiei tm irarpl tijv htKalav Ti,pi]v, 
wairep Kal 6 v6jji0<; Kal rj <f)vai<i KeXevet, Trpoarj- 
KovTW'i av Ttjv TraTpiSa 7rporip,^aar Kal yap 6 
iraTijp avTO<i t% TrarptSo? KTripu Kal 6 tov 
iraTpo'i irarrip Kal ol eK tovtcov otKeloL irdvTe<i 
dvcoTepco, Kal /^^XP^ Oewv iraTpwwv TrpoeiaLV 
dva^ifBal^opevov to ovofia. yaipovai Kal 6eol 5 
TraTplai Kal iravTa p,€V, co<i et/co?, e^opwai to, tcov 
dvOpMiTwv, avTwv i)yovp.evoi KT^/naTa iraaav yfjv 
Kal daXaacrav, e0' ?}? Se €Ka(TTO<; avTCJv eyeveTO, 
irpoTipa T&v dX\o)v diracrSiv irokecov. Kal iroXei^ 
crep^voTepai 6ecov Trar/otSe? Kal vijaoi OetoTepat 
Trap" at9 vpLvelTat yeveats 6eo)V. lepd yovv 
Kex^ipicr/xiva TavTa vopl^eTat, Toi<i Oeol^, iireiSdv 
et? Toy? ot/cetOL'? eKaaro^; dcfyiKopevo^; lepovpyy 
TOTTOV^. el Se 6eol<i Tipbiov to Tri<; iraTpiSo^i ovop^a, 
7rw9 ovK dvdpcoTTOL^ ye ttoXv /xdWov; Kal yap 6 
elSe TOV rfkiov irpoiTov eKaaTo<i diro t% Trar/jtSo?, 
ox? Kal TOVTOV TOV deov, el Kal koivo^ ecTTLv, dXJC 
ovv eKddTO) vop,l^€a6ai iraTp&ov Sid tt^v TrpcoTyv 
ciTTo TOV TOTTOV Octtv Kal (f)o)Vt]^ ivTavOa I'lp^aTO 



just the same thing. A lad of birth and breeding 
would not honour anyone else above his father^ and 
a father would not neglect his son and cherish some 
other lad. In fact, fathers, influenced by their 
affection, give their sons so much more than their 
due that they think them the best-looking, the 
tallest and the most accomplished in every way 
One who does not judge his son in this spirit does 
not seem to me to have a father's eyes. 

In the first place, then, the name of fatherland 
is closer to one's heart than all else, for there is 
nothing closer than a father. If one pays his father 
proper honour, as law and nature direct, then one 
should honour his fatherland still more, for his father 
himself belonged to it and his father's father and all 
their forbears, and the name of father goes back 
until it reaches the fVxther-gods. Even the gods 
have countries that they rejoice in, and although 
they watch over all the abodes of man, deeming that 
every land and every sea is theirs, nevertheless each 
honours the place in Avhich he was born above all 
other states. Cities are holier when they are homes 
of gods, and islands more divine if legends are told 
of the birth of gods in them. Indeed, sacrifices 
are accounted pleasing to the gods when one goes to 
their native places to perform the ceremony. If, then, 
the name of native land is in honour with the gods, 
should it not be far more so with mankind ? Each 
of us had his first sight of the sun from his native 
land, and so that god, universal though he be, is 
nevertheless accounted by everyone a home-god, be- 
cause of the place from which he saw him first. 
Moreover, each of us began to speak there, learning 



ra eiriyuipia irpwTa \a\etv fiavOdvcov koI 6eov^ 
ejvooptaev. el 8e rt? TOiavrrjf; eka'^e iraTpiho';, 
(09 krepa<i BeTjOrjvai 7r/0O9 rrjv rwv fiei^ovcov irai- 
heiav, aXX" ovv e^^ero) koX tovtwv tmv TraiSev/xdrcov 
rfi TraTpcSi ttjv ')(^dpiv' ov <yap av i'yvcopiaev ovSe 
TToXeo)? ovo/xa [xr] Bia ttjv irarplha iroXiv elvat 

HavTU Se, olfxai, iraiSevfuiTa koI fiaOrjfiaTa 7 
(TvWejov(Tiv avdpoi'Troi ')(^prjaifi(OTepov<i avrov<i 
diro TOVTWv Tdl<i irarpLcri irapaa/cevd^ovTe^' 
KTMvrai Se Kal ')(^pi]fj,aTa ^iXort/ita? eveKev rrjf; 
€L<i ra KOiva tt}? TrarptSo? BairavrjpiaTa. koI 
€Ikot(o<;, Oifiai' Set yap ovk d')(apl(nov<; elvai rov<; 
T(ov fiejiCTTcov Tux6vTa<; evepyeaitov. aXV el toi<; 
Kad^ eva Ti? cnroveficL '^dpiv, oocnrep earl BiKaiov, 
eTreihav ev irdOr] irp6<; Tivo<f, ttoXv /ndWov irpocr- 
jJKei Ti]V irarplSa Tot? Kad/jKovatv dfiei/Seadat' 
»ca/cot)crea>9 /jiev yap yovewv elcrl vojiot irapa raif 
TToXecri, Koivijv Be Trpoajj/cei Trdvrcov fnjrepa ttjv 
irarpiBa vofxi^eiv Kal ■)(^apicrT7]pia rpo^wv diroBt- 
BovuL Kal tP]^ tmv v6[xwv avrwv yvuxreco^. 

^'Q,(pdr] Be ovBel^ ovrca d/xvijficov t7}9 Trarpi- 8 
So9, ft)9 ev oXXt} TToXet yevopuevo'; djxe\elv, aXX' oi 
re KaK07rpayovvTe<; ev TaL<; d7roBr]p,Lat<; a-vvex(o<; 
dvaKaXovatv &)9 peyiarov tmv dyaOwv t) Trarpi^;, 
oX re evBai/jiOVovine'i, av Kal ra dWa ev Trpdrrco- 
(Tiv, Touro youv avTolf fieyiarov evBeiv vofil^ovaiv 
TO pLT] TTJV iraTpiBa olKeiv, dWd ^eviTeveiv oveiBo^ 
yap TO Tr}9 ^eviTeia^. Kal Tov<i KaTa tov t^9 
aTToBrip^ia^ Xpovov \ap7rpou<; yevopevov; rj Bta 
XpiJI^dTcov KTYjCTLV Tj Bid Tipbfj'i Bo^av 77 Bid irai' 


first to talk his native dialect, and came to know the 
gods there. If a man's lot has been cast in such a 
land that he has required another for his higher 
education, he should still be thankful to his fatherland 
for these early teachings, for he would not have 
kno>\'n even the meaning of " state " if his country 
had not taught him that there was such a thing. 

The reason, I take it, for which men amass 
education and learning is that they may thereby 
make themselves more useful to their native land, 
and they likewise acquire riches out of ambition to 
contribute to its common funds. With reason, I 
think : for men should not be ungrateful when 
they have received the greatest favours. On the 
contrary, if a man returns thanks to individuals, 
as is right, when he has been well treated by 
them, much more should he i-equite his country 
with its due. To wrong one's parents is against the 
law of the different states ; but counting our native 
land the common mother of us all, we should give 
her thank-offerings for our nurture and for our 
knowledge of the law itself. 

No one was ever known to be so forgetful of 
his country as to care nothing for it when he was 
in another state. No, those who get on badly in 
foreign parts continually cry out that one's own 
country is the greatest of all blessings, while those 
who get on well, however successful they may be in all 
else, think that they lack one thing at least, a thing 
of the greatest importance, in that they do not live 
in their own country but sojourn in a strange land ; for 
thus to sojourn is a reproach ! And men who during 
their years abroad have become illustrious through 
acquirement of wealth, through renown from oflice- 



o€ia<; fxapTvplav i) 8c av8peia<; eiraivov e'crrti' IheZv 
6t<? Tr]v rrarplha TravTWi eireijofievovi, cw? ovk av 
ev aXkoL^ ^eXrioaiv iiriSei^a/jiei'Ovii ra avrcav 
KoKa' Kol roaovruf ye fidWou €KacrTO<; cnrevSet 
\aj3ea6ai t?}? '7raTpLSo<;, oawTrep av (^aivrjTai 
fji€i^6vo)v Trap dX\.oc<; rj^iwfxevo'i. 

UodeivT) fiev ovv Kal veoi<i ?} 7rarpL<;- T049 Se 9 
r]8T] jeyrjpaKocnv oaw nfKelov rov ^poveiv 77 rot^ 
veoi<i /xereari, Toaovrq) Kal ifkeicov eyyiverai 
TTodo'i Tf]<i 7raTpi8o<;' eKa<Tro<i yovv roiv yey-ijpa- 
KOTQiv Kal cnrevBet Kal eu^erat KaTaXvaai top 
^iov eVt Trj<i 7raTpLSo<i, Iv , oQev 'ijp^aro ^lovv, 
evTavOa irdXiv koI to aco/uLa TrapaKarddTjTat, rfj 
yfj rp Opeyjra/nivr) Kal tmv irarpcawv KOU'covijarj 
Td(f)cov' Seivbv yap eKaaru) Boxel few'a? dXiaKe- 
aOai Kal jxera Odvarov, iv dWoTpiq Keip,kv(0 yfj. 

"Oaov Se T/}i? evvoia<i rrj<i irpo'i rd<; irarpiha^ 1 
/xireaTiv rot? co? dXrjOS)^ yvj]a[oi<; Trdktrai^ [xddot 
Tt.<; av eK tmv avroyOovoiV' ol fiev yap eV^^XuSe? 
KaOdirep vodot pa8[a<; Troiouvrac ra? jxeravaard- 
aet^, TO fMev tj}? 7raTpi8o<; 6vo/xa pi'jTe el86Te<; /i?/T6 
aripyovTe^;, 7)yovjii€VOi 8' diravTaxov tmv iiriTrj- 
Seiwv ev7rop)]cr€tv, p-eTpov eu8aip,ovLa<i Ta<i t^9 
yacTTpof ')']8ova<i TiOep^evoL. ol^ Be Kal /xt^t?;/) 7) 
iTaTpL<i, dyairoxn ttjv yi]V e(f) 179 iyevovTO Kal 
eTpd(f)rjaav, Kav oXiyrjv e;^&)o-i, kov Tpa^eiav Kal 
XeTTToyecov Kav diropoiai t?}? 7?}? eTvaiveaai ti]V 
dpeT7]v, TMV ye virep t?}? 7raTpL8o<; ovk dTropi'jaov- 
atv eyKutpifov. dWa kuv IBoicriv eTepov<; aep,vvro- 
pevov<i TTehioi'i dveip,evoi<; Kal \ei/xa)at <pvToi<i 
iravToBaiTol'i BcecXtjp.pevoi^;, koI avTol TUiv t?}? 



holding, through testimony to their culture, or 
through praise of their bi-avery, can be seen hurrying 
one and all to their native land, as if they thought 
they could not anywhere else find better people 
before whom to display the evidences of their 
success. The more a man is esteemed elsewhere, 
the more eager is he to regain his own country. 

Even the young love their native land ; but 
aged men, being wiser, love it more. In fact, every 
aged man yearns and prays to end his life in it, 
that there in the place where he began to live he 
may deposit his body in the earth which nurtured 
him and may share the graves of his fathers. He 
thinks it a calamity to be guilty of being an 
alien even after death, through lying buried in a 
strange land. 

How much affection real, true citizens have 
for their native land can be learned only among a 
people sprung from the soil. Newcomers, being but 
l)astard children, as it were, transfer their allegiance 
easily, since they neither know nor love the name of 
native land, but expect to be well provided with the 
necessities of life wherever they may be,^ measuring 
happiness by their appetites ! On the other hand, 
tliose who have a real mother-country love the soil 
on which they were born and bred, even if they own 
but little of it, and that be rough and thin. Though 
they be hard put to it to praise the soil, they will not 
lack words to extol their country. Indeed, when 
they see others priding themselves on their open 
plains and grass-lands diversified with all manner of 
growing things, they themselves do not forget the 

1 Cf. Thucydides 1, 1. 



7raTpiBo<; iyKoofxioov ouk eTriXavdavovTai, ttjv Se 
iTTTTorpocfiov v7r€popo)VTe<i T7]v KovpoTp6(pop iirai- 
vovai. Kol (Tirevhet, tl<; elf rrjv iraTpiha, kclv 11 
vricndoTr]^ rj, kclv irap dWot<i evSai/iovelv Svvrjrac, 
Kol hihoiJbevrjv adavaaiav ov irpoarjcreTai., irpo- 
TifjLMV Tov iirl T% 7rarplho<i rd(j)ov, Kal 6 T>}<f 
7raTpiho<i avrS) KUTrvb^ Xa/xTrpoTepo'i ocpdijaerai 
TOV Trap aXXoi<; ttu/oo?. 

OvTco Be apa rlfMiov elvuL SoKel rrapa Trdaiv 12 
fj TraT/ot?, ioare kol tou^ iravraxov vofjLoOera'i iSoi 
Tt9 av eVi 7049 /xeylaTOi<; ahiKt]pacnv &)9 ')^a\€7rco- 
Tarr}v eirc^e^X'ijKOTa^ Tt]v (fivytjv rificoplav. Kal 
oy^ OL vofioOiraL fiev ovro)<; e'X^ovaiv, ol Se irtcnevo- 
jxevoi ra'i (TrpaTrijLa<; irepo)<i, aXX' iv TaZ<i jj.d'xaL'i 
TO fieyiarov iari rcbv 7rapayye\p,dT(0v rol'i 
TrapaTaTTOfievoif, d)<; vwep iraTpiho'i avroi^ 6 
7roA.eyuo9, Kal ovSel^; ocTTt? av dKovaa<i tovtov 
KaKO^ eivai 6e\rj- iroiel yap tov SeiXov dvhpelov 
TO rrjq 7raTpiho<; ovo/xa. 



merits of their own country, and pass over its fitness 
for breeding horses to praise its fitness for breeding 
men. One hastens to his native land though he be 
an islander, and though he could lead a life of ease 
elsewliere. If immortality be offered him he will not 
accept it, preferring a grave in his native land, and 
the smoke thereof is brighter to his eyes than fire 

To such an extent do all men seem to prize 
their own country that lawgivers everywhere, as one 
may note, have prescribed exile as the severest 
penalty for the greatest transgressions. And it can- 
not be said tliat in this view lawgivers differ from 
commanders. On the contrary, in battle no other 
exhortation of the marshalled men is so effective as 
" You are fighting for your native land ! " No man 
who hears this is willing to be a coward, for the 
name of native land makes even the dastard brave. 

^ This passage is full of allusions to the Odyssey. Ithaca, 
"rough, but good for breeding men" (9, 27), is not fit for 
liorses (4, GOl). Odysseus, the islander, wlio might have been 
happy, even immortal, with Circe (5, 135 ; 208), will not 
accept immortality, for his native land is dearer than all 
else to him (9, 27 flf.) and he longs to see the very smoke 
arising from it (1, 57). 



This treatise (evidently compiled in haste for a special 
occasion) cannot fairly be fathered on Lucian. It is valuable, 
however, as a document, and not uninteresting in spots. 


"Ovap Ti Tovro, XafnrpoTare KvivriXXe, KeXev- 1 
aOeU TrpoacpepQ) croi hoypov rov<{ paKpo^iov<i, 
TToXat jxev to ovap ISobv koX iarop/]cra^ toi<; 
(jiLXoi<i, ore eriOeao rw Sevrepco aov iraiSl rov- 
vofMU' a-up./3aXetv Se ovk ex(ov TLva<; 6 ^eo? 
KeXevei pot 7rpoa-(f)ip€iv aoi TOv<i pLaKpo/3iov<;, rore 
p,ev €v^dp-)]v Toh deok eVt pbrjKiarov v/j,d<: ^tcovai 
ere re aurov koI TralSaf rov^ aov<;, tovto avp,- 
(pepeiv vopi^cov Koi avp^iravTi pikv tm twv avdpco- 
TTCov <yevei, irpo he tcov aTravrcov avTw re ip.ol koX 
irdcri rot'i epoh- Kal yap Kap^ol n ciyaOov eSoKei 
Trpoatjpatveiv 6 6e6<i. (TKe7rr6p.evo<i he kut ip.av- 2 
Tov ci? evvoiav ^ yXOov, eUcxi eivai rov^ 6eov<; 
avhpt irept iraihdav e^ovTi. ravra irpoaTcicraovTa^ 
KeXeveiv irpoa^epeLV aoi tcov utto tP]^ Te;)(vr]<i. 
Tuvrrjv ovv al(ri(ordT^]v vopi^cov rrjv tmv acov yeveO- 
Xloiv r^piepav hihcop,L (tol tou? laTop7]p,6vou^ etv? p,aK- 
pov yrjpa<; d^iKeadai iv vyiaLvovarj rfj "^vxj] koI 
6XoKXi)p(p rw a(op,aTi. koI yap av Kal 6^eXo<i 
yevono ri aoi etc tov avyy pdpp.aTO<i hnrXovv' 
TO p,ev euOvpta ti<; Kal eXirU dyaOrj Kal avTov eirl 
p.-qKiaTov hvvacrdai, ^CMvai, to he hihaaKaXla rt? 
CK TrapaheiypdTcov, el iTriyvolrj^ oTi oi fidXtcTTa 
eavTOiv eirip^eXeiav iTOir^adp.evoL KaTa re aoip,a 

1 iwoiov Cobet : avvvoiW MSS. 


At the behest of a dream, illustrious Quintillus, I 
make you a present of the " Octogenarians," I had 
the dream and told my friends of it long since, when 
you were celebrating the naming of your second child. 
At the time, however, not being able to understand 
what the god meant by commanding me to " present 
you the octogenarians," I merely offered a prayer that 
you and your children might live very long, tliinking 
that this would benefit not only the whole human 
race but, more than anyone else, me in person and 
all my kin ; for I too, it seemed, had a blessing 
predicted for me by the god. But as I thought the 
matter over by myself, I hit upon the idea that very 
likely in giving such an order to a literary man, the 
gods were commanding him to present you some- 
thing from his profession. Therefore, on this your 
birthday, which I thought the most auspicious 
occasion, I give you the men who are related to have 
attained great age with a sound mind and a perfect 
body. Some profit may accrue to you from the 
treatise in two ways : on the one hand, encouragement 
and good hopes of being able to live long yourself, 
and on the other hand, instruction by examples, if 
you observe that it is the men who have paid most 



Kol Kara yfrvxv^f ovtoi 8t] eZ? fMaKporarov yijpa*; 
rjXOov (Tvv vyieia iravTeXet. Nearopa fxev ovv 3 
Tov (TO^coraTOV tcov K.'^aLwv iirl Tpei<i Traparelvai 
y€vea<; "Ofn]po^ Xiyei, ov (TwiaTrjaiv i^/xlv yeyvp,- 
vaa-fievov apicrra kol "^vxfl '^<3^t aatfiaTi. koI 
Teipecriav Se rov fidvriv rj rpaywhla iJ.€^pi<i e^ 
yevewv TrapaTelvai \iyei. wtOavov 8' av eh) 
avhpa 6eol<i avaKeifxevov /caOapcDrepa hialTrj XP^' 
fievov^ eirl jxi^Kiarov ^tcovai. koX yivrj Be oXa 4 
jxaKpo^ia laropelrat Sia rrjv hlairav, wcnrep 
hlyvTTTLwv ol KoKovixevoi i€poypafj,p,aTei<;, 'Aacrv- 
ptoiv he Kol ^KpdjBwv ol e^i]yT]Tal t<ov pv9wv, 
^Ivhoiv he ol Ka\ovp.evot, Bpaxp-aveii, avhpe<i 
(iKpi^co^ (f)t\o(ro(f)ia crxpXd^ovre^, koI ol koXov- 
jjuevoL he p.dyoi, yevo^ tovto jxavriKov koI deoi<i 
dvaKelfxepov irapd re Ilepcrai? /cat Hap^ot? kol 
BdKTpot^ Kal Xa)/5ao"/xtot9 koI Apeioi? /cat SaVat? 
/cal Mt;Soi9 Kal irapa ttoXXoi? dWoi<i ^ap^dpoi<;, 
ippcofxevoi re elai Kal TroXv^povioc hid ro fiayeveiv 
hiaiTcopevot Kal avToi aKpL^earepov. yhr] he 5 
Kal e6v)j oXa /xa/fpo^ccoTaTa, wairep ^r]pa<; p,ev 
l<TTopov(Ti fxexpi' TpiaKoalcov i^rjv eroiv, ol fiev tw 
dipt, ol he TT] yfi ttjv alriav tov puaKpov y^pco^i irpocr- 
Tidevre^, ol he Kal rfj hialTrj' vhpoTTorelv ydp cj^aat 
TO eOvoi tovto avjXTrav. Kal 'AOa)Ta<i he p-ixpt' 
TpiaKOVTU Kal eKaTov eT&v ^lovv IcrTopelTai, Kal 
T0V(; XaXSatoi;9 virep Ta CKarov ctt] ^covv X6yo<;, 
TOVTOV<; fiev Kal KpiOivw dpTw ^j^pw/xei/of?, co? 
o^vhopKia<i TOVTO (f)dp/j.aKov' ol<i ye (paai htd tjjv 
ToiavTtjv hlaiTav Kal Td<; dXXa<; aladrjcreL^ v-nep 
Tov<i dXXov<i dvdp(i)rrov<i ippcofieva^ elvdi. 

^ Xp^t/^fvov ^la.dvi^: XP'^A'*''"*' Tb;' TtipTjciai' MSS. 


attention to body and mind that have reached an 
advanced age in full health, Nestor, you know, 
the wisest of the Achaeans, outlasted three genera- 
tions. Homer says : ^ and he tells us that he was 
splendidly trained in mind and in body. Likewise 
Teiresias the seer outlasted six generations, tragedy 
says : ^ and one may well believe that a man 
consecrated to the gods, following a simpler diet, 
lives very long. Moreover, it is related that, owing 
to their diet, whole castes of men live long like 
the so-called scribes in Egypt, the story-tellers 
in Syria and Arabia, and the so-called Brahmins in 
India, men scrupulously attentive to philosophy. 
Also the so-called Magi, a prophetic caste con- 
secrated to the gods, dwelling among the Persians, 
the Parthians, the Bactrians, the Chorasmians, the 
Arians, the Sacae, the Medes and many other 
barbarian peoples, are strong and long-lived, on 
account of practising magic, for they diet very scru- 
pulously. Indeed, there are even whole nations that 
are very long-lived, like the Seres, who are said to live 
three hundred years : some attribute their old age to 
the climate, others to the soil and still others to their 
diet, for they say that this entire nation drinks 
nothing but water. The people of Athos are also 
said to live a hundi*ed and thirty years, and it is 
reported that the Chaldeans live more than a 
hundred, using barley bread to preserve the sharp- 
ness of their eyesight. They say, too, that on 
account of this diet their other faculties are more 
vigorous than those of the rest of mankind. 

^ II. 1, 250 ; Odyss. 3, 245. ^ The source is unknown. 



AXka ravra /xev irepi re tw^ fxaKpo^iwv 6 
yevwv Koi twv eOvwv, arivd ^aaiv'^u)^ eVl TrXei- 
(TTOV SiajLyvpaOat ypovov, ol fiev 8ia ttjv <yrjv koI 
Tov aepa, oi be oia ti-jv OLanav, oi oe Kai oi aficpo). 
eyco o av aoi oiKana ttjv eMnoa pabtav 
irapaa'XOLpbi laropi']aa<; on koI Kara Traaav ytjv 
Kal Kara iravra aepa /jbaKpo/Scoi yeyovaaiv avhpe<; 
ol yvfivacrioi^; rot? 7rpoai']Kovaiv Kal hLairr) tj) 
eiriTrjSetoTarT) Trpo? vyleiav ■y^pcofievoi. Siai- 7 
peaiv Se rov Xoyov Troujaofiai rrjv Trpcortjv KaTO. 
rdTTiTtiSev/iiaT'a tmv dvhpSiv, Kal Trpcorovi ye aoi 
T0U9 ^aaiXifcov<; Kal toi)? (TTpaTrjyLKOv<; avhpa<; 
laropTi'ycroi, wv eva rj ^ evaejBeardrr) fieydXov 
Oeiordrov avTOKpdropo<; tv^^^tj ei9 rrjv reXeoiTdTrjv 
dyayovaa rd^iv evepyerrjKe ra ixeyiara Trjv 
olKov/j.evr]v rrjv eavrov' ovtq) yap av d7n8a)v Kal 
av Tcov ixaKpol3icov dvSpcjv tt/oo? to ofiotov t^? 
e^eft)? Kal t^9 "^^XV^ eroLfiOTCpov iX,7rLa€ia<; yrjpa^i 
vyieivov Kal fxaKpov Kal d/xa ^ifKu)aa<i epydaaio 
aavTU) rfj Siairrj fieyiaTov re dfia Kal vyteivora- 
rov ^'iQi>. 

IIo/j.7ri\io<; Nof/ia? o €v8ai/iiov€(TTaro<; tmv 8 
'Vcojiaicov ^aatXecov Kal fidXiara irepl ttjv depa- 
Treiav tmv deoiv daxpXTjdelf; uTrep rd oyhot^KOVTa 
err] ^e^icoKevat laTopeiTai. Se/5/3to9 Be TovWio<; 
V(jL>i.Laiwv Kal outo9 ^aai\ev<i virep rd oyhor^Kovra 
ery] Kal auT09 ^iwaai laTopelrai. TapKvivio^ Be 
6 reXef Tat09 'P(o/xalo)v ^acriXev<; (f)vyaBevOel<; Kal 

' l>^5lav Schwartz : ^oSi'ois MSS, 
^ 7; Marcilius, Mains : Kal MSS. 



But this must suffice in regard to the long-lived 
castes and nations who are said to exist for a 
very long period either on account of their soil and 
climate, or of their diet, or of both. I can fittingly show 
you that your good hopes are of easy attainment by 
recounting that on every soil and in every clime men 
who observe the proper exei'cise and the diet most 
suitable for health have been long-lived. I shall 
l)ase the principal division of my treatise on their 
pursuits, and shall first tell you of the kings and the 
generals, one of whom the gracious dispensation of a 
great and godlike emperor has brought to the 
highest rank, thereby conferring a mighty boon upon 
the emperor's world. ^ In this way it will be possible 
for you, observing your similarity to these octo- 
genarians in condition and fortune, to have better 
expectations of a healthy and protracted old age, 
and by imitating them in your way of living to 
make your life at once long and healthy in a high 

Numa Pompilius, most fortunate of the kings 
of Rome and most devoted to the worship of the 
gods, is said to have lived more than eighty years. 
Servius Tullius, also a king of Rome, is likewise related 
to have lived more than eighty years. Tarquinius, 
the last king of Rome, who was driven into exile 

' The man is unknown : the emperor has been thought 
to be Antoninus Pius, Caracalla, and many another. The 
language, which suggests a period much later tlian Lucian, 
is so obscure that the meaning is doubtful. 



iirl K-v/jLT)^ Siarpl^cov vtrep ra ivevijKovTa err) 
Xijerat areppoTara ^icoaai. ovtol fiev ovv 'Ptu- 9 

/SaaiXewi Tov<i et9 /xuKpov yijpa'? d<ptf<o/xevov<; Kal 
fxer avrov^ Kara ra eirrnqhev fiara eKaarovi, eVt 
TeKei Be aoi koX rov^ Xonrov'i 'Pcofxaioiv roi)? 
et? fn']KiaTov 'yrjpa'i d(f)iKO/jievov<; Trpocravajpd-^co, 
TTpoadea hfia Kal TOv<i Kara ttjv Xoittijv ^IraXiav 
iirl TrXelarov ^icoaavrw;' d^coXoyof yap eXey^^o? 
ri iaropia rcov Sca/SdWetv iretpoifxevwv top ivravOa 
depa, &(TT€ Kal 7)/xd<; '^p7]aTOT6pa<f e)(^€iv ra? iXiri- 
Sa<;, reXetoi/? rj/xlv rdf eu^a? eaeaOai iTpo<; to et? 
/jLijkicttov re Kal XiTrapbv rov irdcrrjf; <yri<i Kal 
daXdrTT]^ BeaTTorrjv 'yrjpa<; d<f)iKea6ai, rfj eavrov 
olKoufievr] BiapKeaovra ^ rjhrj Kal yepovra. 

^ApjavdcovLoi; p.ev ovv TapTijcrcrtcov ^acriXev'i 10 
TrevTTjKovra Kal eKarov errj jBiwvat Xeyerai, 0)9 
H/>oSoT09 \oyo7roib<; Kal /zeXoTrof 09 ^ApaKpecov 
dWa rovTO fiev fivOo^ ricrt SoKec. ^AyaOoKXrjq 8e 
6 2i/ceXta9 Tvpavvo<; ircbv iveviJKovTa eTeXevra, ^ 
KaOdirep Arjino^^apr]!; Kai Ti/xaio<i laropoucriv. 
'lepwv re 6 ^vpaKovcrlwv rvpavvo<i Bvo Kal ivevij- 
Kovra eTMV yevo/xevo^ ireXevra v6cra>, ^aaiXevcrai; 
€/3So/x7]KovTa €T7], coaiTep Ai]fX7]Tpi6<; re 6 K.aXka- 
riavo<; Kal ciWoc, Xeyovaiv. ^Area<; Se "^kvOmv 
^aaiXev^ lia-)(6ixevo<i 7rpo<; '^iXiTnrov irepl rov 
"larpov rrorafjiov eTreaev inrep rd evevi]Kovra errj 
yeyovw<i. Ba/3SuXi9 Be 6 ^iXXvpicov ^aaiXev<i d^* 

' hiapKfaovra. H, variant in B : ^aatXevovra other MSS. 
■^ Text Schwartz, and correction in T: iviv-fiKovTa irevre 
(i.e. f ) Te\«vTq. MSS. 



and dwelt at Cumae, is said to have lived more than 
ninety years in the most sturdy health. These are 
the kings of Rome, to whom I shall join such other 
kings as have attained great age, and after them 
others arranged according to their various walks of life. 
In conclusion I shall record for you the other Romans 
who have attained the greatest age, adding also those 
who have lived longest in the rest of Italy. The 
list will be a competent refutation of those who 
attempt to malign our climate here ; and so we may 
have better hopes for the fulfilment of our prayers 
that the lord of every land and sea may reach a great 
and peaceful age, sufficing unto the demands of his 
world even in advanced years. 

Arganthonius, king of the Tartessians, lived a 
hundred and fifty years according to Herodotus the 
iiistorian and Anacreon the song-writer,^ but some 
consider this a fable. Agathocles, tyrant of Sicily, 
died at ninety, as Demochares and Timaeus^ tell us. 
Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse, died of an illness at the 
age of ninety-two, after having been ruler for 
seventy years, as Demetrius of Callatia and others 
say. Ateas, king of the Scythians, fell in battle 
against Philip near the river Danube at an age of 
more than ninety years. Bardylis, king of the 

^ Our author did not verify his references. Herodotus 
(1, 163) says one hundred and twenty, Anacreon {frg. 8) one 
hundred and fifty. 

* Timaeus, as quoted in Diodorus (21, 16, 5) said seventy- 



iTTTTOV \iy€Tat /jbd)(^6adai iv Ta> tt/jo? ^iX-iinTov 
TToXifxa) eh evevi'^KOvra reXSiV err]. Tijprj^ Be 
^OSpuaoiv (SacriXeix;, Kadd (^rjai @eo7ro/< .0?, hvo 
Kot iv€V7]K0VTa eTMV iTe\evT7](rev. ^AvTiyovo^ 11 
Be 6 (^tXiTTTTOV 6 /xov6<p0a\pLO'i fiaatXevcov Ma/ce- 
Bovoiv nrepl ^pvyiav fjia^6/xevo<; SeXevKO) koX 
A.vcTLfid'yw rpaviia<JL TToXXot'i irepiTreacov ereXeu- 
Ttjaev excov evo<; koI 6<yBor}KOvra, wcnrep auarpa- 
revofievo^ avrS> 'Iep(ovvfio<; laropel. koI Aucrt/xa.;^09 
Be MaKeBovcov ^aaiXev<i iv rfi Trpo^ XeXevKOV 
dTTOiXero /J'd)(^rj eTO<; ojBoijKoarov TeXwv, &)? 
auT09 (f)7]cnv 'lep(t)vv/.io<;. ^AvTijovo<i Be, o<i vl6<;^ 
fiev Tjv Ar)/xi]Tpcov, vi(ovb<i Be ^ AvTijovov tov fiovocp- 
ddXfMOv, o5to9 Teacrapa Kol reaaapdKovra Ma/ce- 
Bovwv e/SacrlXeva-ep errj, e^looae Be oyBoy'jKovTu, to? 
M.7]Bei6<i re Icnopel koX oWol a-vyypa^et^;. o/jLOica 
Be Kot *AvTi7rarpo<i 6 'loXaoi; iieyicrTOV BvvijOel^ 
KOI eimpoTTevaa^ iroXkov'i ^laKsBovwv ^aai\ea<; 
virep TO. ojBo/jKovra ovTO<i ex?; ^)']aa<i €Te\evTa tov 
Plov. Ilro\€/u.alo<; Be 6 Adyov 6 tmv Kad' 12 
avrov evBaijxoveararo'i ^acrtkewv AlyuTrrou p,ev 
e^acriXevaev, reaaapa Be Koi oyBo/jKOvra ^iCL>cra<i 
6X7/ ^cov TrapeBwKev ttjv dp^h'^' '^P^ ^^^ eroiv Trj<; 
xeXeux?}? tlToXe/Jbalfp ru) via), (S>t\a8e\(J3(p Be 
eTTLKX-yjcriv, 6aTi<i BieBe^aro rijv irarpwav ^aaiXeiav 
dBeX(f)MV. . . .^ (^iXeTaipo'i Be 7rpMTo<; /xev e/cxj;craxo 
T}]v irepl Tlepyapov dp-^rjv koI Karea'^ev evvovyo^ 
Mv, Karearpe-^re Be top ^lov ojBotJKOvra fc'xtyy 

1 tsvths A.M.H.: vihsMSS. 

^Supply TrpoTi^^j^els Trpicr^vriptev, ov the like : see note 



Illyrians, is said to have fought on horseback in the 

war against Philip in his ninetieth year. Teres, 

king of the Odrysians^ from what Theopompus says^ 

died at ninety-two. Antigonus One-eyCj son of 

Philip, and king of Macedonia^ died in Phrygia 

in battle against Seleucus and Lysimachus, witli 

man}^ wounds, at eighty-one : so we are told by 

Hieronymus, who made the campaign with him. 

Lysimachus, king of Macedonia, also lost his life in 

the battle with Seleucus in his eightieth year, as 

the same Hieronymus says. There was also an 

Antigonus who was son of Demetrius and grandson 

of Antigonus One-eye : he was king of Macedonia 

for forty-four years and lived eighty, as Medeius and 

other writers say. So too Antipater, son of lolaus, 

who had great power and was regent for many kings 

of Macedonia, was over eighty when he died. 

Ptolemy, son of Lagus, the most fortunate of the 

kings of his day, ruled over Egypt, and at the age 

of eighty-four, two years before his death, abdicated 

in favour of his son Ptolemy, called Philadelphus, 

who succeeded to his father's throne in lieu of his 

elder brothers.^ Philetaei-us, an eunuch, secured and 

kept the throne of Pergamus, and closed his life at 

' At least one word, perhaps more than one, has fallen out 
of the Greek text. Schwartz would read aSeX^v" yafiay 
{"and married his sister): my supplement is based on 
Justinus 16, 27 : is {i.e. Ptolemy Soter) contra ius gentium 
minimo natu ex filiis ante infirmitatem regnum tradiderat, 
eiusque rei rationem populo reddiderat. 



yevofievo'i. "ArTaXo? Be 6 iircKXijOeh <Jt>(Xa8eA,(^09, 
T(iov llepyafxrjvMV koI o5to? ^acnXevoiv, irpo'i ov 
Koi %KL'iriu)v 'Fo)fiai(ov aTpaTrjycx; d(f)iK€TO, Bvo 
Kol 6'ySo7]KovTa irtov i^ikiTre rov ^lov. M.t,dpi- 13 
SaTT]^ Be 6 UovTOV ^acn\ev<; 6 7rpoaayopev6el<i 
K^riarr]^ ^AvTcyovov rov fj,ovo(f)6a\fjbov ^evycov eiri 
YiovTOv ireXevTTjcrev ^cwaai eV?; reaaapa Kat 
6<yBot]KOVTa, McriTep 'lep(ovvfio<; Icnopel koX oKXol 
av'yypa(f)ei<i. ^ApiapdOr]<i Be 6 K.a7nraBoK(ii}v 
^aai\.ev<; Bvo fiev koX oyBorjKovra e^rjaev err), 
oi)9 'lep(ovv/xo<i IcTTopel' iBvvrjdr] Be tatc^ Kac erm 
liKeov BiayeveaOaL, dX)C iv rfj tTjOO? TlepBiKKUP 
p-cixv ^(oyprjOeh dveaKd\.07ri(r6r}. KOpo? Se 6 14 
YiepaMV /3aaiXev<; 6 TraXaio^;, ct)9 BrjXovaiP oi 
Yiepaodv KOL ^ Aacrvpiwv wpoi, ol<i koI 'Ovr]<x[fcpiT0<; o 
rd irepl ^ AXe^avBpov avyypd'xiraf; crvfi(f)covelv BoKel, 
eKaTOVTOvrr]<i y€v6/jbevo<i i^i]T€C fiev eva eKuarov 
TMV (f)i\o)V, jxadwv Be TOV<i TrXetcrroi/? Bi,€(f>Oap- 
/xevovi vTTo K.afM^v(Tov Tov vieo^, kol (fidaKov- 
T09 }^a/j,^vaov Kara Trpoaraypia ro eKeivov ravra 
TreTToitjKevai, ro fxev ri Trpo<i rrjv dipborrira rov viov 
Bt.a/3'K'>]0ei<i, rb Be n u)<; rrapavoovvra avrov alria- 
a-dfiei'O'i d9vfxi]aa<i ereXevra rop /Slop. ^Apra- 15 
^ep^7]^ 6 Mv7jpiO)v e7nK\7]6ei'i, ecf)" ov Kvpo<i o 
dBeX(f)o<i earparevaaro, jSaaikevuiv ev Tlepcrait 
ireXevryjaev voaw e^ Kal 6yBoi]Kovra eroyv yevo- 
p.evo'i, <i)9 Be AiVfov Icrropel, reacrdpwv Kal ivevi]- 
Kovra. 'Apra^e/jfi;? erepo<i Uepacov /3aai\€v<;, ov 
(f)rjcnv eVt rcov rrarepwv roiv eavrov 'JcrtStwpo? o 
XapaKr]vo<; crvyypa(f)ev<i /3acn\eveiv, er?; rpia Kal 
evevrjKovra ^iov<i eTTijBovXfi rdBeX^ov ToxTiOpov 



eighty. Attains, called Philadelphus, also king of 
Pergamus, to whom the Roman general Scipio paid 
a visit, ended his life at the age of eighty-two. 
Mithridates, king of Pontus, called the Founder, 
exiled by Antigonus One-eye, died in Pontus at 
eighty-four, as Hieronymus and other writers say. 
Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia, lived eighty-two 
years, as Hieronymus says : perhaps he would have 
lived longer if he had not been captured in the 
battle with Perdiccas and crucified, Cyrus, king ot 
the Persians in olden times, according to the Persian 
and Assyrian annals (with which Onesicritus, who 
wrote a history of Alexander, seems to agree) at the 
age of a hundred asked for all his friends by name and 
learned that most of them had been put to death by 
his son Cambyses. When Cambyses asserted that he 
had done this by order of Cyiiis, he died of a broken 
heart, partly because he had been slandered for his 
son's cruelty, partly because he accused himself of 
being feeble-minded. Artaxerxes, called the Unfor- 
getting, against whom Cyrus, his brother, made the 
expedition, was king of Persia when he died of illness 
at the age of eighty-six (according to Dinon ninety- 
four). Another Artaxerxes, king of Persia, who, 
Isidore tlie Characene historian says, occupied the 
throne in the time of Isidore's fathers, was assassi- 
nated at the age of ninety-three through the 
machinations of his brother Gosithras. Sinatroces, 



eSo\o(f)ovr]d^]. StvarpoKi]'; 8e 6 TiapOvaiwv /3a- 
cn\eu<i eVo? 6j8or)KoaTov 7]8r} yeyovoyi; viro Sa- 
KavpaKCOv "EkvOcov KaTa^x^deU ^aatXeveiv -i^p^aro 
KoX i^aaiXevaev errj kina,. TLypdvr)^ Be o 
^Apfj,evLO)v ^aaiXev'i, 7r/oo9 ov AovkovWo^ iiro- 
Xefirjcrev, irevre koX oyhoriKOVTa irwv ireXevra 
v6a(p. 'Ta7rauaLvi]<; Be 6 ^dprjKO^ kol rcov 16 
KUT ^Epvdpav dakaaaav tottcov ^acn\ev<; irevre 
Kol 6yBo)']Koi>Ta erSiv voarjaa^i ereXevTrjcrev. 
Tipaio^i Be 6 fied^ "TaTravcrLVTjv rpiro<i ^aai\.ev(Ta<i 
Bvo KoX evevrjKOVTa jBiov<i err] ^ ereXevTa voau). 
'A/3Tay3a^o9 Be 6 jxera Tipatov ejSBofio^ /3aai\€vaa<i 
X-dpuKOf e^ KOL oyBorjKOVTa erwv KaTa)(^del<; vtto 
HdpOcov e^aa-'ikevcre. Kafiva(TKiprj<; Be ^aaiKev^ 
Uapdvaicov e^ koI ivev)]KovTa e^rjcrev err). Mao-- 17 
crLvlaaa<i Be ^iaupovaicop fiacrtXeix; €vevi]KOVTa 
elSiwaev errj. "AaavBpo<; Be 6 vtto rov deov 
Xe^acTTov iivrl edvdpxov ^acn\ev<i dvayopevOeU 
JioaTTopov irepl errj o)v €vev)'jKOVTa linroiia'^oiv koI 
'Trei^ofxa'^cov ovBevo<; i)tto}v i^dviy o)? Be eoopa tou? 
eavTOv VTTO Trjv fxayv^^ ^Kpt^oovLO) irpoaTide/jLevovf 
diroaxopevofi ctltlwv ereXevTr^crev ^lov^i err) rpia 
KaX evevy']Kovra' Voaiao^ Be, w? ^rjaiv 'IcriStw/jo? o 
\apaKi]i'6<^, eirl t/}? eavrou //Xi/cia? ^O/xdvcov rPjf 
dpo) par 0(^6 pov /3a(Ti\evaa<i rrevreKaiBeKa Kol exa- 
rbv yeyoi'Mi? erSiv ereXevrrjaev vocrw. 

BacrtXea? p,ev ovv roaovrov^; laropi]Kacn puKpo- 
^iov<i ol rrpo rjpcov. eTrel Be kol (piXoaocfiot 18 
Kal Trdvre<i ol irepl TraiBeiav e')(ovre'i, eirip^eXeiav 
TTft)? Kal ovroL TTOiovperoi eavrSiV, et? fiaKpov 

^ €T77 Schwartz : not in MSS. 

- Tovs kavrov vir}) t^v fio-xfiv Guyet: tovs virb ttj /ioxj? MSS. 



king of Parthia, was restored to his country in his 
eightieth year by the Sacauracian Scyths, assumed 
the throne and held it seven years. Tigranes, king 
of Armenia, with whom Lucullus warred, died of 
ilhiess at tlie age of eighty-five. Hyspausines, king 
of Charax and the country on the Red Sea, fell 
ill and died at eighty-five. Tiraeus, the second 
successor of Hyspausines on the throne, died of 
illness at the age of ninety-two. Artabazus, the 
sixth successor of Tiraeus on the throne of Charax, 
was reinstated by the Parthians and became king 
at the age of eighty-six. Camnascires, king of the 
Parthians, lived ninety-six years. Massinissa, king 
of tlie Moors, lived ninety years. Asandrus, who, 
after being ethnarch, was proclaimed king of Bos- 
porus bj' the divine Augustus, at about ninety years 
proved himself a match for anyone in fighting from 
liorseback or on foot ; but when he saw his subjects 
going over to Scribonius on the eve of battle, he 
starved himself to death at the age of ninety-three. 
According to Isidore the Characene, Goaesus, who 
was king of spice-bearing Omania in Isidore's time, 
died of illness at one hundred and fifteen years. 

These are the kings who have been recorded as 
long-lived by our predecessors. Since philosophers 
and literary men in general, doubtless because they too 
take good care of themselves, have attained old age. 



jfjpai; r]\Oov, avaypdyjro/xev koI rourcov tov? 
l(nopriixevov<;, Kal irpcorov^ ye (^t\ocF6<^ov^. A?;- 
/x6kplto<; fi€V ^A/BSrjpiTij'i ircov yeyov(o<i Tecrcrdpcov 
Kol eKarov d'iroa-)(oiJievo^ Tpo(pfj<i eTekevra. aevo- 
(ptXo'i Be 6 fiovcriKO'?, w? (firjcriv ^Apicrro^evoif, 
irpoaa'xchv ttj HvOayopov (f)i\ocro(f)i,a virep ra 
Trivre koI eKarov eTq ^AOtjv')]aLv e^iwaev. ^6\(oi' 
8e Kol @aX?7<? kol HtTra/co?, otVire? tmv KKrjOev- 
TQ)v eirra ao^o)v eyevovTO, eKarov eKuaro^ e^rj- 
(Tev err), Tirjvcov he 6 rri<; ^r(o'iK7]<i (^iXoa-o^ia^ 19 
dp')(r)yo<i oKru) Kal ivevijKovra' bv (paaiv 
el(Tep)(pixevov eh rrjv eKKXtiaiav Kal irpoairrai- 
(Tavra dva(pdiy^aadat, Tt fie ^oa<i; Kal vrroarpe- 
yjravra oiKaSe Kal dTroa'^^^ofievov rpo(f)y)'i re\ev~ 
rrjaai rov ^tov. KXedvdi)<i he 6 Tirjvcovo^i /laOtjrr}^ 
Kal hiahoxo^ evvea Kal evevrjKovra ovra yeyovco^ 
err] (pv/ia ecr'^ev eTrl rov ^etXoi;? koI aTTOKaprepoiv 
iireXdovroiv avTW Trap eraipcov rivoiv ypa/xfidrcov 
7rpoaeveyKd/x€VO<; rpo(f)i]v Kal 7rpd^a<i jrepl (ov 
t]^iovv ol (jiiXot, d7ro(T')(ofjievo<i avdi<i rpo<^rj<; e^e- 
Xiire rov ^iov. 'B<evo(j)dvr)<; he 6 Ae^tvov fiev 20 
vi6<i, ^Ap^eXdov he rov (f)vaLKov fiaO')]rr)<i e^iwaev 
err} ev Kal evevrjKOvra- 'Sei'0Kpdrr]<; he TlXdrcovo^ 
/j,aOr]rr]<; yev6fievo<i reaaapa Kal oyhorjKovra' 
Kapvedhri<i he 6 tT/? vecorepa^ ^AKahrjfila<i dp')(riyo<i 
eri] irevre Kal 6yho7]Kovra' ^pvanriTO^ ev Kal 
6yhoi]Kovra' Acoyevr]<; he 6 "^eXevKev^; d'lrb T[ypio<; 
^rcoiKo^ (f)LX6o-o(j)0'i oKroi Kal 6yhoi)Kovra' ITocrei- 
8(ovio<; 'Airafxei/'i t/}? Xvpiwi, vojxu) he '^ohia, 



I shall put down those whom there is record of, 
beginning with the philosophers. Democritus ot 
Abdera starved himself to death at the age of one 
hundred and four. Xenophilus the musician, we are 
told by Aristoxenus, adopted the philosophical 
system of Pythagoras, and lived in Athens more 
than one hundred and five years. Solon, Thales, 
and Pittacus, who were of the so-called seven wise 
men, each lived a hundred years, and Zeno, the 
head of the Stoic school, ninety-eight. They say 
that when Zeno stumbled in entering the assembly, 
he cried out: " Why do you call me? "^ and then, 
returning home, starved himself to death. Cleanthes, 
the pupil and successor of Zeno, was ninety-nine 
when he got a tumour on his lip. He was fasting 
when letters from certain of his friends arrived, but 
he had food brought him, did what his friends had 
requested, and then fasted anew until he passed 
away. Xenophanes, son of Dexinus and disciple 
of Archelaus the physicist, lived ninety-one years ; 
Xenoci-ates, the disciple of Plato, eighty-four ; 
Carneades, the head of the New Academy, eighty- 
five ; Chrysippus, eighty-one ; Diogenes of Seleucia 
on the Tigris, a Stoic philosopher, eighty-eight ; 
Posidonius of Apameia in Syria, naturalised in Rhodes, 

1 Addressed to Pluto. According to Diogenes Laertius 
7, 28 he said epxonaf rl fx affeiy ; (" I come : why din it in my 
ears?"), a quotation from a play called Niobe (Nauck, 
Trag. Ur. Fragm. p. 51). 



(f)i\.6aocf)6<i T€ lifia koI l(nopia<; crvy<ypa(f)€v<i Tea- 
aapa koX oyBoTjKOVTW KpixoXao? 6 HepiTraTT)- 
Tt«09 vTTep Bvo Kol 6'y8oj]KOVTa. HXaTtDv Se 21 
lepcoraTO'; ev kol oySorjKOVTa. *A0T]v68o)po'i 
l.dvSayvo'i Tapcreu? Srcot/co?, o? Kal 8iSdcrKa\o<i 
iyevcTO Kalaapo^; %ej3aaT0v Oeov, v(f)^ ov tf 
Tapaeoiv TroXi? Kal <p6po)v €Kov<Pl(t6')], 8uo koI 
6y8or]Kovra err] /Scov^ ireXeuTTjcrev iv rfj irar- 
piSi, Kol Ti/xa? Tapaecov 8fjp,o<i avrm kut 
€ro<i eKacTTOV dirovep-et w<; 'tjpoii. Nea-Tcop Be 
Srcoi'/co? cLTTo Tapcrov StBda-KoXo'; Katcrapo? 
Tt^epiov errj Bvo koX evevrjKovra' Kevocfycop Be 
6 TpvWov vTrep rd, ivevrjKOvra i^Laxrev err]. 
ovTOL /lev (f)t\oa6(f)(ov ol evBo^oi. 22 

'%vyypa<^eu)v Be K^rrjai^io^ fiev erwv CKardv Kal 
Teacrdpcov^ iv TreptTrdrcp ereXevrrjaev, &><? 'AttoXXo- 
Bcopo^ ev Tot? ')(^poviKol<i laropei. 'lep(ovv/j,o<i Be iv 
irokep.ot^ yev6p,€vo<i Kal ttoXXoi/? KafidTOV^ vTrop-ei- 
va<i Kal rpavpara e^i^aev errj reaaapa Kal eKarov, 
ft)? ^ KyaOapx^Bil'i iv rrj ivdri] tcov Trepl Tfj(i Acrta? 
laroptcov \ejei, Kal davpd^et ye tov dvBpa ct)9 
peXP'' '^'i^ reXeurala^ ?}/iepa9 dpnov ovra iv raif 
avvov(jLai<i Kal irdai roi'i alaOrjTijpiOi^, firjBevot 
yevofievov tmv 7rpo<i vyceiav iWiTrrj. EXXaw/co? 
6 Ae<T/3i09 6yBo7]KOVTa Kal nevre, Kai ^epeKvBi]^ 
'%vpLO<i opuoi(jd<s oyBoi]KovTa Kal irevre. Tt/xato? 
6 TavpofxevLTVi<i e^ koI ivev/jKOVTa' ' Apia- r 6/3 ov\o^ 
Be 6 hlaaavBpeu^; virep rd ivev/]KOvra errj \eyerai 
^e^icoKevai, rijv taroplav Be reraprov Kal oyBorj- 
KooTov eTO<i yeyovcb<; rfp^aro avyypd^eiv, a>9 

1 Text Belin : pAc8 (a misreading of p/c'5) MSS. 


who was at once a philosopher and a historian, 
eighty-four ; Critolaus, the Peripatetic, more than 
eighty-two : Plato the divine, eighty-one. Atheno- 
dorus, son of Sando, of Tarsus, a Stoic, tutor 
of Caesar Augustus the divine, through whose 
influence the city of Tarsus was relieved of taxation, 
died in his native land at the age of eighty-two, and 
the people of Tarsus pay him honour each year as a 
hero. Nestor, the Stoic from Tarsus, the tutor 
of Tiberius Caesar, lived ninety-two years, and 
Xenophon, son of Gryllus, more than ninety.^ 
These are the noteworthy ones among philosophers. 
Of the historians, Ctesibius died at the age of one 
hundred and four while taking a walk, according to 
Apollodorus in his Chronology. Hieronymus, who 
went to war and stood much toil and many wounds, 
lived one hundred and four years, as Agatharchides 
says in the ninth book of his History of Asia ; and 
he expresses his amazement at the man, because up 
to his last day he was still vigorous in his marital 
relations and in all his faculties, lacking none of the 
symptoms of health. Hellanicus of Lesbos was 
eighty-five, Pherecydes the Syrian eighty-five also, 
Timaeus of Tauromenium ninety-six. Aristobulus 
of Cassandria is said to have lived more tlian ninety 
years. He began to write his history in his eighty- 
fourth year, for he says so himself in the beginning of 

^ Not infrequently classed as a philosopher : cf. Ouintilian 
10, l.Slff. 



ai)To? iv ap'XTj rr]<; 7rpa<y/xaT€La<; \eyei. HoXv^tciq 
Se AvKopja MeyaXoiroXtrri'i dypodev avekdwv 
rt^' tTTTrou Kareireaev kclI e/c tovtov voayjawi aire- 
davev eroiv hvo koX oySoijKovra, 'Ti/rt/c/jaT?;? Be 6 
'Afiiarjvb'i (Tvyy pa(^ev<i St a ttoWcov /xadrjfiaTcov 
yevofievo'; eTrj Svo koI ivevtJKOvra. 

'Prjropcov he Topyla?, ov nveg aocfttarrjv KaXovaiv, 23 
err] eKarov oktu)' rpocjirj? 8e d-noaxoP'^vog creAeu- 
TTjaev ov (paaiv ipwrrjOevTa rrjv alriav rov 
fxaKpov yrjpco^ koL vyteivov ev Trdaai'i Tal<i alcrdr]- 
aea-LV eliretv, Bia to firjSeTTOTe avfjiTreptevexdrjvai 
Tai<i dWcov evwyiai^. ^icroKpdTr]<; e^ koX evevrj- 
Kovra err] yeyovoo'; rov TravrjyvptKov eypacpe \oyov, 
irepl €T1] Be evb<; diroheovra eKarov yeyov(o<; clx? 
fjaOero ^Adr]vaiov<i vtto <t>i\i7nrou iv TJj irepl 
Xaipm'etap P'dxj) vevLK}]fji,evov<;, 7rorvc(iojjL€vo<i rov 
KvpLTTLSeiov (Tri-yov trpoTjveyKaTo eU eavrov dva- 

XlScOVlOV TTOT daJV KaSyLl09 eKkllTCOV' 

Kol iireiTrMV ox? SovXevaei rj 'EXXa?, e^eXnre rov 
[Siov. ^A7roX\.68o)po<; 8e 6 Uepya/ji,r]v6<; prjTwp, Oeov 
Kataapa le^aaTov Si8daKaXo<; y€v6/ji€vo<i koI 
avv ^Adt]voScop(.o Tip Tapael <pt\oa6^(p 7raiS€vcra<i 
avTov, el^r^aev ravrd tw 'AdijvoScopcp er-t] 07S0?;- 
KOVTa Svo. Uordficov 8e ovk d8o^o<; pr^rwp errj 


'Zo^oKXfj'i 6 Tpay(p8o7roco<i pdya (Tra(f)v\i)<i 24 
KaraTTioiv dTreTrviyr} irevre koI ivev/jKovra ^')]aa<; 
err], ovTO<i vtto ^Io<p(t)VTo<i rov vlea eVi reXei 



the work. Polybius, son of Lycortas, of Megalopolis, 
while coming in from his farm to the city, was 
thrown from his horse, fell ill as a result of it, and 
died at eighty-two. Hypsicrates of Amisenum, the 
historian, who mastered many sciences, lived to be 

Of the orators, Gorgias, whom some call a 
sophist, lived to be one hundred and eight, and 
starved himself to death. They say that when he 
was asked the reason for his great age, sound in all 
his faculties, he replied that he had never accepted 
other people's invitations to dinner ! Isocrates 
wrote his Panegyric at ninety-six ; and at the age of 
ninety-nine, when he learned that the Athenians 
had been beaten by Philip in the battle of Chaeronea, 
he groaned and uttered the Euripidean line 

''When Cadmus, long agone, quit Sidon town/' ^ 

alluding to himself; then, adding, "Greece will lose 
her liberty," he quitted life. Apollodorus, the Perga- 
mene rhetorician who was tutor to Caesar Augustus 
the divine and helped Athenodorus, the philosopher 
of Tarsus, to educate him, lived eighty-two years, like 
Athenodorus. Potamo, a rhetorician of considerable 
repute, lived ninety years. 

Sophocles the tragedian swallowed a grape and 
choked to death at ninety-five. Brought to trial by 
his son lophon toward the close of his life on a charge 

^ From the prologue of the lost play Phrixus {frg. 816 



Tov piov irapavoia^; Kpii>6fi€vo<; dviypo) toc<; SiKacr- 

Tttt? OIBlTTOVV tov eTTl KoXcOVW, €7riSeiKVVfM€VO^ Sih 

TOV BpdfiaTO<i OTTO)? TOV vovv vyiabvei, &>? tou? 
SiKaaTd<i tov fiev vTrepOav/xdaai, KaTay{n]<p[(TaaOai 
Be TOV vlov avTOv fiaviav. K.paTtvo^ Be 6 t?}9 25 
K(OfM(pBLa<; 7roir]Tr}<; eiTTa ^ 7rpo<; Tot^ ivevjJKOVTa 
eTeaiv i/Sioyae, koL irpo^i rat TeXei tov ^iov BiBd^a^ 
TTjv YlvTLvrjp Kol viKrj(Ta<; /jl€t' ov ttoXv eTeXevTa. 
Kol ^iKrjiMOJv Be Kco/jiiK6<;,^ ofioL(o<; tw KpaTcvm 
eTTTCL Kol evevrjKovTa eTrj ^iov<i, KUTeKeiTO p,ev eVl 
KK,ivrj<i r/pe/uLMV, deacrdp.evo<; Be ovov to, irapeaKeva- 
(Tfieva avTW crvKU KaTeadiovTa (opfirjae fxev et9 
7eXft)Ta, KaXeaa^; Be tov oiKeTrjv koX avv ttoWw 
Kal ci6po(p yeXcoTL etTrcov TrpoaBovvat tw 6v(p 
aKpdTOV pocpeiv d7ro7rviyel<; vtto tov yeXcoTd 
aTTedavev. Kal ^EiVi'^apfiO'i Be t% KOi[X(pBLa<i 
TroirjTr}!; Kal auTo? evevqKOVTa Kal kirTO, eTij 
XeyeTai ^icovat. ^AvaKpecov Be 6 tcov fieXwv 26 
7rop;T^9 e^Tjcrev eV?; irevTe Kal oyBorjKovTa, Kal 
^TTjcriXopo^ Be 6 /ieXo7ro609 TavTd, ^iju^coviBrj^; Sk 
6 Ket09 vTrep to, ivev)]K0VTa. 

rpajju/xaTCKwv Be 'EpaT0(T6evr](; /xev 6 'A7- 27 
Xaov Kvprjvalo'i, ov ov fxovov ypa/x/naTiKov, dXXd 
Kal 7ron]TT)V dv rt? ovo/Jidaeiev Kal (f)iX6aocfiov 
Kol yewfieTprjv, Bvo Kal oyBorjKovTa ovto<; e^rjaev 
errj. Kal AvKovpyo'; Be vo/jLodeTij^i twv AaKeBai- 28 
fiovicov ireine Kal oyBojjKovTU ctt] ^rjaai laropelTai. 

' tirra N, vulg. : rtcaapa. other MSS. , Schwartz. 
^ 6 icw/j.iKhs MfeS. : Koiyui/cbj Schwartz. 



of feeble-mindedness, he read the jurors his Oedipus 
at Colonus, proving by the play that he was sound 
of mind, so that the jury applauded him to the 
echo and convicted the son himself of insanity. 
Cratinus, the comic poet, lived ninety-seven years, 
and toward the end of his life he produced " The 
Flask" and won the prize, dying not long there- 
after. Philemon, the comic poet, was ninety-seven 
like Cratinus, and was lying on a couch resting. 
When he saw a donkey eating the figs that had been 
prepared for his own consumption, he burst into a fit 
of laughter; calling his servant and telling him, 
along with a great and hearty laugh, to give the 
donkey also a sup of wine, he choked with his laughter 
and died.i Epicharmus, the comic poet, is also said 
to have lived ninety-seven years. Anacreon, the 
lyric poet, lived eighty-five years ; Stesichorus, the 
lyric poet, the same, and Simonides of Ceos more 

tlian ninety. 

Of the grammarians, Eratosthenes, son of Aglaus, 
of Cyrene, who was not only a grammarian but 
might also be called a poet, a philosopher and a 
geometrician, lived eighty-two years. Lycurgus, 
the Spartan lawgiver, is said to have lived eighty-five 

^ The same story is told of Chrysippus (Diog. Laert. 
7 185). 


VOL. I. 


Tocroi^Tou? iZvvrjdriiiev j3acn\ea<i Koi Treirai- 29 
8ev/jLivov<i ddpolaar iirel 8e vTrecr'x^o/jLrjv koI 
PcofjLalcov Tiva<i koI twv ti]v ^Irakiav ol/crjadvrcov 
fxaKpo^ioiv dvaypd-yjrac, Tovrov<i aoi, 6eo)v j3ov\o- 
fievcov, lepcoTare KvcvTiWe, ev dXX,a> BrjXd)aop,€v 



These are the kings and the literary men whose 
names I have been able to collect. As I have 
promised to record some of the Romans and the 
Italians who were octogenarians, I will set them 
forth for you, saintly Quintillus, in another treatise, 
if it be the will of the gods. 



It is unfortunate that we cannot enjoy the full bouquet of 
this good wine because so many of the works which Lucian 
parodies here are lost. The little that remains of his 
originals has been gathered by A. Stengel (Z)e Luciani Veris 
Historiis, Berlin 1911, from whom I cite as much as space 


[Aoros npnxos] 

Clairep rot? aO\i]TiKol<; koI irepl rrjv rcov ^ 
(xa/MaTcov eTn/xeXeiav aaxoXovfievoi^^ ou t?}? eue^ia<i 
fxovov ouhe Tcov yv/xvacTLcov (f)povTL<t icTTiv, aXka 
Kol T^if Kara Katpov <yivopievr](; aveaea)<i — fi€po<; 
yovv tt}? aaKt]cr€Q)<; to fxeyiarov avrrjv viroXap^d- 
vovcriv — oi/Tft) htj KoX TOt9 TrepX rov<; Xoyov'; eairov- 
SuKoaiv Tjjovfxai 7rpocr7]K€iv fiera rrjv iroWijv rwv 
cnrovhaioTepoiv avdyvaxriv dvtevat re T7]v Sidvoiav 
Kat 7rpo<i TOP eTTCiTa Kafiarov aK/xaiorepav irapa- 
cTKevd^eiv. ykvono S" av ifipeXtj'; i) dvd7ravcn<; 2 
avToi<i, €1 TOt? TOtouTOt9 Twv dvayvoyafxarfov ofxi- 
Xolev, a p,r] povov ck tov darecov re koI 'xcLpievro'i 
■\jn\r)v Trape^et rrjv ^jrvxayfoyiav, dWd riva Koi 
dewpiav ouK dpovcrov iTriSel^erai, olov tl koI irepl 
TMvSe TOiv avyypappidrwv avTovf ^ (ppovijaeiv vtto- 
\apj3dv(0' ov yap povov to ^evov t% vTTodecr€w<i 
ovSe TO \api€v tP]<; 7rpoaipecrt(o<; eiraywyov earac 
avTol<i ovB OTi yfrevapara TroiKiXa Tndapa><i re /cal 
eva\.i]6(ii<i e^evi]v6')(apev, a\X' otl koX rwv icrropov- 
pLevwv eKaarov ovk dKu>fx(phi]Tco^ jjviKrat Trpo'i Tiva<i 

^ So the best MSS. (though some have a.\T]0tyMy) and 
Photius (cod. 166, 1 a). 'AAr/^oCj 'laroptai vulg. 
' a.ffxo\ou/x(vois r, Nil<5n : vffKrtfifvots other MSS. 
* avTohs Schwartz : not itt MSS. 



Men interested in athletics and in the care of 
their bodies think not only of condition and exercise 
but also of relaxation in season ; in fact, they 
consider this the pi-incipal part of training. In like 
manner students, I think, after much reading of 
serious works may profitably relax their minds and 
put them in better trim for future labour. It 
would be appropriate recreation for them if they 
were to take up the sort of reading that, instead of 
affording just pure amusement based on wit and 
humour, also boasts a little food for thought that the 
Muses would not altogether spurn ; and I think 
they will consider the present work something 
of the kind. They will find it enticing not only 
for the novelty of its subject, for the humour of its 
plan and because I tell all kinds of lies in a plausible 
and specious way, but also because everything in my 
story is a more or less comical parody of one or 



Twv TToKaiOiv TTOcrjTMV re koI a-vyypacfiecov koI (pL- 
Xoaocfxov TToWa repaaria koi fivdcoSrj auyyeypa- 
<f)OTQ)v,^ OL"? Kal ovo/xaarl av eypacpov, el fxrj koi 
avrof (JOL €K Tf]<? avayvcoaefd ^aveladai efxeWov 
* * * 2 KT?7o-ta<? o Krrja-toxov 6 Kv[,Bio<;, o? 3 
(rvveypaylrev irepl rri<i ^Ivhwv %ft)pa9 koi rSiv irap 
avToi<; a fiijre avTO^ elSeu fiyjre aXXov a\r)devovTO<i 
rJKOv(Tev. eypayjre Se koI 'la/i/^oOXo? irepl tmv ev 
TJ] fxeyaXr) OaXciTTrj TToWa irapaSo^a, yvcopi/xov 
fiev airacri to i/^eOSo? 7r\aadfj,€V0<j, ovk drepTrrj Se 
o/Aft)9 (TvvOeU rr^v viroOeaLV. ttoWoI Se koI dWot 
ra avTa rovrot<i TrpoeXofievoi avveypa-^av cw? 5r; 
Tiva^ eavTMV 7r\dva<; re koi d7To8}]fila<i, drjplcov re 
fjbeyiOi] laropovvTe^ Kal dvOpcaircov (i)/jL6TrjTa<; koi 
fiiwv Kaivorrjra'i- dp^vjo^ ^e avroU Kal BiBdcrKa- 
Xo? T^<f ToiavTi]^ j3(jofxo\o-)(ia<; 6 tov 'O/xijpou 
08v(T(T€v<i, T0i9 irepl tov ^ KXkivovv Sir]yov/jievo<; 
dvififov re SovXetav Kal pi,ovo^6dXpLov<; Kal oo/xo- 
(j)dyov<i Kal dypiov<; tlvcl^ dv6pcoTrov<;, eVi Se 
'7roXvKe(f)aXa ^u)a Kal Ta9 vtto ^apfxdKwv tmv 
eTULpcov ixeTa^o\d<{, ola iroWd eKeivo<; TTyoo? 
l8t(OTa<i dv6pa}7rov<i tov<; ^aiaKa^ CTepaTevaaTo. 
TOVTOi<; ovv evTv^^v diraaiv, tov yjrevaaadai 4 
fiev ov (X(j>68pa tov^ dvhpa'i ipe/xyjrdju,r]v, 6pcoi> rjhr) 
crvvr]de<t op tovto Kal toi<; (piXoao^elv viTta')(vov- 
fjbivoi<{' cKeivo Be avTcov idav/xaa-a, el evop-i^ov 
Xijcreiv OVK dXiiOTj (Tvyypd(povTe<;. Bioirep Kal 
avT0<; wo K€vo8o^ia<; diroXiTTelv tv airovBdaa'; 

1 ffvyytypa<p6ruiv V, CI. : avyyeypaipSras Z. 
^ Supply oTov (Bekker), or the like. 



another of the poets, historians and philosophers of 
old, who have written much that smadis of miracles 
and fables. I would cite them by name, were it 
not that you yourself will recognise them from 
your reading. One of them is Ctesias, son of 
Ctesiochus, of Cnidos, who wrote a great deal about 
India and its characteristics that he had never seen 
himself nor heard from anyone else with a reputation 
for truthfulness. lambulus also wrote much that 
was strange about the countries in the great sea : he 
made up a falsehood that is patent to everybody, but 
>vrote a story that is not uninteresting for all that.^ 
Many others, with the same intent, have written about 
imaginary travels and journeys of theirs, telling of 
huge beasts, cruel men and strange ways of living. 
Their guide and instructor in this sort of charlatanry 
is Homer's Odysseus, who tells Alcinous and his 
court about winds in bondage, one-eyed men, canni- 
bals and savages ; also about animals with many 
heads, and transformations of his comrades wrought 
with drugs. This stuff, and much more like it, is 
what our friend humbugged the illiterate Phaeacians 
with ! Well, on reading all these authors, I did 
not find much fault with them for their lying, as I 
saw that this was already a common practice even 
among men who profess philosophy.^ I did wonder, 
though, that they thought that they could write un- 
truths and not get caught at it. Therefore, as I myself, 
thanks to my vanity, was eager to hand something 

^ The writings of Ctesias and lambiilus are lost ; also those 
of Antonius Diogenes, whose story, On the. Wonders beyond 
Thule, was according to Photius (Bibb., cod. 166, 111b) the 
fountain-head of Lucian's tale. 

' A slap at Plato's Republic (x. 614 A seq.), as the scholiast 


Tot9 fieO* f)iia<i, "va fir] /ii6vo<; a/j,oipo<; to tt}? ev rat 
fivOoXoyeiv iXevOepia^, eVei firjSev aXtjde^ laTopetv 
elxov — ovSev <yap iireTTovdetv a^ioXoyov — eVl to 
yfrevSo'i irpairop^riv ttoXu rwv aXkcov cvyvw/xove- 
arepov Kav ev 'yap Sr) tovto aXrjOevaco \e<yoiv on 
■yjrevSofiai. ovtq) 8' civ fiot 8ok(o kuI rrjv Tvapci 
t5)V dWcov KaTrjyopiav cK^vyelv avrb^ ofMoXoycov 
firjSev aKrj6e<i Xeyeiv. ypdcpco tolvvv irepl av 
firjre elSov p.rjre eiraOov fiyjre irap aXXcov irrv- 
96p,r]v, en he pLrjre 6X(o<; ovtcov jx-qre rrjv ap-)(T)v 
yeveadai hwap^evcav. Sib Bel tou? evTvy)(avovTa<i 
prjSap(io<; TriareveLv avrol^. 

'Opp/rjdeXf; yap irore airo 'HpaKXetcov (rrrjX&v 5 
Kal d(fiel<; eh rov kairepiov wKeavov ovpim dvepat 
rov ttXovv eiroLovp.riv. atria Be pot tj}? d7roBr)p,ia<i 
Kal viroOeafi rj rr}? Biavola^; Trepiepyia Kal irpaypd- 
Tcov Kaivcov eTTtdvp^ia Kal to ^ovXea6ai p,adetv ri 
TO reXo'i ianv rov wKeavov Kal TLve<i ol irepav 
KaToiKovvre<; dvBpoiTroi. tovtou ye tov eveKa 
TrdpLTToXXa p,ev cnrla eve^aXoprjv, 'iKavov Be Kal 
vBwp €vedepi]v, TrevrrJKOVTa Be tcov rjXiKKorcov 
irpoaeTToiricrdpriv Trjv avrrjv epol yvcoprjv exovra<;, 
en Be Kal ottXcov ttoXv n 7rXrj0o<; irapecr Kevaa dprjv 
Kal Kv^epvrjrriv tov ctpicrTov piaOw peydXw Treiaaf; 
TrapeXa^ov Kal tyjv vavv — ciKaro^ Be rjv — 609 7rpo<r 
peyav Kal ^iatov irXovv eKparvv(ip,r]v. -qpepav 6 
ovv ifal vvKTa ovpLw irXeovrey, ert tJ;? 7^9 
vTTOcjiaivopivr)^ ov <r(p6Bpa ^lalco^ dvr)y6p,>;da, rrj<i 
e7novcrri<i Be dfia rfXiai dvla')(pvn 6 re dvefio<: 



down to posterity, that I might not be the only one 
excluded from the privileges of poetic licence, and 
as I had nothing true to tell, not having had any 
adventures of significance, I took to lying. But my / 
lying is far more honest than theirs, for though I 
tell the truth in nothing else, I shall at least be 
truthful in saying that I am a liar. I think I can 
escape the censure of the world by my own admis- 
sion that I am not telling a word of truth. Be it 
understood, then, that 1 am writing about things 
which I have neither seen nor had to do with nor 
learned from others — which, in fact, do not exist at 
all and, in the nature of things, cannot exist.' 
Therefore my readers should on no account believe 
in them. 

Once upon a time, setting out from the Pillars 
of Hercules and heading for the western ocean with 
a fair wind, I went a-voyaging. The motive and 
purpose of my journey lay in my intellectual activity 
and desire for adventure, and in my wish to find 
out what the end of the ocean was, and who the 
people were that lived on the other side. On this 
account I put aboard a good store of provisions, 
stowed water enough, enlisted in the venture fifty of 
my acquaintances who were like-minded with myself, 
got together also a great quantity of arms, shipped 
the best sailing-master to be had at a big induce- 
ment, and put my boat — she was a pinnace — in trim 
for a long and difficult voyage. Well, for a day and 
a night we sailed before the wind without making 
very much offing, as land was still dimly in sight ; but 
at sunrise on the second day the wind freshened, the 

' Compare the protestations of Cteiias and of Antonius 
Diogenes (Phoc. cod. 72, 49-50; 166, 109 b). 



iireBiSou xal to KVjxa rjv^dveTO koI ^o^o'^ eTreylvero 
Kac ovKer ovSe aretXai ttjv oQovrjv Bvvarov rjv. 
e7nTp€-\lravT€<i ovv rw irveovri. Koi irapahovra 
iavroix; i^ei/xa^o/JieOa rj/j^pa<; evvea koI e^Sofiij- 
Kovra, T^ oy8or)KO(Tr^ Se dcf)vo) iKXdfiyjravToi; tjXlov 
Ka6opcbjj.€v ov TToppo) vijaov vy^TjXrjv kol Zacreiav, 
ov rpa^el Trepirj^ou/xevrjv rw KVfxarf koI 'yap 'tjSrj 
TO 7ro\v TTjs ^dXrjf; KaTeiraveTO. 

Tlpoacr')(^ovTe<i ovv koi aTTo^avTa ft)? av €K 
fiaKpd<; ToXatTTcopia^ ttoXvv /xev '^^povov eVt yijif 
eKetfJbeOa, oiavaardvTe^ 8e 6fi(o<i aTTeKpivap^ev 
TjliSiv avTwv TpidKovTa fieu (j}v\aKa<i t?}<? vecof 
7rapap,eveiv, ecKoai Be avv i/j,ol dveXdelv eirl 
KaTaaKOTTjj tmv iv tjj vi^aw. 7rpoe\66vT€<i Be 7 
baov (TTaBiov^ Tpel<; diro Tr/9 OaXdaaT}<; Bi uXt;? 
opwfiiv Tiva crTi]\rjv y^aXKov Treiroi'qixev'qv, 'YXXrj- 
viKoc<i <ypd/jifiaat,i' KaTa'y€ypap,/u,ei^r)v, djjivBpoi<; Be 
Kol €KT€Tpippei'oi<;, X6'yov(Tav"A-)(pi tovtcov 'Upa- 
KXijfi Kol Aiovvao^i d(fyiKOVTo. rjv Be kol I'x^V Bvo 
7rXrj(Tiov iirl Trerpa?, to p.ev TrXedpiatov, to Be 
eXaTTOv — ifiol BoKelv, to pAv tov Aiopvaov, to 
p^LKpoTepov, OdTepov Be 'HpuKXeov;. irpoaKVv^- 
aavTe<i B^ ovv Trpofj/xev ovTrco Be ttoXv 7rapf]/j,ev 
/cat i(f)iaTdpLe6a 7roTap,M olvov peovTi opoioTUTOV 
fiaXi(7Ta oloairep o Xto9 iaTiv. d^dovov Be rjv to 
pevfia Kat ttoXv, waTe evia'^ov kol vavcriiropov 
eivai Bvvaadai. iirrjei ovv rjpXv ttoXv p,dXXov 
TTicTTeveiv TO) eiTi T779 aTr]X7]<i i7nypdp,p,aTi, opcocrt 
TO, a-rj/ieia t^? Atovvaov einBiqp^ia^. Bo^av Be ju,oi 



sea rose, darkness came on, and before we knew it we 
could no longer even get our canvas in. Committing 
ourselves to the gale and giving up, we drove for 
seventy-nine daj^s. On the eightieth day, however, 
the sun came out suddenly and at no great distance 
we saw a high, wooded island ringed about with 
sounding surf, which, however, was not rough, as 
already the worst of the storm was abating.^ 

Putting in and going ashore, we lay on the ground 
for some time in consequence of our long misery, but 
finally we arose and told off thirty of our number to 
stay and guard the ship and twenty to go inland with 
me and look over the island. When we had gone 
forward through the wood about three furlongs from 
the sea, we saw a slab of bronze, inscribed with 
Greek letters, faint and obliterated, which said : " To 
this point came Hercules and Dionysus." There 
were also two footprints in the rock close by, one of 
which was a hundred feet long, the other less —to 
my thinking, the smaller one was left by Dionysus, 
the other by Hercules.^ We did obeisance and 
went on, but had not gone far when we came upon a 
river of wine,just as like as could be to Chian.^ The 
stream was large and full, so that in places it was 
actually navigable. Thus we could not help having 
much greater faith in the inscription on the slab, 
seeing the evidence of Dionysus' visit. I resolved 

* This paragraph is based on lambiilus (Diod. 2. 55). 
- Cf. Herod. 4, 82 ; a footprint of Hercules, two cubits 
long. » Cf. Ctesias (Phot. cod. 72, 46 a). 



Kai bdev ap-)(eTai o 7roTafi6<t KarajxaOelv, avTJetv 
irapa to pev/ia, koI Tnjyrjp p,ev ovSe/xiav evpov 
avTov, 7roWa<i 8e koX p,eyd\a<i ufinrekovi, 7fkripeL<i 
^orpvcov, irapa he rrjv pt^av eKdarrjv direppei 
arayoiv otvov Stavyov'?, dj) o)v eylvero 6 irorafio'^. 
rju he Kal i'x^dv'i iv avrw ttoXXou? Ihelv, otva> 
fidXicTTa Kol Tr]v XP^^^ '^^^ "^V^ yevcriv TrpoaeoiKO- 
TUf Tjp,€L<i yovv dypev(TavTe<i avrcov Ttva<; koI 
i/jL(})ay6vT€<; ifie$va6r]pLev dfieXei Kal dparefjb6vTe<i 
avTov^ evpiaKOfiev rpvyo<i /nearovf;. varepov puev- 
roi iTTivorjaavre^ tov<; dX\ov<; Ix^v'i Tov<i diro rov 
vharo<i irapapnyvvvre^ eKepdvvvpev ro acpohpov 
tt}? olvo(^ayLa<i. 

Tore he rov iroTapiov Sia7repdcravTe<i y hta- 8 
/3aT09 ^v, evpopiev dp.irekcov XPVf"^ repdariov ro 
p,ev yap diro rr)^ yf]^, 6 areXexo'i ai^To? evepvr]<i 
Kal TTaxv^, TO he civco yvvalKe<i rjcrav, cktov eV rwv 
XayovMv aTravra exovcrai reXeia — TOLaim-jv irap 
7]plv TTjV Adcfyvrjv ypd(j)ovcnv dpTi rov 'A'7r6X\covo<i 
KaTa\ap,^dvovTO<i dTTohevhpovpevr^v. aTro he tcov 
haKTvXcov UKpcov i^€(f)vovTO aurai^i ol KXdhoL Kal 
fieajol yaap ^orpvwv. Kal pLi]v Kal ra^ K€(f)aXd<i 
eKopicov eXt^i re Kal <^vXXoi<; Kal fiorpvai. irpoa- 
eXd6vTa<i he i^/ia? rjcrrrd^ovTo re Kal ehe^iovvro, 
ai p,ev Avhiov, at 8' ^IvhiKrjv, al irXelarai he rrjv 
'KXXaha (pwvrjv Trpolepevac. Kal e(f>iXovv he i)p.d<i 
TOi? <TTop,aacv o he (jaXrjOel^ auTCKa ifieOvev Kal 
7rapa(f)opo<i rjv, hpeireadai p^evTOV ov irapelxov 
Tov Kapirov, aX,V rfXyovv Kal e/36cov aTToaTrcofievov. 
al he Kal p,iyvvaOat rjpuv eiredvpLOVV' Kal hvo rivef 
T(ov eTaipeov •TrX'qcndaavTe<; avral<i ovKert direXv' 
ovro, aXX ck t&v alholcov ehehevro' avve^vovro 


to find out where the river took its rise, and 
went up along the stream. Wliat I found was 
not a source, but a number of large grapevines, 
full of clusters ; beside the root of each flowed a 
spring of clear wine, and the springs gave rise to the 
river. There were many fish to be seen in it, very 
similar to wine in colour and in taste. In fact, on 
catching and eating some of them, we became drunk, 
and when we cut into them we found them full 
of lees, of course. Later on, we bethought ourselves 
to mix with them the other kind of fish, those from 
the water, and so temper the strength of our edible 

Next, after crossing the river at a place where 
it was fordable, we found something wonderful in 
grapevines. The part which came out of the ground, 
the trunk itself, was stout and well-grown, but the 
upper part was in each case a woman, entirely per- 
fect from the waist up. They were like our pictures 
of Daphne turning into a tree when Apollo is just 
catching her. Out of their finger-tips grew the 
branches, and they were full of grapes. Actually, 
the hair of their heads was tendrils and leaves and 
clusters ! When we came up, they welcomed and 
greeted us, some of them speaking Lydian, some 
Indian, but the most part Greek. They even kissed 
us on the lips, and everyone that was kissed at once 
became reeling drunk. They did not suffer us, how- 
ever, to gather any of the fruit, but cried out in pain 
when it was plucked. Some of them actually wanted 
us to embrace them, and two of my comrades com- 
plied, but could not get away again. They were 
held fast by the part which had touched them, for it 



•yap KoX auveppi^ovvTO. Kal ijSr] avrols KXd^ot 
inre^vKeaav ol SaKrvXoi, koI Tai<; eXi^u Trepi- 
irXeKOfJbevoi oaov ouSevro) /cat avrol Kapiroc^opi^aeiv 
e/xeWov. KaraXL7r6vT€<; Se avTov<i eVt vavv i(^ev- 9 
yofxev Kal Tot9 aTToKet^delaiv Si-qyov/meOa e\06vre<i 
Tci re aXXa Kal rcov eraipcov rrjv a/XTreXofxi^Lav. 
Kal Bt) Xa^6vTe<; afx(f)opea<; riva<i Kal vSpevcrdfxevoi 
re dfia Kal e/c rov irorafjiov olviadp,evoi Kal avrov 
irXrjaiov eVl T>j<? r]6vo<i avXiadfievoi ewdev dvrf')(dri. 
jjL€v ov a(j)6Bpa ^laiw Trvev/xari. 

Hepl pecTTj/jL^pLav 8e ovKert t?}? v^(Tov (f)aivo- 
fiivrj<i d(f)VO) TV(f>cov 67nyei'OpLei>o<i Kal TrepiSii'/jaa^ 
rrjv vavv Kal pueTecopiaa^ oaov iirl araSiou<; rpia- 
Koaiov<i ouKert KadijKev el<i to '7reXayo<>, dXX^ dvo) 
fiereoipov €^i]pTr]p.evr]v avep^oii ipLTrecroiv rot? Icnloi^i 
e(f)epev KoXTrdxra^ rrjv odovnqv. kirrd he tjp.epa'i 10 
Kal Ta9 tcra? vuKTa<; depohpopi/^aavre<i, oySotj 
KaOopoip^ev yTjv riva fieydXrjv iv t&) depi Kaddirep 
vrjcTov, Xap^irpdv Kal a(f>aipoeiBrj Kal (fxoTi p,eydX(p 
KaraXap,iTop,ev')^v 'irpocreve'x6evTe<i he avrfj Kal 
6pp.tcrdp.evoi direct} fjtev, eVtcr/coTroi/PTe? he ri]v 
■)^pav evpiCKOfiev oiKovp-evrjv re Kal yecopyovp,ev)]P. 
i)p,epa<i fiev ovv ovhev avrodev KadewpwpLev, vvKro*; 
he €7riyevop.evt]'i icjiaivovro i)p,lv Kal dXXat, iroXXal 
vrjaoi TrXrjaiov, al p,ev p.el^ov'i, al he p.iKp6repai, 
TTvpl rrjv 'X^poidv rrpoaeoiKvlat, Kal dXXt] hi ri<i yrj 
Kdrco, Kal iroXei'i iv avrfj Kal rrora[xov<i e')(0V(7a 
Kal ireXdyrj Kal vXa^ Kal oprj. ravrrjv ovv rrjv 
Kad^ rjp.ds oiKovpAvrjv eiKd^opLev. 

Ao^av he rjpuv Kal en Troppcorepco rrpoeXdelv, \ \ 
avveX'i](f)6r)fiev rot? 'iTnToyvTroi^ Trap* avT0i<i KaXov- 
p,evoi,^ diravrrjaavre'i. oi he \inr6yvrroi ovroi cIctlv 



had grown in and struck root. Already branches 
had grown IVom their fingers, tendrils entwined 
tiiem, and they were on the point of bearing fruit 
like the others any minute. Leaving them in the 
lurch, we made off to the boat, and on getting there, 
told the men we had left behind about everything, 
including the affair of our comrades with the vines. 
Then, taking jars, we furnished ourselves not only 
with water but with wine from the river, encamped 
for the night on the beach close by, and at daybreak 
put to sea with a moderate breeze. 

About noon, when the island was no longer in 
sight, a whirlwind suddenly arose, spun the boat 
about, raised her into the air about three hundred 
furlongs and did not let her down into the sea again ; 
but while she was hung up aloft a wind struck her 
sails and drove her ahead with bellying canvas. For 
seven days and seven nights we sailed the air, and on 
the eighth day we saw a great country in it, resemb- 
ling an island, bright and round and shining with 
a great light. Running in there and anchoring, we 
went ashore, and on investigating found that the land 
was inhabited and cultivated. By day nothing was 
in sight from the place, but as night came on we 
began to see many other islands hard by, some 
larger, some smaller, and they were like fire in 
colour. We also saw another country below, with 
cities in it and rivei'S and seas and forests and « 
mountains. J This we inferred to be our own world. \/ 

We determined to go still further inland, but 
we met what they call the Vulture Dragoons, 
and were arrested. These are men riding on large 



dvBpe<; €7rl /yvTrcov fieydXcov 6')(^ov/jl€voi koX Kaddirep 
i7r7roi<; Tot9 6pveoi(; '^pcofievor fieydXoi <yap oi 
'yv7r€<; koI eo? eTrlvav rpiKe^aXoL. fidOoi S" dv ti<; 
TO fieyedo^; avToov ivrevdev veco^ yap fieydXr]^ 
(poprtSo^ icTTov CKaaTOv rSiv irrepdv fiaKporepov 
KaX 'ira')(yTepov (f)epov(TC. roi)TOL<i ovv rot? 'Itt- 
iroyvTTOi'i TrpocTTeTaKrai Tre/JiTrero/LteVoi? rrjv yrjv, 
€1 Tt? evpedeirj ^ivo<i, dvdyeiv &)9 rov jSaaiXea' 
Kol hrj Kol rjpLCL^ (TvWa^6vT€<i dvdyovaiv (ii<; avTov. 
6 8e OeaadpLevo^ koL diro Tr}<; crroX?}? el/<d(Ta<i, 
"^Wrjvet apa, €cf)i], v/xec<i, Si ^ivoi,; crvfKprjadvrcov 
Be, IIco? ovv d(f)iK€a0€, €(f)r), rocrourov depa 8i€\- 
d6vTe<;; koI r}fxet<i to irdv avTw Sirjyovfieda' Kal 
0? dp^dfzevo<i to kuO^ uvtov ripLiv Sie^rjei, co? Kol 
avTO<i dvdpci)7ro<; &v Tovvop^a 'EvSv/xicov diro rr;? 
rjfi€T€pa<; 7/)? KaOeuScov dvapTraaOelri Trore koI 
dcfiiKofievo'i ^acriXeuaeie t?;? 'X,d>pa'^' elvat Se Tip 
yrjV iK€LVr]v eXeye Trjv rjfiiv /caret) (f)aii'op,evrjv 
aeXi'jvrjv. dXXa Oappelv re irapeKeXeveTO Kal 
fiTjSeva kIvBvvov vSopaadar irdina yap rj/j,lv 
TrapeaeaOav &v Beofieda. 'Hv Be Kal KaTop- 12 
6(ocrQ), ei^Tj, TOP 7r6Xep,ov ov eK^epw vvv 7rpb<; to 1)9 
TOP rfXiov KaTOiKovvTa<i, uTrdpTcov evBaifiovecTTaTa 
Trap ifiol KaTa^LUicrecrde. Kal 7)p,et<i -qpoixeda TtVe? 
elev 01 TToXep^iOL Kal ttjv alTiav Trjf Bia(f)opd<i' 
'O Be ^aedcov, (f)7]ai,v, 6 tS)V ev tw rfxiw kutoi- 
KOvvTWv fiacnXev<i — oiKeiTai yap Brj KdKecvo<i 



vultures and using the birds for horses. Tlie 
vultures are large and for the most part have 
three heads : you can judge of their size from the 
fact that the mast of a large merchantman is not 
so long or so thick as the smallest of the quills they 
have.^ The Vulture Dragoons are commissioned to 
fly about the country and bring before the king any 
stranger they may find, so of course they arrested us 
and brought us before him. When he had looked us 
over and drawn his conclusions from our clothes, he 
said : " Then you are Greeks, are you, strangers ? " 
and when we assented, " Well, how did you get here, 
with so much air to cross ? " We told him all, and 
he began and told us about himself : that he too was 
a human being, Endymion by name, who had once 
been ravished from our country in his sleep, and on 
coming there had been made king of the land. Hel 
said that his country was the moon that shines down ' 
on US.2 He urged us to take heart, however, and 
suspect no danger, for we should have everything 
that we required. "And if I succeed," said he, 
" in the war which I am now making on the people 
of the sun, you shall lead the happiest of lives with 
me." We asked who the enemy were, and what the 
quarrel was about. " Phaethon," said he, " the king 
of the inhabitants of the sun — for it is inhabited,^ 

1 Cf. Odyss. 9, 322 f. 

* The story of Antonius Diogenes included a description of 
a trip to the moon (Phot. Ill a). Compare also Lucian's 
own Icaromenippus. 

* Cf. Lactantius 3, 23, 41 : "Seneca says that there have 
been Stoics who raised the question of ascribing to the sun 
a population of its own." 




coairep kuI ?) ae\7]V'r} — iroXvv ySrj Tryoo? ri/xa^i 
TToXefiel xpovov. yp^aro Be i^ alTia<i Totavrr]^;' 
Twv iv TTJ apxjj "TV ^Vj? "^ore tov<; airopcordrovi 
avva'ya'yoov e^ovXi/Orju diroiKcav e? rov 'K(0(T(j)6pov 
areiXat, ovra kpr^fiov koI vtto fnjSevb'i kutoi- 
Kov/Jbevav o roivvv ^aeOwv (b9ovi]aa<; eKcoXvcre 
Trjv airoiKiav Kara fxeaov rov Tropov a7ravTr]aa<i 
eTTt, TOiv ]L7nrofxvpfiy]KQ)v. rore fiev ovv vlkt]- 
6evT€<; — ov jap r^fxev dvriTraXoL rfj TrapacrKevfj — 
dve')(^wpriaapev vvv he ^ovXofiai, av6i<; i^eveyKelv 
rov TToXe/jiov Kal drroareTkai ri]v diroiKlav. yv ovv 
ideXyre, KOivcovijaare p,oi rov crroXov, 'yv7ra<; 8k 
v/xiv eyob irape^co rcov ^acriXiKcov eva eKaaro) kuI 
rr]v aXXyv oirXtcnv' avpcov Se 'rroirjcro/jieOa rrjv 
e^oBov. Oi/TO)?, ecfiyv iyco, yiyveaOw, irreiBrj aoi 

Tore p.ev ovv rrap avrw icTriadevre<i ifieiva/xev, \; 
ecodev Be Biavacrrdvre^ eraacfopeOw Kal yap 
at aKOTTol eaiipaivov TrXrjalov elvai toi)? rroXe- 
fjLLOVi. TO fxev ovv •vrXrjOo'i rrj<i arparLd<i BeKa 
fjbvptdBes eyevovro dvev rcov aKevo(f)6p(i)v Kal rtav 
fiTj'X^avoTTOicov Kal ra)v ire^wv Kal rwv ^evcov 
crup-p^d^wv rovrcov Be OKraKco-p-vpiot p,ei> rjaav 
01 'ImroyvrroL, Bia-/u.vptot Be ol errl rcov Aa^a- 
voTrrepcov. opveov Be Kal rovro ecrri p^eyiarov, 
dvrl rcov nrrepoiv Xaxdvoi<; rrdvrr) Xdaiov, ra 
Be oi)KV7rrepa exec OpiBuKLvyi 0uXXof9 p^dXtara 
TTpocreoLKora. irrl Be rovTOi<; ol Keyxpo^oXoi 
ererdxaro Kal ol ^KopoBopdxoi. rjXdov Bk 
avru) Kal arro rrj^ dpKrov avfip,axot, Tpiap,vpioi, 
jj,ev '^vXXoro^orai, rrevraKLapLvptoc Be ^Avep,o- 
Bpopor rovrcov Bk ol p,ev "^vXXoro^orai, eVl 


you know, as well as the moon — has been at war with 
us for a long time now. It began in this way. Once 
upon a time I gathered together the poorest people 
in my kingdom and undertook to plant a colony on 
the Morning Star, which was empty and uninhabited. 
Phaethon out of jealousy thwarted the colonisation, 
meeting us half-way at the head of his Ant Dragoons. 
At that time we were beaten, for we were not a 
match for them in strength, and we retreated : 
now, howevei', I desire to make war again and plant 
the colony. If you wish, then, you may take part 
with me in the expedition and I will give each of 
you one of my royal vultures and a complete outfit. 
We shall take the field to-morrow." " Very well," 
said I, " since you think it best." 

That night we stopped there as his guests, but 
at daybreak we arose and took our posts, for the 
scouts signalled that the enemy was near. The 
number of our army was a hundred thousand, apart 
from the porters, the engineers, the infantry and the 
foreign allies ; of this total, eighty thousand were 
Vulture Dragoons and twenty thousand Gi-assplume- 
riders. The Grassplume is also a very large bird, Avhich 
instead of plumage is all shaggy with grass and has 
wings very like lettuce-leaves. Next to these the 
Millet-shooters and the Garlic-fighters were posted. 
Endymion also had allies who came from the Great 
Bear — thirty thousand Flea-archers and fifty thousand 
Volplaneurs. The Flea-archers ride on great fleas, 



yfrvW&v fieyaXwv iinrdl^ovTai, oOev koI ttjv 
irpoarj'yopiav eyovaiv fjL€<yedo^ Be t5>v ■yjrvWoov 
oaov ScoSeKU eXe^ayre?* ol 8e ^AvejuoBpofiot, ire^ol 
fiiv elaiv, (fiepovrai Be ev rw aepi avev irrepcbv' o 
Be T/507ro9 rf]<i (f)opd<i roioaBe. ')(^iro}va<i 7ToB^pei<; 
v7re^(oa/jLevoc KoXTTOxravTe'i avrov<i tm avefxa 
Kaddirep laTLa (^epovrai cocnrep ra crKcicpr}. to, 
iroWa S' ol TOiovTOL ev Ta2<; /j,d')(^ai<; ireXTacnai 
elcriv. eXeyovro Be Kal uTro rcov inrep ttjv KaTr- 
TraBoKiav dcrTepwv ■fj^eiv Xrpovdo^dXavoi, fiev 
eTrra/ciafxvpioc, 'iTnroyepavoi, Be TrevraKia'X^iXioi. 
rovTOV<; eyco ovk ideacrdfirjv ov yap d(f)LKOVTO. 
Bioirep ovBe ypd'^at ra? (f)uaeL<i avrcov iroX/jir](ra' 
repduTia yap kuI dinara irepl avrcov eXeyeTO. 

AvTr] [juev 77 ToO *EvBvfj,l(ovo<; Bvvafic<i ^v. 14 
(TKevT) Be Trdvrcov rj avrrj' Kpdvr) /xev aTTo rwv 
Kvdficov, fieydXoi yap Trap avjoi<i 01 Kvafioi Kal 
Kaprepoi' 6(opaKe<; Be (poXiBoiTol 7rdvTe<; depfxivoi, 
ra yap Xeirr) rcov dep/xcov avppdirrovre'i Troiovvrai 
6copaKa<;, dpprjKrov Be eKel yiverat, rov Oepfxov ro 
Xevro? wcrirep Kepa<i' darriBe^ Be xal ^l(f>i] ola 15 
ra tj\\r)viKa. eTretor) oe Katpo'i tjv, era^avro code 
TO fiev Be^tbv Kepa<i el'xpv oi 'ImroyvTrot, /cal 6 
^aaiXei)^ roix; dpiarov^ rrepl avrov e^cov koI 
r]iieL<i ev rouroc<; rj/xev rb Be evcovvfiov ol A.a')(a- 
voirrepoL' ro fieaov Be ol crvfifiaxoi to? eKdcrroi<i 
eooKei. ro oe Tre^ov ycrav fiev a/xcpi Ta9 e^aKia- 
^iXi,a<; fj,vpidBa<;, ird')(^6rjaav Be ovrco<;. dpd'xyai 
trap* avroi'i ttoXXoI /cat fieydXot yivovrai, ttoXv 
rcov K.vKXdBcov vijacov €Kaaro<i fiei^cov. rovroi^ 



from which they get theii* name ; the fleas are as 
large as twelve elephants. The Volplaneurs are 
infantry, to be sure, but they fly in the air without 
wings. As to the manner of their flight, they pull 
their long tunics up through their girdles, let 
the baggy folds fill with wind as if they were sails, 
and are carried along like boats. For the most part 
they serve as light infantry in battle. It was said, too, 
that the stars over Cappadocia would send seventy 
thousand Sparrowcorns and five thousand Crane 
Dragoons. I did not get a look at them, as they did 
not come, so I have not ventured to write about 
their characteristics, for the stories about them were 
wonderful and incredible.^ 

These were the forces of Endymion. They all 
had the same equipment — helmets of beans (their 
beans are large and tough) ; scale-corselets of 
lupines (they sew together the skins of lupines to 
make the corselets, and in that country the skin of 
the lupine is unbreakable, like horn) ; shields 
and swords of the Greek pattern. When the time 
came, they took position thus ; on the right wing, 
the Vulture Dragoons and the king, with the bravest 
about him (we were among them) ; on the left, the 
Grassplumes ; in the centre, the allies, in whatever 
formation they liked. The infantry came to about 
sixty million, and was deployed as follows. Spiders 
in that country are numerous and large, all of them 
far larger than the Cyclades islands. They were 

* Compare the reticence of Herodotua (1, 193), Thucydides 
(3, 113, 6), and Tacitus (Germ. 46). 



TrpocreTa^ev Biv(f>i}vai rov /lera^v rrjf; ae\.7]vr]<; koX 
Tov KQ)(T(f)opov aepa. co? Be rd^iara e^eipyd- 
cravTO KoX TreSiov iirolrjaav, iirX rovrov irapera^e 
TO Tretov rjiyeZro he avrwv ^VKTepiwv 6 EuSm- 
vaKro<; rptro^; avT6<;. 

Twv he TToXcfMicov TO fjiev evcovv/jbov elx^v ol 1 G 
l7nrofivp/jby]Ke<i koI o iv avTol<; <t>cte0(j)V' Orjpia 
oe e<TTt fie<yL<TTa, vTroTrrepa, Tot? Trap' rjfjbiv 
fivpixrj^i TrpoaeoiKOTU ttXtji' tov p.e'yedov<i' 6 
•yap fie'yiaTO<: avrcov Kal Si7r\e0po<; rjv. ifid- 
Xovro he ov fxovov ol i'lr avTwv, dWa Kal 
avTOi fiaKiarra rol<i Kepaaiv i\eyoi>To he ovroi 
elvat o.fKJn rd<; irevTe fjuvpcdhw^. eVl he rov he^iov 
avTOiV eTd'xdT)(Tav ol ^ KepoKonvwrres, ovTe<; Kal 
ovTOt dfi(f)l rd<; irevre fjbvpidha<^, irdvTe^ To^orai 
Kcovwyjn fieydXoi^ e'n-o')(pvp,evot' /xerd he tovtov^ 
ol AepoKophaKe^i, ^CKoi re 6vTe<i Kal ire^ol, ttXtjv 
lxa)(^i,fioL ye Kal ovroi' iroppcoOev yap ea^evhovwv 
pa(f>avlha<; v7repfiey€0eL<;, Kal 6 ^\i]OeU ovh' eV 6\i- 
yov ^ dvTe')(eiv ehvparo, direOvrjcrKe he, Kal SucrfoSta? 
rivd<i TW rpav/xari eyy LVop.evrj(;' eXeyovro he 
XP^^f'V ■'■« ySeX?; ixa\d')(rj<i Iw. ey^ofievot he avrSiv 
eTax^VO'f^v ol KavXofivKTjre'i, oirXirat 6vT€<i Kal 
dyx^f^a,xoc,rb'7T\i]0o<i /j.vpt,oi- eK\i^6r](Tav he KavXo- 
p,VKi]Te<;, OTL daTTiCTi fxev fivKrirlvai'? expSivro, 
hopacri he KavXtvoi^ TOt? aTro tmv dairapdycov. 
TrXrjaLOp he avroiv ol Kvvo/3d\avoi ecrrrjcrav, 
ov<i €7T-e/jL-\jfav avTw ol rov "Zeipiov KaroiKovvre<i, 
TrevraKiaxlXiot, ciphpe^ ^ KWorrpoawTrot, errl ^a\d- 

' eV oXlyov Nil6n : oXiyov T. 

'' &vSpfs Nil(^n : ica\ ovroi &vSp(s MSS. 



commissioned by the king to span the aii* between 
the Moon and the Morning Star with a web, and as 
soon as they had finished and had made a plain, he 
deployed his infantry on it. Their leaders were 
Owlett son of Fairweather, and two others. 

As to the enemy, on the left were the Ant 
Dragoons, witli whom was Phaethon. They are very 
large beasts with wings, like the ants that we have, 
except in size : the largest one Avas two hundred feet 
long.^ They themselves fought, as well as their 
riders, and made especially good use of their feelers. 
They were said to number about fifty thousand. On 
their right were posted the Sky-mosquitoes, 
numbering also about fifty thousand, all archers 
riding on large mosquitoes. Next to them were the 
Sky-dancers, a sort of light infantry, formidable how- 
ever, like all the rest, for they slung huge radishes 
at long range, and any man that they hit could not 
hold out a moment, but died, and his wound was 
malodorous. They were said to anoint their missiles 
with mallow poison. Beside them were posted the 
Stalk-mushrooms, heavy infantry employed at close 
quarters, ten thousand in number. They had the 
name Stalk-mushrooms because they used mushrooms 
for shields and stalks of aspai-agus for spears. Near 
them stood the Puppycorns, who were sent him by 
the inhabitants of the Dog-star, five thousand dog- 
faced men who fight on the back of winged acorns.^ 

* Herodotus (3, 102) tells of ants bigger than foxes. 
^ Herodotus (4, 191) tells of dog-headed men and of 
headless men with eyes in their breasts. 



vo)v TTTepcoTOiv /jba^ofievoL. eXiyovTO Be Ka/celvoi 
v(TT€pi^€iv Twv crvfi/j,d)(^(i)v 0U9 T€ UTTO Tov Td\a- 
^Lov /xereTre/uiTreTO a(f)evSov)'ira<; kol ol Ne^eXo/ce'y- 
Tavpoi. aXX eKelvoL /xev Tf]<; fid'^7]^ rjSij K€Kpifiepy]<; 
d(f)iKOVTO, ft)? fM7]TroT6 o)(j>eXov' ol a(f)evSov>]rat 8e 
ovSe oXa)9 TrapeyivovTO, hionrep cjyaalv varepov 
avTOi<i opyiadevra tov ^aedovra TrvpiroXrjcrat ttjv 

ToiavTTj fieu KoX 6 ^aidoov iirr/ei irapa- 17 
aKevrj. avfi^i^avT€<; Be eVeiS^ ra arj/xeia ypdr] 
Kal MjKijaavTO eKarepcov ol ovoi — TovToi<i yap 
uvtI (TaX'mcTTwv "^^pcovTUi — ifid^ovTo. Kal to 
fiev evdivvfiov tmv 'HXicotcov avTiKa €(f)vyev ovB^ 
et9 ')(€Lpa<i Be^dfievov tov<; '\'ir'Koyv7rov<^, Kal r^fiei'i 
elTTOfieOa Kreivovre'i' to Be^tov Be avroov eKpdTet 
tov eirl tS> i-jfierepw evcovvfiov, Kal eTre^rfkOov ol 
^AepoKcov(07r€<i Bkokovtc^ ^'XP^ tt/jo? Tov<i ire^oiK}. 
evTavda Be KaKeivwv eiTL^oiidovvTwv e<pvyov eyK\i- 
vavTe<;, Kat fxoKiaTa eirei, rjaQovTO tov^ eirl tw 
€V(ovv/x(p a(f)(t)V vePLKTjjubevovi, Trj<; Be rpoTr?}? Xafi- 
7Tpd<i yeyevrj/u.evrj'i rroXXol fiev ^(iovTe<i tj\l(tkovto, 
TToWol Be Kal dvrjpovvTO, Kal to al/ia eppei ttoXu 
/j,€V eirl TMv v€(f>(oi', uxTTe avTo, jBdirTeaOaL koI 
epvdpa (paiveaOai, 61a Trap rjfjbiv Bvofievov tov 
ifKiov ^alveTac, ttoXv Be Kal etf Tr]v yPjv KaTC- 
(jTa^ev, waTe fie eoKd^eiv, /jltj dpa tocovtov tiv6<; 
Kal TrdXai dv(o yevop^evov "OfMr}po<i vireka^ev a'i- 
fxaTi varat tov Ala eirl tS> tov Sap7rr}B6vo<; davdrw. 

^KvaaTpe-^avTef; Be aTTo t^9 Sico^ew? Bvo Tpo- 18 
iraia iaTtjaafiev, to fiev eirl tmv dpa'^vicov t% 
Tr€^ofia^La<i, to Be r^? depo/UL^la^i eVi t&v 



It was said that there were tardy alHesin Phaethon's 
case, too — the slingers whom he had summoned from 
the Milky Way, and the Cloud-centaurs. The latter 
to be sure, arrived just after the battle was over 
(if only they had not !) ; but the slingers did not put 
in an appearance at all. On account of this, they 
say, Phaethon was furious with them and afterwards 
ravaged their country with fire. 

This, then, was the array with which Phaethon 
came on. Joining battle when the flags had been 
flown and the donkeys on both sides had brayed (for 
they had donkeys for trumpeters), they fought. The 
left wing of the Sunites fled at once, without even 
receiving the charge of the Vulture Horse, and we 
pursued, cutting them down. But their right wing got 
the better of the left on our side, and the Sky-mos- 
quitoes advanced in pursuit right up to the infantry. 
Then, when the infantry came to the rescue, they 
broke and fled, especially as they saw that the forces 
on their left had been defeated. It was a glorious 
victory, in which many were taken alive and many 
were slain ; so much blood flowed on the clouds that 
they were dyed and looked red, as they do in our 
country when the sun is setting, and so much also 
dripped down on the earth that I wonder whether 1 / 
something of the sort did not take place in the sky 
long ago, when Homer supposed that Zeus had sent 
a rain of blood on account of the death of Sarpedon.i 

When we had returned from the pursuit we set up 
two trophies, one on the spider-webs for the infantry 
battle and the other, for the sky battle, on the clouds. 

» II. 16, 459. 



ve<f)a)v. dpTi Se tovtcov ytpofievcov rj'yyeXKovro 
VTTO T(t)p (TKOTTMV ol ^e^ekoKevTavpoi TrpocreXau- 
vovre^, o&<? ehei irpo tt}? fJbdxV'i e^Oelv t« <l>ae- 
QovTL. KoX hrj i(f)ali'0VT0 TrpoaiovTef, 6eap,a 
TrapaSo^oTarov, e^ cttttcov Trrepoorciyv koI dvOpdu- 
TTcov crvyKetpevoi,' fjieje6o<; Be tcov fiev civdpoiTrwv 
ocrov Tov 'VoSicov Ko\ocraov ef r)p,tcr€ta<i eV to av(o, 
TO)v Be Xivncav ocrov vecd<; fieydXri^ (popTlSa. ro 
/jbivTot 7r\f]do<; avTMV ovk dviypaxlra, fxt) T(p Kav 
aincrTov Bo^rj — toctovtov tjv. rjyeiTo Be avrow o 
eK TOV l^wBiaKov to^ot?;?. eireX Be yaOovTO TOV<i 
<p[\ov<i vevcKr]pevou<i, iirl jxev rov ^aedovra eTre/n- 
TTOV dyyeXiav av9i<; eTrtevai, avrol Be Biara^dfievot 
TeTapayfMevoi'i eTTLTTiTnovai Tot9 2,e\TjVirai<i, draK- 
T&)9 ^ irepX T7]V Biw^iv Kol to, \d(j)vpa BteaKeBaa- 
fx,evoL<i' KOI TrdvTat pev rpeirovaLv, avTov Be tov 
/SacriXea KaTaBtcoKovat Trpo? T?)f iroXiv koI Ta 
TrkeZaTa twv opvecov avTOV KTeivovaiv dvecnraaav 
Be Kot TO, Tpoiraia koI KUTeBpapov dirav to vito 
TMV dpa')(i'wv ireBiov v^acrpevov, epe Be Kai Bvo 
TLva<i TMV eTaipwv e^coyprjaav. r]B7] Be naprjv kol 
6 ^aeOwv Kal avdt<; dWa Tpoiraia vir iKeivtov 


'H/iei? pev ovv dTnjyopeOa e? tov ijXiov avOrj- 
pepov TO) %et/5e OTrtcro) BeOevTe^ dpa')(yiov diroKopu- 
p^aTi. ol Be TToXiopKelv p>ev ovk eyvcoaav ttjv 19 
TToXiv, dvaaTpe-^avTe<i Be to peTa^v tov depof 
direTeixi'^ov, cocrre prjKeTi Ta<? avya<i diro tov rfKiov 
irpo'i Tr]v aeXrivtiv BirjKeLV. to Be tccxo^ rjv BlttXovv, 
vecpeXwTov wo-re cra<}>r)'i e/cXetA/ri? t% (Te\7]vr}<i 
iyeyovei Kol vvktI BoTjveKel irdaa ^raret^eTo. 
* ariKTccs Schwartz : ariKTOts MSS. 



We were just doing this when the scouts reported 
that the Cloud-centaurs, who should have come to 
Phaethon's aid before the battle, were advancing on 
us. Before we knew it, they were coming on in 
plain sight, a most unparalleled spectacle, being a 
combination of winged horses and men. In size the 
men were as large as the Colossus of Rhodes from 
ithe waist up, and the horses wei*e as large as a great 
[merchantman. Their number, however, I leave 
unrecorded for fear that someone may think it 
incredible, it was so great. Their leader was the 
Archer from the Zodiac. When they saw that their 
friends had been defeated, they sent word to 
Phaethon to advance again, and then, on their own 
account, in regular formation fell on the disordered 
Moonites, who had broken ranks and scattered to 
pursue and to plunder. They put them all to flight, 
pursued the king himself to the city and killed most 
of his birds ; they plucked up the trophies and over- 
ran the whole plain woven by the sj^iders, and they 
captured me with two of my comrades. By this 
time Phaethon too was present, and other trophies 
were being set up by their side. 

As for us, we were taken off to the sun that day, 
our hands tied behind our backs with a section of 
spider-web. The enemy decided not to lay siege 
to the city, but on their way back they built a 
wall through the air, so that the rays of the sun 
should no longer reach the moon. The wall was 
double, made of cloud, so that a genuine eclipse of the 
moon took place, and she was completely enshrouded 



7ne^ofjL€vo<i S^ rovTOL<; 6 ^EvSvfjLicov Tre/M^lra^ 'iKereve 

KaOaipelv to oiKoSo/jLrjfia koI fir) acpci^ irepiopav ev 

aKOTW ^ioT€vovTa<i, inn<j')(yelTo he koI (p6pov<; 

reXeaeiv kuI avfi/j.axo'i eaeadai kol /xrjKert 

7ro\efir](T€iv, Kal opirjpov^ iirl rouTOt? Bovvai 

rjvekev. ol Se irepX tov ^aeOovra <y€vop,ivr]<; Bl<; 

€KK\rjataf; rfj Trporepaia fiep ov8ev irapeXvaav Tf/9 

opyi]^, TJj varepaia he /xeTeyvcoaav, Kal iyevcTO 

rj elprjVT] iirl rovTOi<;' Kara rdSe avvdi]Ka<i 20 

eTTOirjaavTO HXicorai Kal ol avfi/xaji^^oi irpo'i 

2tekr]viTa<; Kal rom avfip.d'x^ov^, iirl rw KaraXvaat 

fiev Toixi 'HXfWTa? to 5iaTet;^t(T/ia koI fnjKeTi e? 

T771' cre\7]i>7]v e(jj3dWeLV, aTToSovvai Be Kal tov<{ 

aL^/xa\(i>T0u<; prjTov eKacxTOV y^prjfjiaTO^, Toy? Be 

z,e\r)viTa(i dcpelvac [xev avTovop-ov^ tou? ye 

aWovf;^ d<TTkpa<i, oirXa Be fir) iirKpepeiv Tol<i 

HXtwrat?, (Tu/jifia'^etv Bk tt) dWjjXav, ijv rt? eTTirj' 

(f)opov Be vTTOTeXeiv eKaaTov eT0v<i top (3aat\ea 

T(bv %e\7]vLTS)V Tc5 /SaaiXei tcov 'HXicotcov Bpoaov 

(ifjLcjiopeai; /j,up[ov<;, Kal 6[irjpov<i Be a^wv av'.cov 

Bovvai fivplov<i, Trjv Be diroiKiav ti)v e? tov 

Ewafpopov Koivf] TTOiecadac, Kal yLtere^etv tmv 

aXXeov tov ^ovX6/u,evov' eyypdyjrai Be Ta<i avvOr]- 

Ka<i (TTrjXri rjXeKTplvy Kal dvacTTrjaai ev fiecrw tco 

aepi eVt Toi<i fxeOopi,oi<;. Sfiocrav Be 'HXicoTOJv p,ev 

IIvpcoviBr]<; koI ©epetT?;? Kal 'i^Xoyio^, 'ZeXTjviToov 

Bk NvKTtop Kal Mr;yt09 Kal HoXvXdfMTTi]!;. 

^ y( &\\ovs r : 7« iA.A.^)A,«ui O. Not in other MSS. 
ir\av7iTovs Schwartz. 



in unbroken night. Hard pressed by this, Endymion 
sent and begged tliein to pull down the construction 
and not let them lead their lives in darkness. He 
promised to pay tribute, to be an ally and not to 
make war again, and volunteered to give hostages 
for all this. Phaethon and his people held two 
assemblies ; on the first day they did not lay aside a 
particle of their anger, but on the second day they 
softened, and the peace was made on these terms : ^ 

On the following conditions the Sunites and their 
allies make peace with the Moonites and their allies, 
to wit : 

That the Sunites tear down the dividing-wall and 
do not invade the moon again, and that they make 
over the prisoners of war, each at a set ransom ; 

That the Moonites permit the stars to be autono- 
mous, and do not make war on the Sunites ; 

That each country aid the other if it be attacked ; 

That in yearly tribute the King of the Moonites 
pay the King of the Sunites ten thousand gallons of 
dew, and that he give ten thousand of his people as 
hostages ; 

That the colony on the Morning Star be planted 
in common, and that anyone else who so desires may 
take part in it ; 

That the treaty be inscribed on a slab of electrum 
and set up in mid-air, on the common confines. 
Attested under hand and seal. 
(^For ike Sunites) {For the Moonites) 

Firebrace Darkling 

Parcher Moony 

Burns Allbright 

* Compare the Athenian-Spartan treaty, Thuc. 5, 18. 



Toiavrr] fiev -q elpijvr] iyevero' evdv^ he to 21 
Tetp(^09 Kadrjpelro Kol r/fxd'i tov<; ai;^/iaXwTOi'? 
uTreSocrav. iirel 8e dcf^iKo/xeda €9 rrjv aekrjvrjv, 
vTn]vrla^ov rjfid^ k<u rianrd^ovTO [xerd SaKpvcov ol re 
iralpoi Kol 6 'EvSv/jllcov auT09. Kal 6 pev 7)^iov p,e ^ 
p,€tvat T€ Trap' avrw koI Koivwvelv Tij<; diroiKia'i, 
vTTta-yvovfievo^ Bcoaeiv irpcx; ydp.ov top eavrov 
TralSa' yvvalKd yap ovk elal irap avTOt'?. iyo) Se 
ovSap,(b<i €TT€i66p.r]v, aXV r/^iovv diroTrep-^OrivaL 
KaTco €9 TTjV OdXarrav. &)9 Se ejvo) dSvvarov ov 
ireideiv, diroTre/jLTret r^p.d'; ecrridaa^ eTrrd rj/xipwi. 22 

'^A Se iv Tftj fiera^v BiaTpi^cov iv rfj a-ekrjvrf 
KaT€v6r]cra Kaivd Kot irapdho^a, ravra ^ovKop^ai, 
eliretv. Trpcora p,ev rb fxr) e/c yvvaiKtov yevvdadai 
avrov^i, dXV diro tmv dppevoiv ydfioL<; yap Tot9 
appeal ypMvrai koX ov8e ovoiia yvvaLKo<i oXa)9 
laaai. H'^XP'' f^^^ ^^^ irevre kui, ecKoat ercov 
yafi€irai eKuaro^;, diro he tovtcov yajxel avTo^' 
Kvovai 8e OVK iv Tjj vrjSvi, dXX iv Tal<iyaaTpoKvr)- 
p.iaL<i' ineihav yap avWd^rj to €fi/3pvov, ttuxv- 
verai t) KV'jfxr], Kal xpovo) varepov dvaTep,6vTe(i 
i^dyovai veKpd, 6evre<i Be avrd 7r/909 toi' dve/xov 
Key^^vora ^(poiroLovatv. BoKel Be fiot Kal €9 Toy9 
''EWt]va^ eKeWev rjKeiv rrj<; yaaTpoKvyj/xia<i TOvvop.a, 
on trap iKcivoi^ dvrl yao-Tpo<; Kvo^opel. p.€i^ov 
Be TovTOv dWo Birjyqaofxai. yevof iarl Trap' 
avrol<i uvdpdiTTWV ol Ka\ovp.evoL AevSplrai, ylverai 
Be Tov rpoTTOv tovtov. opx''V dvOpdnrov tov Be^ibv 
dTro7ea6vTe<i iv yfj (pvrevovaiv, e/c Be avrov BevBpov 
' fxf Herwerden : not in MSS. 



On those terms peace was made, and then the wall 
was torn down at once and we prisoners were restored. 
When we reached the moon we were met and tearfully 
welcomed by our comrades and by Endymion him- 
self. He wanted me to stay with him and join the 
colony, promising to give me his own son in 
marriage — there are no women in their country. 
But I was not to be persuaded ; I asked him to let 
me go down to the sea. When he perceived that he 
could not prevail on me, he let us go after 
entertaining us for seven days. 

In the interval, while I was living on the moon, 
I observed some strange and wonderful things 
that I wish to speak of. In the first place there is 
the fact that they are not born of women but of 
men : they marry men and do not even know the 
word woman at all ! Up to the age of twenty-five 
each is a wife, and thereafter a husband. They 
carry their children in the calf of the leg instead of 
the belly. When conception takes place the calf 
begins to swell. In course of time they cut it open 
and deliver the child dead, and then they bring it 
to life by putting it in the wind with its mouth 
open. It seems to me that the term '• belly of the 
leg " ^ came to us Greeks from there, since the leg 
performs the function of a belly with them. But I 
will tell you something else, still more wonderful. 
They have a kind of men whom they call the 
Arboreals, who are brought into the world as follows: 
Exsecting a man's right genital gland, they plant it 
in the ground. From it grows a very large tree of 
* I.e. calf of the leg. 

vol.. I. K 


ava(})veTat, fie'yicrrov, adpKivov, olov cjiaWo'i' e^^i 
Se KoX Kkdhov; koI (f)vX\a' 6 8e Kapiro'i ecnt 
^akavoi 'irrj-)(yaioL to fj-iyedof;. eTreiSav ovv 
TTeTravdcoGLV, rpvyijcravTe^i avTa<; eKKoXaTrrovai, 
Tov<; dvdpoiTTOv^. alBoia fxevroi Trpocrdera e^ovcnv, 
01 fiev i\€(f)dvriva, ol 8e irivrjre'i avrcbv ^vXiva, 
Kal Bia rovTcov o^^^evovat koI TrXrjaid^ovai roi^ 
ya/jLirai<i toI<; eavrcov. ineiSdv Be yrjpdaj] 6 23 
dv6pco7ro<;, ovk dTTodvrjaKet, aXX' Mcynep Kairvo^ 
Biakvop-evo'^ dr]p ylverat. Tpo(f)i] Be irdcnv r/ avT)']' 
iireiBdv yap irvp dvaKavacoacv, ^arpd)(^ov^ otttoj- 
aiv e7r\ tcov dvOpaKoov ttoWoX he irap auTOt<; 
elcrtv ev t& dipt Trerofievor o'mfop.evcov Be irept- 
Ka6ea9evTe<i wcnrep Bi) irepl rpdire^av Kd'movai 
Tov dvaOvfii(jop,evov kuttvov koI evco^ouvrai. airut 
fjuev 8r) rpecj^ovrat tolovtw' ttotov Be avTol<; iariv 
drjp diToOXi^op.evo'^ eh KvKiKa Kal vypov dvie\<i 
Mairep Bpoaov. ov p^rjv dirovpovaiv ye Kal d(j)o- 
Bevovatv, aW' ovBe rerprjvTac fjirep'i, ovBe 
rrjv avvovaiav ol 7ralBe<; ev Tat<i eSpac^ Trape'^ouaiv, 
dXX' ev rai<; lyvvai<i virep t>]V yaarpoKvrjp-iav' 


yap eccri rerp^p-evoi. 
KaXo? Be vop-L^eTai Trap" avTOi<; rjv ttov Ti<i 
(pa'kuKpo'i Kal ciKO/jio^ y, rov^ Be Kop.ijraf Kal 
p^vadTTOVTai. hrl Be tmv KOjii')]T(hv darepcov rov- 
vavTiOV rov^ K0fi7]Ta's Ka\ov<; vop^i^ovaiv €7reB)]p,ovv 
yap TLve';, ol Kal irepl eKelvcov Bir]yovvTO. Kal /mrjv 
Kal yeveia (pvovcxiv fXLKpov inrep ra yovara. Kai 
ovv^a'i ev rot? iroalv ovk e')(^ov(TLV, dWa Trdvref; 
elalv p,ovoBdKTv\ot. virep Be rd'^ irvya^ eKdcrr(p 
avTMV Kpd/x^rj eK7re<pvKe p,aKpd (oairep ovpd, 
ddWovaa e<> del Kal virrlov dvaTriirTovro'i ov 



Hesli, resembling the emblem of Priapus : it has 
branches and leaves, and its fruit is acorns a cubit 
thick. When these ripen, they harvest them and shell 
out the men. Another thing, they have artificial 
parts that are sometimes of ivory and sometimes, 
with the poor, of wood, and make use of them in 
their intercourse. When a man grows old, he does 
not die, but is dissolved like smoke and turns into 
air. They all eat the same food ; they light a fire 
and cook frogs on the coals — they have quantities of 
frogs, that fly about in the air — and while they are 
cooking, they sit about them as if at table, snuff up 
the rising smoke and gorge themselves.^ This is 
the food they eat, and their drink is air, which is 
squeezed into a cup and yields a liquid like dew. 
They are not subject to calls of nature, which, in 
fact, they have no means of answering. Another 
important function, too, is not provided for as one 
would expect, but in the hollow of the knee. 

A man is thought beautiful in that country if 
he is bald and hairless, and they quite detest long- 
haired people. It is different on the comets, where 
they think long-haired people beautiful — there were 
visitors in the moon who told us about them. 2 
Another point — they have beards that grow a little 
above the knee, and they have no toe-nails, but are 
all single-toed. Over each man's rump grows a long 
cabbage-leaf, like a tail, which is always green and 

1 Cf. Herod. 1, 202; 4, 75; Strabo 15, 1, 57. 

2 The point of this is that Ko/j.riTr]s, whence our word comet, 
means long-haired. 



KaTaK\(Ofjbevr). aTrofivTrovrai 8k fieXi Spt- 24 
/.ivrarov KaTrecBav rj irnvMcriv rj yvfivd^covrat, 
yaXa/CTt rrdv to croi/jLa ihpovaiv, ware kol rvpou^ 
air' avTov ir^jyvvaOai, oXiyov rov /j,eXLTo<; em- 
ard^avre^' eXaiov he iroiovvrai diro tmv Kpopfiutov 
iravv Xiirapov re koI eywSe? warrep fivpov. dfirre- 
Xou? Se 7roXXa<; e)(^ovaiv v8po(f>6pov';' at yap paye<i 
rS)v ^orpvwv elalv wairep 'X^dXa^a, kul, ifiol SoKecv, 
eTTeiSav ifMirecroov aue/jio^ hiaaelar) ra^ dp^rreXov^ 
€KeLva<i, Tore 7rpo<; T^/ia? KaraTTLTrret, rj ')(^dXa^a 
BiappayivTcov rwv f^orpvcov. rfj p,evroc yaarpl 
bcra Trrjpa ■ypcovrat Tidevre<; iv avrrj oacov Seovrat' 
dvoiKTT] yap avroh aurrj kol TrdXiv KXeia-ry'] eariv 
evrepwv he ovhev V7rdp)(^eiv^ avrfj (ftalverai, r) 
rovro fjiovov,OTi Saaela •ndaa'^evTocrOe Kal XdatG<; 
eariv, ware koX ra veoyvd, eTreiSdv plyci y,^ e? 
ravnjv VTroSverat. 

Eadrj'i Be roli; p,ev TrXovaLoa vaXivt] paX- 25 
OaKr), ToZ<i Tvevrjai Se %aX/c?} vcjyavry- iroXv- 
XaXKa yap ra e/cet 'X^wp'ia, Kal ipyd^oinat rov 
XaXKov vSart diro^pe^avre^ wairep ra epia. 
rrepL p,€vroi rwv 6(^6aXp5)v, oXov<i e^ovaiv, okvw 
pev elTrelv, pi] rt? pie voptar] i^evBeaOai 8ia 
ro airiarov rov Xoyou. opco^ 8e Kal rovro epw- 
rov<; o^OaXpov'i 7repiaipeTov<i exovai, Kal 6 ^ovXo- 
pevo<; e^eXwv rov<; avrov (fivXdrrei ear civ 8ei]0f] 
I8ecv' ovroi 8e ev9ep,ei>o<i opa' Kal ttoXXoI rov<i 
ad)erepov<i diToXeaavre<i rrap' dXXcov ypvadaevoi 
opcoaiv. eiai o ot Kat rroWovf; aTrooerov; exovaiv, 

' fVTepjiu Se ovSfV v-napx^iv Schwartz: evrfpov Sf ovVi fiirap 
ti> ^ISS. 2 TTflrra Omitted by n and Nil6n. 

^ ^170$ fj Nilen : ^lytkari MSS. 



does not break if lie falls on his back. Their noses 
run honey of great pungency^ and when they work 
or take exercise, they sweat milk all over their 
bodies, of such quality that cheese can actually be 
made from it by dripping in a little of the honey. 
They make oil from onions, and it is very clear and 
sweet-smelling, like myrrh. They have many water- 
vines, the grapes of which are like hailstones, and to 
my thinking, the hail that falls down on us is due 
to the bursting of the bunches when a wind strikes 
and shakes those vines. They use their bellies for 
pockets, putting into them anything they have use 
for, as they can open and shut them. These parts 
do not seem to have any intestines in them or any- 
thing else, except that they are all shaggy and hairy 
inside, so that the children enter them when it is 

The clothing of the rich is malleable glass ^ and 
that of the poor, spun bronze ; for that region is 
rich in bronze, which they work like wool by 
wetting it with water. I am reluctant to tell you 
what soi-t of eyes they have, for fear that you may 
think me lying on account of the incredibility 
of the story, but I will tell you, notwithstanding. 
The eyes that they have are removable, and when- 
fever they wish they take them out and put them 
/ away until they want to see : then they put them in 
and look. Many, on losing their own, borrow other 
people's to see with, and the rich folk keep a quantity 

^ Lucian's glass clothing {va\lv7]) is a punning parody on 
wooden cloLliing ({v\/>-»j), i.e. cotton (Herod. 7, 65). 



01 TrXovaioi. ra wra Se irkardvoiv <f)vWa iarh' 
avroi<i irX'^v ye Tot9 airo t&v ^dXdvwv eKeivot 
yap fjbovot, ^vXiva exovaiv. kuI firjv koX aWo 26 
davfxa iv roZ? jBacrCkeiOL^ edea(Tdfjii]V' KaToirrpov 
fxeyiarov Kclrat virep (fypeaTo^ ov irdvv ^aOeo^. 
av fiev ovv ei9 to (ppeap KarajSfj ti<;, aKovei irdyroov 
Tojp Trap' r)iuv iv rfj yfj Xeyofievcov, eav Se eh to 
KaroTrrpov clTro^Xiyfnj, irdaa^ fiev TToXet?, Trdvra 
Se eOvr] opa wairep i^eaTcb^; eKdaToa' rore Kal 
TOV<i OLKelovi iyM iOeacydfirjv Kal irdaav tt]v 
TraTpiSa, el 8k KaKetvoc ifxe ecopcov, ovKeri e^w to 
dacfjaXeii elirelv. ocrTt? Se ravra /mrj TTiarevei 
ovTQ)<i e%ety, dv irore Kal avTb<} eKelae d(piKr}Tai, 
eLaerat co? uXrjOi) Xeya>. 

Tore S' ovv ucnraa-dp-evoc rov jBaaiXea KaX 27 
Toy? diJi(^^ avTov, ep^dvTe<i dvi]')(9ri[xev ifiol he Kal 
hoipa eScoKev 6 ^ILvSvfjLLQiv, Bvo /mev tmv vaXivcov 
-)(^iT(ova>v, TTevre 8e ^aX/coO?, Kal iravoTrXiav Oepfii- 
vTjv, a Trdvra iv tw Krjret KaTeXtirov. avveTrefi-^Ire 
Se rj/jiiv Kal 'iTTTroyvTrov; ;\;tXt'ou? irapaTrefxyjrovTa'i 
d^pi crraSicov irevraKoaicov. iv he rw irapd- 28 
ttXw TToWa? [xlv Kal dX\a<; p^copa? Traprjfiec-yjrafiev, 
TTpoaea'X^op.ev he Kal tw 'Kwcrcfyopoi dpTi avvoiKi^o- 
p,eva), Kal dirojBdvre'i vhpevadpeda. ip/3dvT€<i he 
619 Tov ^(phtaKov iv dpLajepa 7rap^eip,ev tov ^']\iov, 
iv XPV '^^^ y^^ 7rapa'7r'\eovTe<;' ov yap direjBrjp.ev 
KaiTOi TToWd Tcov eraipcov iindvpovvrcov, dX\! 6 
dvefio<i ovK icprjKev. iOew/ieOa pevTot rrjv ^copai' 
evdaXrj re Kal iriova Kal evvhpov Kal ttoWcov 
dyaOwv piecnriv. lh6vTe<i 8' r)pa<; ol Ne(pe\oKev- 
ravpoi, picr9o^opovvT€<; irapd ra> ^aedovri, iire- 



stored up.^ For ears they have plane-leaves, except 
only the acorn-men, who have wooden ones. In 
the royal precincts I saw another marvel. A large 
looking-glass is fixed above a well, which is not very 
deep. If a man goes down into the well, he hears 
everything that is said among us on earth, and if he 
looks into the looking-glass he sees every city and ^*/^ 
every country just as if he were standing over it. ^ 
When I tried it 1 saw my family and my whole 
native land, but I cannot go further and say for <* 
certain whether they also saw me. Anyone who 
does not believe this is so will find, if ever he gets 
there himself, that I am telling the truth. 

To go back to my story, we embraced the king and 
liis friends, went aboard^ and put off. Endymion even 
gave me presents — two of the glass tunics, five of 
bronze, and a suit of lupine armour — but I left them 
all behind in the whale. He also sent a thousand 
Vulture Dragoons with us to escort us for sixty miles. 
On our way Ave passed many countries and put 
in at the Morning Star, which was just being 
colonised. We landed there and procured water. . 
Going aboard and making for the zodiac, we passed 
the sun to port, hugging the shore. We did not 
land, though many of my comrades wanted to ; for 
the wind was unfovourable. But we saw that the 
country was green and fertile and well-watered, and 
full of untold good things. On seeing us, the Cloud- 
centaurs, who had entered the service of Phaethon, 
^ Compare the story of the Graeae. 



'TTTTjaav iirl ri/v vavv, kuI fiaOovra evairovhovi 
uve')(^OL)priaav. ijBrj Be Kal ol 'iTTTToyvTrot aire- 29 

TlX€vaavTe<; Be rrjv einovcrav vvktu koI rj/j-epav, 
irepl ecrirepav acpt/co/xeda e? rr]v Kv)(yo'TT6\iv 
Ka\ovp.€vrjv, ')]B'>] TOP Karo) ttXovv BLCi)KOVTe<;. i) 
Be Tr6\i<i avTTj Kelrat fiera^v tov TiXeuiBcov Kal 
Tov "TdBoov a€po<;, raTreivorepa /xevroL ttoXv tov 
^(pSiaKov. aTTO^dvre<i Be avdpwirov fiev ovBeva 
eupofiev, \v')(yov<i Be 7roWov<; irepcOeovTa^ Kal ev 
TTj d<yopa Kal irepl rov Xifieva BLaTpl^ovTa<i, TOV<i 
fjLev fiiKpov<i Kal wcnrep '7revrjTa<;, 6\iyov<; Be rcbv 
fjLejaXwv Kal BvvaTMV irdvv XafXTrpov^ Kal irepi- 
(pavel<i. oiKrjaeL'^ Be avrot<; Kal \v)^ve(ove^ IBia 
eKCLCTTW ireTTOLTjvTO, Kal avTol ovojiaTa etxov, 
uxrirep ol di'6po)7roi, Kal <f)0}vr]v nrpole^ivav r/Kovo- 
p,ev, Kal ovSev 'yjfJid<; t/Blkovv, dWa Kai iiri ^evia 
iKdXovv i]/jiel<i Be 6/jLco<; icf)o/3oufj,eda, Kal oure 
BeiirvrjcraL oine virvwaal Ti<i i^lmv eroKpLrjcrev. 
dpy^ela Be avrol<; ev fiecrr] rfj 7ro\et Tre'iTOLi]raL, 
ev9a 6 dp')((i)v avrcov Blo, vvKTO<i oXtj^; Ka9)}TaL 
ovo/xaarl koXmp eKaarov 09 S' dv p-h vTraKovcnj, 
KaraBiKd^eraL dirodaveiv co? Xiircbv ttjv rd^iv o 
Be OdvaTO'i eari cr^eaOPjvat. irapearwre^ Be rjp,ei<i 
ecopcofJiev rd yivo/ieva Kal rjKovo/jLev d/xa rSiv 
Xv'XVwv aTroXoyoufievcov Kal Ta^ airLa<i XeyovTcov 
Bt d<? e^pdBvvov. evOa Kal rov rj/jLerepor Xv^vov 
eyvooptcra, Kal Trpoaetircbv avTOV trepi tmv Kar 
oIkov iirvvdavo/jbrjv ottoj? e-xpiev Be fiot diravra 
eKelva Bi7]y7]aaT0. 

Trjv fiev ovv vvKra iKeivrjv avrov ep-eiva/xev, tt} 
Be eTTiovcTT} dpavre^ eTrXeofiev 'l]Br] -ttXtjo-lov tmv 



flew up to the ship and then went away again when 
they found out that the treaty protected us. The 
Vulture Dragoons had already left us. 

Sailing the next night and day we reached the city 
called Lamptown toward evening, already being on 
our downward way. This city lies in the air midway 
between the Pleiades and the Hyades, though much 
lower than the Zodiac. On landing, we did not find 
any men at all, but a lot of lamps running about and 
loitering in the public square and at the harbour. 
Some of them were small and poor, so to speak : a 
few, being great and powerful, were very splendid 
and conspicuous. Each of them has his own house, 
or sconce, they have names like men, and we heard 
them talking. They offered us no harm, but invited 
us to be their guests. We were afraid, however, 
and none of us ventured to eat a mouthful or close 
an eye. They have a public building in the centre 
of the city, where their magistrate sits all night and 
calls each of them by name, and whoever does not 
answer is sentenced to death for deserting. Thev 
axe executed by being put out. We Avere at court, 
saw what went on, and heard the lamps defend 
themselves and tell why they came late. There I 
recognised our o\vn lamp : I spoke to him and 
enquired how things were at home, and he told me 
all about them. 

That night we stopped there, but on the next day 
we set sail and continued our voyage. By this time 



V€(f)a)V' evOa Zrj koL rrjv ^ ecfyeXo/coKKvytav iroXiv 
ISovTC^ iOav/jLaaajiiev, ov /xemoi eTre^Tjixev avTr}<;' 
ov <yap €ia to irvevjia. ^acriXevetv [MevroL avrwv 
eXeyero }s.opuivo^ 6 KoTTVc^Kyyo?. koI e^yft) ifivtj- 
crOr}V 'Ap/cTTO^az^of? rov TTotrjTOV, avSpb'? cro(f)OV 
Kot aX')]$ov<; kuX fidrr^v ec^' ol? eypa-^ev airiarov- 
fievov. rpiTj} Se airo ravrrj^ rjfiipa koi tov 
wKeavov ijSrj aa(f)(o^ iatpcojuiev, yrjv Se ovSap,ov, 
TrXiqv ye rcov iv rro aepr /cat avral Be 7rvpa>^jei<; 
KOL vTrepavyel^ e^avrdi^ovro. rf) rerdprr] he irepl 
fiecrrj/m/Spiav paXaKw^ ivhihovro^ rov Trvev fjLaro<; 
Koi (rvvi^dvoi'TO<i eirl rrjv OdXarrav KadetOrj/xev.^ 
o)? Se TOV vSaTO<i e\jravara/jLev, OavixacTLw^ virep- 30 
r]S6/u.€0a Koi v7Tepe)(^aipo/xev koI irdaav e'/c tmv 
TTapovTcov €v(j)poavv7]v eTroiovfieOa Kol d7ro/3dvTe<; 
evrj-^o/xeda- kuI yap eTV')(e yaXrpr) ovcra h-al ev- 
aTaOovv TO 7reXayo<i. 

"RoLKe Se dp-^i] KaKOiv [jLeil^ovwv ylveaOat, 
TToXXaKi^i 77 7rpo<i to ^eXtlov p,eTa^oXyy koi yap 
r] (lei's hvo nova<i rjfiepa^; ev evhia, 7rXevaavTe<;, tyj^ 
rpiT't]'? v7ro<paivovar]'i Trpo? dvicr')(ovTa tov jjXiov 
dipvci) opcofiev drjpla koi kjjtt] iroXXd pev Kal dXXa, 
ev 8e /leyiaTOV dirdvrwv oaov cTTahiwv ')(^iXt(ov kuI 
TTtvTaKocTLwv TO peyeOc;' iirtjeL Be Ke-^r]vo<i Kal 


TrepcKXv^opevov koX tov<; oSovTa'i eK^alvov ttoXv 
Tbiv Trap 7)p,lv (paXXcov vyjrijXoTepovi, o^el^; he 
7ravTa<i wairep a'KoXo7ra<i /cal X€VKOv<i ojarrep 
€Xe(f)avTivov<;. ?;/x649 fiev ovv to varaTOv dXXt]- 
Xov<; 7rpo(Tet7r6vTe<; Kal Trepi^aXovTC^ ep^evopLev to 

* KaOeiBrifxev Richards : KwriBrfixfu KareTidrifiev MSS. 


we were near the clouds. There we saw the city 
of Cloudcuckootown/ and wondered at it, but did 
not visit it, as the wind did not permit. The king, 
however, w^as said to be Crow Dawson. It made me 
think of Aristophanes the poet, a wise and truth- 
ful man whose writings are distrusted without 
reason. On the next day but one, the ocean was 
already in plain sight, but no land anywhere except 
the countries in the air, and they began to appear 
fiery and bright. Toward noon on the fourth day 
the wind fell gently and gave out, and we were 
set down on the sea. When we touched the water 
we were marvellously pleased and happy, made as 
merry as we could in every way, and went over the 
side for a swim, for by good luck it was calm and the 
sea was smooth. 

It would seem, however, that a change for the 
better often proves a prelude to greater ills. We 
had sailed just two days in fair weather and the third 
day was breaking when toward sunrise we suddenly 
saw a number of sea-monsters, whales. One among 
them, the largest of all, was fully one hundred and 
fifty miles long. He came at us with open mouth, 
dashing up the sea far in advance, foam-washed, 
showing teeth much larger than the emblems of 
Dionysus in our country ,2 and all sharp as caltrops 
and white as ivory. We said good-bye to one 
another, embraced, and waited. He was there in an 

^ The capital of Birdland in Aristophanes' play, The Birds. 
■^ On the size of these, see Lucian's Syrian Goddess, 28. 



Se Tj^rj Traprjv koX avappo(j)P]aav 7j/xd<i avrfj vi]l 
KareTTiev. ov fxevToi e<p6r) crvvapd^ai Tol<i ohovcriv, 
aXka Sta rwv dpaio}/j,dTQ)v rj vav<i e? to eao) 
Sie^eTreaev. eVet Se evSov r)pt,ev, to /xev irpoiTov 31 
(TKOTO^ r]V Kol ovSev icopco/xev, varepov Be avrov 
dvwxcLVovTO^ eiSo/xev kvto<; fieja kol irdvTr) irXarv 
Kol {jyjrrjXov, ikuvov fivpidvBpo) iroXei ivoiKeiv. 
€K€iVTO Be iv p^eaw kol fieydXot kol fiiKpol^ ix6ve<; 
Kol aXka TToWd Ofjpia cruyK€Ko/j.jjLeia, koI ttXolmv 
[aria kuI ajKvpai, koX dv6 pcoirwv oarea Koi 
(f>oprLa, Kara fiiaov Be /cal 77} Kal Xocpoi yaav, 
e/jiol BoKelv, CK Tri<; lXuo<; i)v Kareirive crvvi^dvovaa. 
liXr} yovv eV avT7]<i Kal BevBpa iravTola e7re(f)VKei 
Kal \d-xava €^e^\acrri]K€i, Kal ewKei Trdvra 
i^€ipjaaiu.evoL<i' irepipierpov Be t^9 7% ardBtoi 
BiaKQcrioi Kal reaaapdKOvra. tju Be IBecv Kal 
opvea OaXdma, \dpov<; Kal d\Kuova<;, iirl rcoi' 
BevBpcov veoTjevovTa. 

Tore pLev ovv eVi iroXv eBaKpvopiev, varepov 32 
Be dvaar7]aavr€^ tov<; eralpovi rtjv p.ev vavv 
vrrearrjpi^apiev, avrol Be rd Trvpela avi'rpi-yjravre'i 
Kal dvaKavaavre<i Belirvov €k rcov irapovrcov 
eirotovpieOa. irapeKetro Be d^dova Kal iravro- 
Baird Kpea roiv lyOvwv, Kal vBwp en ro e/c rov 
'FiOO(T(f>6pov et'X^op,ev. ry eiTLovarj Be Btavaardvre^;, 
eX irore dvaydvoL ro Krjro'^, ewpcb/j-ev dWore piev 
oprj, dWore Be p,6vov rov ovpavov, iroWdKi^ Be 
Kal vrjcrovi' Kal <ydp jjadavopLeOa (pepop^evov avrov 
o^ew'i 7r/309 Trdv p.epo^ rr}? 0a\drr7}(;. errel Be 

' fityaKoi Kal fiiKpo) Schwartz : ^ik^oI MSS. 


instant, and with a gulp swallowed us down, ship 
and all. He just missed crushing us with his teeth, 
but the boat slipped through the gaps between 
them into the interior. When we were inside, it 
was dark at first, and we could not see anything, 
but afterwards, when he opened his mouth, we saw 
a great cavity, flat all over and high, and large 
enough for the housing of a great city. In it 
there were fish, large and small, and many other 
creatures all mangled, ships' rigging and anchors, 
human bones, and merchandise. In the middle 
there was land with hills on it, which to my thinking 
was formed of the mud that he liad swallowed. 
Indeed, a forest of all kinds of trees had grown on 
it, garden stuff had come up, and everything 
appeared to be under cultivation. The coast of the 
island was twenty-seven miles long. Sea-birds were 
to be seen nesting on the trees, gulls and king- 

At first we shed tears for a long time, and then 
[ roused my comrades and we provided for the ship 
by shoring it up and for ourselves by rubbing sticks 
together, lighting a fire and getting dinner as best 
we could. We had at hand plenty of fish of all 
kinds, and we still had the water from the Morning 
Star. On rising the next day, whenever the whale 
opened his mouth we saw mountains one moment, 
nothing but sky the next, and islands frequently, 
and we perceived by this that he was rushing swiftly 
to all parts of the sea. When at length we became 

' This story of the whale is no longer considered a parody 
on Jonah's adventure, as there were other versions of the 
tale afloat in antiquity. 



i]8rj idd8€<i tt} Siarpi^fj eyevo/xeOa, \a/3cov kirra 
TOiV kraiputv e/SaSi^ov e? rrjv vXrjv irepicrKOiTrj- 
aaaOai ra irdvTa ^ov\6fievo<i. oviru) he irevre 
6Xov<i SieXOoDV araSiovi evpov lepov IlocretSwi'o?, 
(o? ehi'fkov 77 iiriypacpi], Kal fX6T ov ttoXv kul 
Td<j)OU<i TToWoix; Kal aT7]\a<; iir avrcov TrXrjaLov 
re Trrjyrjv i/Saro? 8iauyov<;, en Be Kal kvvo^ 
uXaKTjv rjKovoixev Kal Kairvo<; e(f)a[veTO iroppwdev 
Kal riva Kal eTravXiv elKa^o/xev. 

"EttovStj ovv ^ahi^ovTe<i ecfyiardfieOa Trpea-^vrrj 33 
Kal veavicTKU) /xd\a 7rpo0vfMa)<; irpaaidv riva epya- 
^o/jiivoi<s Kal vScop dirb Ti}? irr^yrj'^ eV avnjv 
hLo-)(erevovaiv' i)cTdevre<i ovv d/xa Kal (fyo^y^devres 
ea'rt]/j.ev' KUKelvot he ravTo i]/xtv 009 to et/co? ira- 
66vre<; dvavSot TrapeicmJKeaav' ^(povcp he o irpecr- 
Bvrri<i €<^r], Tti^e? u/iet? dpa eare, & ^evoi; rrorepov 
TMV evaXicov haifXovMV rj dvOpcoiroi SfcrTU^^et? i)/uLlv 
TTapaTrXrjcnoi; Kal yap rjfiel'; dvdpwiroi 6vt6<> Kai 
ev yfi rpacjievTe'i vvv OaXdrrioi yeyovafxev Kal 
(Tvvvrj-y^o/jieOa rw TveptexovTi tovtm OijpUo, ouS' 
7rdaxo/J'€v dKpij3w'i elhore^' redvdvai p.ev yap 
elKdl^ofxev, ^rjv he irLarevofiev. irpo<; ravra eyco 
eliTov' \\al rj/Jiei<i roc dvOpfoiroi, ver]Xvhe<; /u,ev, m 
Trdrep, aviw crKd(j)et, TTpojrjv KaranrodevTe^, irpo/jX- 
Oofiev he vvv fSovXo/xevot /xaOelv ra ev rfi vXij a><; 
evcf ttoXXt) ydp Tf? Kal Xdato'i e(^aLvero. haijxwv 
hi Ti9, ft)? eotKev, i)fJba<; ijyayev ere re 6-^oixevov<i 
Kal elao[Jbevov<i on p-r] p^ovoi ev rathe KaOeipypeOa 
T(p 6iipi(p' dXXd (f)pdaov ye rjfilv rrjv cravrov 
TVXV^> ocrrc<i re mv Kal ottco? hevpo elcrijXOe'i. 
he ov irporepov e^rj epeiv oiihk rrevcrea'OaL Trap 
r/ficov, rrplv ^evtcov rcov Trapovrcov /lerahovvai, Kal 



wonted to our abiding- place, I took seven of my 
comrades and went into the forest, wishing to have 
a look at everything. I had not yet gone quite five 
furlongs when I found a temple of Poseidon, as the 
inscription indicated, and not far from it a number 
of graves with stones on them. Near by was a 
spring of clear water. We also heard the barking of 
a dog, smoke appeared in the distance, and we made 
out something like a farmhouse, too. 

Advancing eagerly, we came upon an old man 
and a boy very busily at work in a gai'den which 
they were irrigating with water from the spring. 
Joyful and fearful at the same instant, we stopped 
still, and they too, probably feeling the same as 
we, stood there without a word. In course of time 
the old man said : " Who are you, strangers ? Are 
you sea-gods, or only unlucky men like us ? As for 
ourselves, though we are men and were bred on land, 
we have become sea-creatures and swim about with 
this beast which encompasses us, not even know- 
ing for certain what our condition is — we suppose 
that we are dead, but trust that we are alive." 
To this I replied : " We too are men, my good 
sir — newcomers, who were swallowed up yesterday, 
ship and all : and we set out just now with the 
notion of finding out how things were in the forest, 
for it appeared to be very large and thick. But 
some divinity, it seems, brought us to see you and 
to discover that we are not the only people shut up 
in this animal. Do tell us your adventures — who 
you are and hoAv you got in here." But he said he 
would neither tell us nor question us before giving 
us what entertainment he could command, and he 



Xa^oov ri/xd<; ^yev eVt ttjv oiKiav — iireiroi'qro he 
aindpKrj koX aTi^d8a<; ivay/coSofirjTO Kal to, dWa 
e^rjpncno — irapadel'i he 't)fuv Xd^o-vd re Kal 
uKpohpva Kal t%^{)9, en he Kal olvov ey^ea?, 
iireihr] iKavco^ eKOpeaOrjp^ev, iirvvddveTo a ireirov- 
Ooifiew Kayoi) irdvTa €^y<; htrjyrjadfirjp, top re 
')(^eifi(ova Kal ra iv ttj vtjctw Kal rov iv rw depi 
ifkovv, Kal TOP irokepLOV, Kal rd dWa p^e^pi Tri<; 
eh TO Kr]TO<i Karahvae(o<;. 

'O he v7Tep6av/jLdcra<i Kal avr6<; iv p.epet ra KaO^ 
avTov hie^yet Xeyoov, To p.ev yevo'i elp,i, o) ^evot, 
Kv7rpio<i, 6pp.ii6el<i he Kar ep.rrropiav diro rPj^ ira- 
rpiho'i /Merd irathof, ov opdre, Kai dWcov 7roW(ii)v 
OLKercbv eirXeov ei? ^IraXcav ttoiklXov (f)6pTov Kopi- 
^(ov eTTt veco'i p,ejd\r]<i, rjv eirl arofiart rod KrjTov<; 
hLaXe\vp.evr]v tVco? ecopdKare. P'^XP'' f^^^ ^^^' 
'%i,KeXLa<i evTVxJh'i hie7rXevaap,ev' eKeWev he dp- 
7raadevTe<; dvep,cp acpohpw rpiratoi i<; rov wKeavov 
aTrrjvex^V/^^^' '^v6a tS> Kyrei iTepnv)(ovTe<i Kal 
avravhpoL Kara7rodivTe<; hvo<i p,6vot, tmv dX- 
Xcov uTrodavoPToyv, ecroodripLev. 6('iyfrai'T€<i he tov<; 
eTatpov; Kal vaov tu) Yloaeihcovi hetp.dp,eioi. rovrovl 
Tov ^iov ^cbp^ev, Xd'^ava p,ev KrjTrevovre^, t^^O? he 
(TiTOvpevoL Kal aKpohpva. TroXXr) he, to? opdre, rj 
vXt], Kal fiijv Kal dpuTreXov^ e'^et TToXXa?, a^' mv 
rjhvTarof; 6lvo<i yervdrar Kal ti)v Trtiyi-jv he iVo)? 
elhere KaXXicxrov Kal ylrvxpordrov vharo^. evvrjv 
he diro rSiV (pvXXcov irotovpeOa, Kal irvp d(f)$ovov 
Kaiop^ev, Kal opvea he Oripevopbev rd elcnrero- 
p,€va, Kal ^(0VTa<; l')(6v<i dypevopbev e^L6vre<i eirl rd 
Bpayyia rov Oriplov, evda Kal XovoaeOa, oirorav 
ertivvii^awp.ev. Kat p,r]V Kat KLpvr] ov iroppoj ecrriv 



took us with him to the house. It was a commo- 
dious structure, had bunks built in it and was fullv 
furnished in other ways. He set before us vegetables, 
fruit and fish and poured us out wine as Avell. 
When we had had enough, he asked us what had 
happened to us. I told him about everything from 
first to last — the storm, the island, the cruise in the 
air, the war and all the rest of it up to our descent 
into the whale. 

He expressed huge wonder, and then told us his 
own story, saying : " By birth, strangers, I am a 
C3'priote. Setting out from my native land on a 
trading venture with my boy whom you see and with 
many servants besides, I began a voyage to Italy, 
bringing various wares on a great ship, which you 
no doubt saw wrecked in the mouth of the whale. 
As far as Sicily we had a fortunate voyage, but 
there we were caught by a violent wind and driven 
out into the ocean for three days, Avhere we fell in 
with the whale, were swallowed up crew and all, 
and only we two survived, the others being killed. 
We buried our comrades^ built a temple to Poseidon 
and live this sort of life, raising vegetables and 
eating fish and nuts. As you see, the forest is 
extensive, and besides, it contains many grape-vines, 
which yield the sweetest of wme. No doubt you 
noticed the spring of beautiful cold water, too. We 
make our bed of leaves, bum all the wood we want, 
snare the birds that fly in, and catch fresh fish by 
going into the gills of the animal. We also bathe 
there when we care to. Another thing, there is a 



arahiwv etKocri rrjv Trepifierpov, l')(9^<; e^ovaa 
TravToBaiTov'i, iv y koX V7])(^6fieda koI ir\eop,ev eVt 
(TKd(tov<i fjiiKpov, o iyoo vav7r7]yrjadfj,r]v. err) Be 
icTTiv I'lixiv T?}? Kara7r6(7eo}<; raura eina Kai e'cKoai. 
Kol ra fiev a\Xa t'cro)? <pepeLV Svvd/xeOa, ol Be 35 
yeiTove^ rjfjbwv koL irdpoLKOt acpoSpa ')(^aXe'iroi Kai 
I3anel<; elcnv, ajUKToi re oVre? Ka\ aypioi. H yap, 
etprjv eyct), kol ctWoc Tive<; elaiv iv tw Ki'jTei; 
UoWol fiev ovv, €(j)T}, Kot a^evot Kai ra? jj.op(j)a<; 
dWoKOTor TO, fiev yap eaTrepia rrj<; wA,?;? Kai 
oupaca Taptx^va oiKovaiv, €dvo<i e7;^eXi'£U7roi/ 
Kai Kapa/BoTrpocTcoTTOv, pbdyijiov Kai Opaav Kai 
ooiJLO^dyov' ra Be Trj<; erepa<; TrXevpd'i Kara 
rov Be^iov toi^oi/ Tpircoi op,6v8r]Te<;, ra fiev 
dvco dv9poi)7rot<; eoiKore^, rd Be Kdrco rot? yaXeco- 
Tat<;, ■tjrrov p^evrot, dhiKol elcrtv roiv dWoov ra 
Xaid Be KapKLVox^i'pe'i Kai &uvpoKe(pa\oi. crvp,- 
iiaxLav re Kai (j)i\iav Trpo? eavrov'i rreTTon^p-evoi' 
Tr)v Be fjueaoyaiav vep^ovrai YlayovplBai Kai ^?/tto- 
TToSe?, yevo'i fxdxi'P'OV Kai BpojuiKcorarov ra ewa 
Se, rd rrpo'i avrw rw aro/iart, rd TroWd /xev ep)]p.a 
earc, irpoaKXy^o/xeva rfj OaXdrrr)- 6fioi<; Be eyco 
ravra t%6> ^opov rol'i "ifrjrroTToaiv viroreXjov 
eKaarov t70v<; oarpeia TTevraKoaia. roiavri] 36 
jiiev T) %wpa earlv' vp,d<i Be XPV opdv ottw^ 
Bvvt](r6/Meda ro(Tovroi<; edveat fidx^o-^^'^i' z^^*- ottw? 
0iorevaofiev. Uoaoi Be, e<pr]v eydi, iravre^ ovrol 
elcriv; U\eiov<i, efprj, rcov %/Xtwi'. "OirXa Be rlva 
iarlv avroU; OvBev, e</)7/, rr\^-jV rd card rcov 



lake not far off, twenty furlongs in circumference, 
with all kinds of fish in it, where we swim and sail 
in a little skiff that I made. It is now twenty-seven 
years since we were swallowed. Everything else is 
perhaps endurable, but our neighbours and fellow- 
countrymen are extremely quarrelsome and unpleas- 
ant, being unsociable and savage." "What!" said I, 
" are there other people in the whale, too ? " "Why, 
yes, lots of tliem," said he ; " they are unfriendly 
and are oddly built. In the western part of the 
forest, the tail part, live the Broilers, an eel-eyed, 
lobster-faced people that are warlike and bold, and 
carnivorous. On one side, by the starboard wall, 
live the Mergoats,^ like men above and catfish below : 
they are not so wicked as the others. To port 
there are the Crabclaws and the Godheads, who are 
friends and allies with each other. The interior 
is inhabited by Clan Crawfish and the Solefeet, good 
fighters and swift runners. The eastern part, that 
near the mouth, is mostly uninhabited, as it is 
subject to inundations of the sea. I live in it, 
however, paying the Solefeet a tribute of five 
hundred oysters a year. Such being the nature 
of the country, it is for you to see how we can fight 
with all these tribes and how we are to get a living." 
" How many are there of them in all ? " said I. 
" More than a thousand," said he. " What sort of 
weapons have they ? " " Nothing but fishbones," 

' According to Herodotus (2, 46), jufVSrjy ■vras Egyptian for 
goat ; but there is nothing goatish in the Tritonomendetes as 
Lucian describes them. 



l^dvwv. OvKovv, e^rjv iyco, apicTTa av e%ot 8ia. 
adyv^ ekdelv avTol<;, are ovcriv dvoirXotf avTOvi; 
coTrXicr/jbevovi' ei 'yap KpaTTjaofxev avTU>v, aoeo)? 
Toy Xoiirbv ^tov oLKrjaofiev. 

"ESofe ravTa, Koi direXOovre'; iirl vavv irape- 
aKeva'C,6p.e6a. alrla he rov ■jro\e/xov efieWev eae- 
a6at Tov <f)6pov r) ovk dirohocn.^, ySrj rr}<; irpoOea-fiLaf; 
ive(Trwcrr]<;. kol Bi] ol fiev eTrepbirov d'7rairouvT6<; 
TOV Baafiov 6 he v7repo7rTiKa)<; d7roKpivd/j,evo<; 
direUcd^e tov<; djyiXovi;. irpwroi ovv ol ^tjt- 
T67rohe<i Koi ol HayovpiSai ')^aXeiraiVOVTe<; tm 
%Kiv6dpw — TOVTO <ydp eKokelro — piera ttoWov 
6opv/3ov eTTrjecrav. rjpuel'i he tjjv €(f)ohov 37 

vTroTrrevovreii e^o7rXiadp,€voi dvep,€vop.ev, Xo^oj' 
Tivd TrpoTd^avre'i dvhpcov irevre Kac elKoai' 
TrpoeLprjTo he T0t9 iv ttj evehpa, iireihav Ihcocr., 
7rape\r]\vd6ra<; tou? iroXep^iov;, eiravicnaadai' 
KoX ovTco<; eTTOLTjaav. iTravaaravTa <ydp KaroTriv 
eKOTTTOV avTov<;, koI rjp,€L<i he avrol irevre koi e'lKoai 
rov dpiOpiov ovre^ — kuI jdp 6 '^KivOapo'; Kai o 
Trat? avTov avvecrjparevovro — v7r)]VTid^op,€V, / 
avp,pi^avTe<i Ovpifo kol pwpir] hceKivhweuop^ev. 
reXof; he rpoTrrjv avrwv Trotrjcrdp^evot KaTehico^apiev 
d-ypi TT/oo? Tov<; (f>u)\eov<;. direOavov he tcov pev 
TToXepifov e/Shop/jKovra koX eKarov, rjpLwv he eh, 
Kv^€pvriTrj<i, Tpi'y\'i]<; irXevpa hianrapei^; to 
p,eTd^pevov. eKeivrjV puev ovv t7]V 7]pepav Kot 38 
Ti]v vvKTa eiT'qvXiadp.eOa ttj p-dxj] koX Tpoiraiov 
e(TT)]aapev pdxi-v ^'>'ipdv heX(f)lvo<i dvairrj^avre-i. 
TTj vaTspaia he KoL ol dXXoi alardopievoi Traprjaav, 
TO p.ev he^iov Kepa<i exovTe<; ol Tapix^^^'^ — rjyelTO 
he avTcov J]>'i\apo<; — to he eixavvpLov ol SvvvoKe- 



he said. '^ Then our best plan," said I, " would be 
to meet them in battle, as they are unarmed and 
we have arms. If we defeat them, we shall live 
here in peace the rest of our days." 

This was resolved on, and we went to the boat and 
made ready. The cause of war was to be the with- 
holding of the tribute, since the date for it had 
already arrived. They sent and demanded the tax, 
and he gave the messengers a contemptuous answer 
and drove them off. First the Solefeet and Clan 
Crawfish, incensed at Scintharus — for that was his 
name — came on with a great uproar. Antici- 
pating their attack, we were waiting under arms, 
having previously posted in our front a squad 
of twenty-five men in ambush, who had been 
directed to fall on the enemy when they saw that 
they had gone by, and this they did. Falling on 
them in the rear, they cut tliem down, while we 
ourselves, twenty-five in number (for Scintharus and 
his son were in our ranks), met them face to face 
and, engaging them, ran our hazard with strength 
and spirit. Finally we routed them and pursued 
them clear to their dens. The slain on the side of 
the enemy were one hundred and seventy ; on our 
side, one — the sailing-master, who was run through 
the midriff with a mullet-rib. That day and night 
we bivouacked on the field and made a trophy 
by setting up the dry spine of a dolphin. On the 
following day the others, who had heard of it, 
appeared, with the Broilers, led by Tom Cod, on the 
right wing, the Codheads on the left, and the 



(baXoi, ro fieaov Be oi KapKivox^tpe^;' oi <yap 
TpiTa)vo/uLevS7]T€<i rrjv r^av^iav -q'yov ovSerepoi^! 
avfifia^eiv Trpoaipovfievoi. rjfxei^ Se TrpoaTravri]- 
cravre'i avrot<; irapa to IIoaetBcovtov <Tuvep,i^afM€V 
iroXkrj ^of) y^pco/xevoi, dvr7]')(^ei 8e to kvto<;^ axnrep 
TO, aTTTjXaia. Tpeyjrd/xevoi 8e avTov<i, are 'yvpLvrjra'i 
ovra^, KOI KaraSico^avTe'i e9 rr]v vXtjv to Xolttov 
iTreKparovp^ev tt}? 77}?. koI /jlct ov ttoXv 39 
Ki'ipvKa^ diro(TTei\avTe<; v€Kpov<i re dvtjpovvTO Koi 
TrepX <^Ckia<; SieXiyovTO' rjfitv Se ovk iSoKei 
airevheadai, aXXd rfj vaTepala ')((op7]cyavTe<i iir 
avTOv<i iravTWi aphrjv e^eKo^^apev irXrjv tcov 
TpiTcovo/xevSijTcov. ovtol Be ox? elBov to. yivo/jteva, 
BiaBpdvT€<; eK TOiv ^pa'y)(L(ov d(f)^]Kav auTov<i eh 
Trjv OdXaTTav. 7;/xet9 Be ttjv ')(o)pav €'7re\0ovTe<; 
eprj/jbov r/Br) ovarav twv 7ro\ep.[u)v ro Xoittov aSew? 
KUTCpKovpiev, TO, TToWd <yv [Jbvaai0i<i re KaX Kvvrjye- 
aioL^ 'X^pwp.evoi /cal dp,7re\ovpyovvTe<; kol tov 
KapTTOv crvyKop^L^ofievoi tov eK tcov BevBpcov, Kal 
o\ci)9 ea>K€i/Liev rot? iv Becrp.coTTjpiW fieydXa) Kal 
dcpvKTO) Tpv<f>(o(Tt Kai \e\vpevois. 

^EiViavTov p,ev ovv Kal pi}va<i oktco tovtov Birjyo- 
pev tov rpoTTOv. tm S' evdrro p,')]vl Tre/iTTT?? 40 
i<TTap,ei>ov, Tvepl t7]V Bevrcpav rov aTopaTO^ dvoi- 
^tv — drra^ yap Brj tovto Kara ttjv oopav eKdaTrjv 
eiroieL to ktjto^, coaTe ^//ia? tt/Oo? ra? dvoi,^ei<i 
reK/xaipeaOai Ta^; Mpa<; — Trepl ovv ttjv BevTepav, 
axTTTcp €<^^]V, dvoL^iv, d(f)Vco ^orj T€ ttoWt] Kal 
O6pv0o'i rjKoveTO Kal wcnrep KeXevcrpaTa Kal 
elpeaiar Tapa')(6evTe'^ ovv dveiprrvaapev eV avTo 
TO aropia tov dijplov Kal (TTdvTe<t evBorepco rwv 

' KUTos Wesseling : /ctjtos MSS. 


Crabclaws in the centre. The Mergoats did not 
take the field, choosing not to ally themselves with 
either party. Going out to meet them, we engaged 
them by the temple of Poseidon with great shouting, 
and the hollow re-echoed like a cave. Routing them, 
as they were light-armed, and pursuing them into the 
forest, we were thenceforth masters of the land. 
Not long afterwards they sent heralds and were 
for recovering their dead and conferring about 
an alliance, but we did not think it best to make 
terms with them. Indeed, on the following day we 
marched agains^^ them and utterly exterminated 
them, all but the Mergoats, and they, when they 
saw what was doing, ran off through the gills and 
threw themselves into the sea. Occupying the 
country, which was now clear of the enemy, we 
dwelt there in peace from that time on, constantly 
engaging in sports, hunting, tending vines and 
gathering the fruit of the trees. In short, Ave 
resembled men leading a life of luxury and roaming 
at large in a great prison that they cannot break 
out of. 

For a year and eight months we lived in this way, 
but on the fifth day of the ninth month, about the 
second mouth-opening — for the whale did it once an 
hour, so that we told time by the openings — about the 
second opening, as I said, much shouting and com- 
motion suddenly made itself heard, and what seemed 
to be commands and oar-beats.^ Excitedly we crept 
up to the very mouth of the animal, and standing 

1 Compare the description of the sea-fight between Corinth 
and Corcyra in Thucydides 1. 48. 



oSovTcov Kadecopcofiev airdvTCOv wv iyoi elSov 
dea/xdrcov irapaSo^orarov, avSpw; fieyaXovf;, barov 
i]/jLtaTaSLaiov<; ra? rjXiKca^, €7rl vijacov fie'yaXwv 
Trpocnr\eovra<i coairep eVl rpnjpcov. olSa fxev ovv 
«7rto"TOi9 ioiKOTa IdTOprjawv, Xe^co Se Ofico';. vrjaoi 
rjaav eTnixrjKeL<i fiiv, ov irdvv he vyfrrjXai, oaov 
eKarov araSicov eKaaTrj to TrepL/xerpov iirl Be 
avrSiv eirXeov TOiV dvSpcov eKeivwv dfx<pl rov^ 
eiKoai Kol etcarov rovroov he oi fiev irap exdrepa 
T^9 vijaov Kadi']/iievoi e(/)e^% eKcoirrfkarovv Kvira- 
/otTTOi? fie<yd\aL<i avTOKXd8oL<; kol avTOKOfioL<i 
0)(j7rep epeTfiol<i, Karoiriv Be eirl rt]<; 7rpvfivi]^, &>? 
iBoKei, Kv/3€pv7]Ti]<i evrl X6(pov vyjrrjXov elarrjKet 
^(^dXKeov ex'ov irrjBdXLOV 7Teina(naBialov ro firiKO<i' 
tVl Be Tv}? 7rpa>pa<; oaov TerrapaKOVTa oonXiafievot 
avroiv ifid^ovro, irdvra ioiKOTe^ dvflpcoTroi'i ttXjjv 
rrj<i K6fxr]<i' aurrj Be irvp rjv kuI eKdero, ware ovBe 
Kopvdcov eBeovTo. uvtI Be Icxtlcov o dv€/jbo<; e/xTTL- 
TTTcov rfi vXij, TToXX-fj ovcrr} ev eKaaTrj, eKoXirov re 
TavTTjv Kol e<p€pe rijv vrjaov rj eOeXoi o Kv^epv?]- 
T»7?* KeXevarrji; Be e(f)eiaTrJK€i avT0i>i, koI Trpo? 
rr)v elpeaiav o|-e&)9 eKLvovvro wairep ra /xaKpd 
TMP irXoicov. 

To /xev ovv irpoiTov Bvo rj rpeL^i ewpSifiev, 41 
varepov Be ecfydvrjaav oaov e^uKoaioi, kul 
BiaardvTe<i iirdXefxovv koX evavpid^ovv. iroXXal 
jiev ovv avriirpcppoi avvrjpdaaovTO dXXy]Xai<i, 



inside the teeth we saw the most unparallelled of all 
the sights that ever I saw — huge men, fully half 
a furlong in stature, sailing on huge islands as 
on galleys. Though I know that what I am going 
to recount savours of the incredible, I shall say 
it nevertheless. There were islands, long but not 
very high, and fully a hundred furlongs in circum- 
ference, on each of which about a hundred and 
twenty of those men were cruising, some of whom, 
sitting along each side of the island one behind the 
other, were rowing with huge cypress trees for oars — 
branches, leaves and all ! ^ Aft at the stern, as I 
suppose you would call it, stood the master on a high 
liill, holding a bronze tiller five fui-longs in length. 
At the bow, about forty of them under arms were 
fighting ; they were like men in all but their hair, 
which was fire and blazed up, so that they had no 
need of plumes.^ In lieu of sails, the wind struck the 
forest, which was dense on each of the islands, filled 
this and carried the island wherever the helmsman 
would. There were boatswains in command, to keep 
the oarsmen in time, and the islands moved swiftly 
under the rowing, like war-galleys. 

At first we only saw two or three, but later on 
about six hundred made their appearance. Taking 
sides, they went to war and had a sea-fight. Many 
collided with one another bows on, and many 

^ Herodotua (2, 156) speaks of a floating island in Egypt. 
^ Cf. II. 5, 4 : " And tireless flames did burn on crest and 



TToWal Be Kol ifi^XrjOeiaai KareSvovTO, at Be 
a-vfj,7rXeK6/j.ei'ai KapTep(o<i Blt^jcovl^ovto kul ov 
f)aBiO)<i a'jreXvovro' ol yap eVt t?)<? TTyOcopa? reray- 
[levoL iraaav eTreBeiKvuvTO TrpoOvfitav eTTL^aivovre'i 
KOI avatpo^ VT€<;' H^wypet Be ovBei^. avrl Be ')(eLpS)v 
atBrjpcov TToXvTToBa'i /xeyaXov^ iKBeBe/xevov<i dWt]- 
\ot<i eireppiTTTovv, oi Be TrepcTrXeKo/j-evoL ttj vXtj 
Karelxov rrjv vrjcrov. ejSaXXov /xevroL koI erirpco- 
CTKov oarpeoi^ re aixa^oirXriOecn, Kai airoyyoi^ 
7rXedpiaL0L<i. rjyetTO Be rcov fiev AloXoKev- 42 
Tavpo^, Tcov Be ©aXacraoTTOTrj^' Koi fid-^r} avTo2<; 
iyeyev7]T0, w? eBohet, Xeta? eveKa' eXeyero yap 
6 %aXa(TaoirQTii<i ttoXXu^; uy6Xa<i BeXcbivcov rov 
AioXoKevravpov eXijXaKevai, &)9 ^v aKoveiv eiriKa- 
XovvTcov dXX7JXoi<; kol ra ovo/iara twv jSacriXewv 
eTTi^ooj/xivcov. reXo? Be viKwcnv oi tov AloXoKev- 
ravpov Koi vi]aov<; rcov TToXefjiiuiv KaraBvoucriv 
df.L(f)l Ta9 TrevTijKOPra Koi eKurov koX aXXa<i Tpel<i 
Xajx^dvovaiv avTol<i dvBpucnv' at Be Xotiral 
TTpvfxvav Kpovadf-ievac ecf^evyov. ol Be fiexp' tiv6<; 
Bioo^avTe'^, eVetS?) eairepa -rjv, TpaTTo/ievoi tt/^o? to. 
vavdyia rcov TrXeiarcov eVe«paT?;crav Kal rd eav- 
r&v dveiXovro' koI yap eKeivcov KureBvcrav vrjcroi 
ovK iXdrrov; rcov oyBo/jKovra. eanjaav Be Kal 
rpoTraiov tt}? i'T]crofxaxi'Ct<i eVi. rfj KecpaXj} rov 
Kr]rov<i fxiav rcov rroXe/xLcov V)]acov dvaaravpco- 
cravre<i. eKei'vJjv jxev ovv rrjv vvicra irepl ro drjpLOv 
tjvXiaavro e^d->^avre<i avrou rd uTroyeia kol iir 
dyKvpwv irXi-jaiov opfiiad/xevoi' Kat yap ayKvpaa 
e')(p(t)vro p.eydXai<i vaXLvai<; Kaprepal'^. rfj vare- 



were rammed amidships and sunk. Some, grap 
pling one another, put up a stout fight and were 
slow to cast off, for those stationed at the bows 
showed all zeal in boarding and slaying : no 
quarter was given. Instead of iron grapnels they 
threw aboard one another great devilfish with lines 
belayed to them, and these gripped the woods and 
held the island fast. They struck and wounded one 
another with oysters that would fill a wagon and 
with hundred-foot sponges. The leader of one 
side was Aeolocentaur, of the other, Brinedrinker. 
Their battle evidently came about on account of an 
act of piracy : Brinedrinker was said to have driven 
off many herds of dolphins belonging to Aeolocentaur. 
We knew this because we could hear them abusing 
one another and calling out the names of their kings. 
Finally the side of Aeolocentaur won ; they sank 
about a hundred and fifty of the enemy's islands ; 
and took three more, crews and all ; the rest backed 
water and fled. After pursuing them some distance, 
they tinned back to the wrecks at evening, making 
prizes of most of them and picking up what belonged to 
themselves ; for on their own side not less than eighty 
islands had gone down. They also made a trophy of 
the isle-fight by setting up one of the enemy's 
islands on the head of the whale. That night they 
slept on shipboard around the animal, making their 
shore lines fast to him and riding at anchor just off 
him ; for they had anchors, lai'ge and strong, made 
of glass.^ On the following day they performed 

^ Very likely a punning reference to some traveller's 
account of wooden (^v\lvai$) anchors. 



pala he dvaavTe<; iirl rov k7]Tov^ kol tou? oiKeiov; 
ddylravT€<; iir avTOV aireTrXeov 7j86fX6voi Kut wairep 
7rat,dva<i iiSovre'i. ravTa fiev to, Kara rip vrjcro- 
ixa')(iav 'yevup.eva. 


To he CLTTO TovTov /jL'>]KeTt (jiepwv e7cb Tip ip 1 
T& k/]T€l h'lairav a-)(6oiMev6^ re rfi fiovf] fxrj-)(^avi]v 
Tiva i^7]rovv, Si ?^9 av e^ekOeiv yevoiro' koI to 
jxev irpwTov eho^ev Tjfilv Siopv^aat Kara rov Se^iov 
rolyov airohpavai, kol dp^d/xevot BceKOTTTOfiev 
iireiSrj Se irpoekdovre^ oaov irevre aTahlov; ov8h> 
rjvvofiev, Tov fjiev 6pv'yixaTo<; irravaajjieOa, ri'jv Ce 
v\7]v Kavcrai Bieyi'tofiev ovtco yap av to KrjTO<i 
diroOavelv el he tovto yeiotro, paSia efieWev 
vpZv eaeaOai i) e^oSo<i. dp^d/xevoi, ovv diro rcoi' 
ovpaiwv eKaiOfiep, koI ij/nepa^ jxev eTrjd kol "(TWi 
i>vKTa<i dvaia0/]Tco<; el^f^e rov Kau/jtaTo<;, oySo-p he 
Kol evdrr] avviep^ev ainov voaovvTO^' dpyorepov 
yovv dve')(^ci(TKev, ical e'l irore dva)(^dvoi, ra-^v 
avvifivev. Se/cuTrj he kol evSeKaTj) reXeov direve- 
Kpovro ^ Kol hvawhe^ rjv rfj BcoSeKdrrj Se fi6\i<i 
evevoTjaajJiev d><;, el /jd] Tt9 x^^'^^^'^^'^ avTov vtto- 
aTTjpl^eiev rov'i jofxcj^iov^;, oiare fxijKeTi avyKkelaai, 
Kivhvvevaofiev KaTaKkeiaO eine^ ev ve/cpro avrw 
uTToXeadai. ovrco hrj /xeyaXoi^; Bokoi<; to arofia 
8iepeiaavTe<i tijv vavv errecrKevd^o/xev vhcop re tu? 

' airefeKpovTO Z, P, N, F ; anevei'eKpa'TO TflS. 


sacrifice on the whale, buried their friends on 
him, and sailed off rejoicing and apparently singing 
hynms of victory. So much for the events of the 


From that time on, as I could no longer endure 
the life in the wliale and was discontented with the 
delay, I sought a way of escape. First we deter- 
mined to dig through the right side and make off, 
and we made a beginning and tried to cut through. 
But Avhen we had advanced some five furlongs Avith- 
out getting anywhere, we left off digging and de- 
cided to set the forest afire, thinking that in this way 
the whale could be killed, and in that case our escape 
would be easy. So we began at the tail end and set it 
afire. For seven days and seven nights he was un- 
affected by the burning, but on the eighth and ninth 
we gathered that he was in a bad way. For instance, 
he yawned less frequently, and whenever he did 
yawn he closed his mouth quickly. On the tenth 
and eleventh day mortification at last set in and 
he was noisome. On the twelfth we perceived just 
in time that if someone did not shore his jaws open 
when he yawned, so that he could not close them 
again, we stood a chance of being shut up in the 
dead whale and dying there ourselves. At the last 
moment, then, we propped the mouth open with 
great beams and made our boat ready, putting aboard 



evL irXeicTTOV ifildaXkofievot koI raWa iiririjBeia' 
Kv^€pv}]creiv Be efxeWei' 6 %KLv6apo<;. 

Tfj 8e eTTioucrr] to /xev TjSrj eTeOvrjKei. '^/xe2<i 2 
Be ave\.KvaavTe<i to ttXoIov kol 8ia tmv dpaict);.cd- 
rcov Siayay6vTe<; Koi e'/c rcov oSovtcov i^dyjravTe^ 
rjpefjba KadrjKapiev e? ri]V OdkaTTav eVaya/Sai/Te? 
he eirl ra vcora kclI 6v(TavTe<i t5> YioaeLhcovi avrov 
irapd TO rpoiraiov rmkpa'i re Tp6i<; iiravXiadfievot 
— vrivep^la yap tjv — rfj reTuprrj drreTrXevaa/jLev. 
evda Br) 7roWoi<i twv €K t^9 vaujjwxiai; veKpol<i 
aTrrjVTCJfiev koL irpocrcoKeWoixev, kuc rd (Tco/jLaTa 
KaTa/ji€TpovvTe<; edavfid^ofiev. koI r]p.epa<i fxiv 
Ttva<i eirXeopiev evKparco dipt ')(^pu>pLevoL, eTretra 
jSopeov <T(f)oBpou TTvevaavTO'i fxeya Kpvo<; eyevero, 
Kat, iiir avTOV irdv eTrdyrj to 7re\ayo<;, ovk eiri,- 
7roX^9 /xovov, dWd koi e'9 /3d0o<; oaov e? e^^ 6pyvid<;, 
cocne Kol dTro^dvTa<; Biadelv eVl toO KpvcndWov. 
i7TifievovTO<; Be rod Trvevfxaro^ (j^epecv ov Bwd/xevoi 
ToiovBe rt €7Tevor]aa/iiev — Be ti]v yvcofiJjv diro- 
(f)y]vdp,€PO<i rjv 6 XKLi'6apo<; — crKdy^avTe<i yap iv rw 
vBuTL (Jirrfkaiov [xeyLcnov iv tovtco efxelva/nev 
7)fj,epa<; rpiUKOVTa, irvp dvaKaiovTe<i Kal criTovfieiwi 
Tov^ l-)(j9v<i' evplcTKOfxev Be avTov<i di'opvrrovre^;. 
€7reiBr] Be ijBrj eVeXetTre rd einrrjBeLa, irpoeXOovre'i 
Kal rrjv vaiiv ire'nriyvlav dvaaTrdaavre'i Kal Trerd- 
aavTe<; Tr]V odovrjv eavpojxeda wcnrep 'Tr\eovre<i 
Xeteo? Kol 7rpoarjv(t)<; inl tov irdyov Bi,o\iaddvovre<i. 
rjfiepa Be irefjiinrj d\ea re rjv ijSr) Kal 7rdyo<; 
i\v€TO Kal vBcop irdvTa avdi<; iyivero. 

TlXev€ravT€<i ovv oaov rpiaKoaiov; <jraBiov<i 3 

^ es «|(i.e. i") Schwartz : is mpaKoaias (i.e. t), iwi rptaKoalas 



all the water we could and the other provisions. 
Our sailing-master was to be Scintharus. 

On the next day the whale was dead at last. 
We dragged the boat up, took her through the gaps, 
made her fast to the teeth and lowered her slowly 
into the sea. Climbing on the back and sacrificing 
to Poseidon there by the trophy, we camped for 
three days, as it was calm. On the fourth day we 
sailed off, and in so doing met and grounded on many 
of the dead from the sea-fight, and measured their 
bodies with amazement. For some days we sailed with 
a moderate breeze, and then a strong norther blew up 
and brought on great cold. The entire sea was frozen 
by it, not just on the surface but to a depth of fully 
six fathoms, so that we could leave the boat and run 
on the ice. The wind held and we could not stand 
it, so we devised an odd remedy — the proposer of the 
idea was Scintharus. We dug a very large cave in 
the water and stopped in it for thirty days, keeping 
a fire burning and eating the fish that we found in 
digging. When our provisions at last failed, we came 
out, hauled up the boat, which had frozen in, spread 
our canvas and slid, gliding on the ice smoothly and 
easily, just as if we were sailing. On the fifth day 
it was warm again, the ice broke up and everything 
turned to water once more. 

After sailing about three hundred furlongs we 



vr}(T(p iXLKpa Kal ep/jfxr] 7rpo(xr]vix^Vf^^^> ^4^ V^ 
vB(op \a$6vTe<: — eVeXeX.otVei yap ■i']Srj — koI Svo 
ravpovq aypiov; KaTaTO^€uaavT€<i cnTeifkevcrapiei'. 
ol Se ravpoi ovtol to, KepaTa ovk eVl t?)? Ke^a\i)<i 
elxov, aKk' vtto toI^ 6(p6aX/j.oi<i, oxxTrep o M<w/i09 
T)^iov. yuer' ov iroXv 8e et? iriXayo'i €fi/3atvo/jLev, 
ov^ vSaTot;, aX\a ydXaKTOf;' Kol vf](TO<; iv avTM 
e(f)aLV€TO XevKT) 7r\7jprj<; d/u-7re\(ov. r/v Be r) vrj(TO<i 
Tvpo<; fieytcTTO'; a vfiTreirriy (!)(;, &)? varepov e/x(j)a- 
y6vTe<i ifxcWofxev, araSicov eiKoai TTevre to irepi- 
fi€rpov' al he d/xireXoi /Sorpvcov '7r\rjp€L<;, ov fievroi 
olvov, dXkd ydXa e^ avrcbv d'noOxijBovTe'i einvofiev. 
lepov he ev /J.^a-J) tj} vijaw dv(pKoh6/j,')]TO FaXareia? 
T7}9 Nt/^t^iSo?, o)? iS7]\ov TO i'TTLypa/iifia. ocrov S' 
ovv 'xpovov eK€C €fxeiva/jL€v, oyp-ov /xev rj/juiv Kai 
(TCTLOv Tj yrj vTrfjp'^ev, ttotov he to ydXa to eK tmv 
jBoTpvwv. /3a(Tt\eveiv he twv '^(^copLcov tovtmv 
eXeyeTo Tvpco ?} SaX/xcovecof;, fieTa ttjv evTevOev 
diraXXayrji' TavTrjv irapd tov Tlo(Teih6!)VO<;Xa^ov(7a 
rrjv Tijiiy'jV. 

lSileivavTe<i he 7]/LLepa<; ev ttj vrjcrw irevTe, tj} 
eKTj] €^o)p/x7]aafiev, avpa<i fiev Tiva Trapairepi'TTOv- 
ai]';, XeioKv/J.ovo'i he ova7]^ t^9 0aXdrT7j<i' oyho)] 
he r)jj,epa TrXeoz^re? ovKeTi hia tov ydXaxTO^, aXX' 
rihrj ev dXfivpro Kal Kvavifo vhaTi, Kadopoip^ev dv- 
Opci)7rov<; ttoXXoik; cttI tov TreXdyov^; hia06ovTa<;, 
diravTa rjpAv 7rpoaeoiK6Ta<;, koX to. aco/xaTa Kal 
TO, ixeyWi~i, irXy-jv tmv Trohoov pLovtov TavTa yap 
(jiiXXiva el'^ov, d(f)^ ov h)], ol/xai, Kal eKaXovvTO 



ran in at a small desert island, where we got water — ■ 
which had failed by this time — and shot two wild 
bulls, and then sailed away. These bulls did not 
have their horns on their head but under their eyes, 
as Momus wanted.^ Not long afterwards we entered 
a sea of milk, not of water, and in it a white island, 
full of grapevines, came in sight. The island was 
a great solid cheese, as we afterwards learned by 
tasting it. It was twenty-five furlongsin circumference. 
The vines were full of grapes, but the liquid which 
we squeezed from them and drank was milk instead 
of wine. A temple had been constructed in the 
middle of the island in honour of Galatea the 
Nereid, as its inscription indicated. All the time 
that we stopped in the island the earth was our 
bread and meat and the milk from the grapes our 
drink. The ruler of that region was said to be Tyro, 
daughter of Salmoneus, who after departure from 
home received this guerdon from Poseidon. ^ 

After stopping five days on the island we started 
out on the sixth, with a bit of breeze px'opelling 
us over a rippling sea. On the eighth day, by which 
time we were no longer sailing through the milk 
but in briny blue water, we came in sight of many men 
running over the sea, like us in every way, both in 
shape and in size, except only their feet, which were 
of cork : that is why they were called Corkfeet, if 1 

1 Momus suggested this in order that the animal might see 
what he was doing A\ith his horns. 

"^ As gala is milk and tyros cheese, the goddess and the 
queen of the island are fitly chosen. 


VOL. I. L 


^eXXoTToSe?. edavfidaa[xev ovv i86vre<i ov jSaTtri- 
^ofiivov^^, dWa vTrepk'X^ovra'i rcov KVfidrwv koX 
aSew? 68oi7ropovvTa<;. ol Be kol irpoarjecrav Kal 
rjaird^ovTO rjiiid<i 'EXXtji'iktj (pcovfj- eXeyov Be Kal 
etf ^eXXcb Tvp avTOiv TrarplBa eireiyeadaL. uevpi 
fiev ovv TLVO^ crvpooooiTTopovv 7]p.iv Ttapaveovre^;, 
eira aTroTpaTrofxevoi ttj^ oBov e^dSt^ov evirXoiav 
rjfilv eTrev^d/jLevoi. 

Mer oXtyov Be irdXXal vPjcroc i(f>aLvovTo, ttXt}- 
a-LOV fiev i^ dpLarepSiV 17 ^eXXm, e? fjv i/celvoi 
ecTTrevBov, ttoXl^ eirl fieydXov kol arpoyyvXov 
(peXXou KaTOLKoufievr]' Troppcodev Be Kal fxaXXov 
€V Be^ia Trevre p,eyiaTat Kal v-^rjfXorarat, Kal irvp 
TToXv dir avrwv dveKaiero, Kara Be rriv Trpcopav 
fiLa rrrXareia /cat Taireivr), araoiov^ a7re^ov(ra 
ovK iXdrrovi TrevTaKocricop. ijBr) Be irXrialov 
Tjp^ev, Kal OaupacTT}] ti<; avpa TrepienTvevcrev ?}/xa9, 
i)Bela Kal eixoBy]^;, o'lav (j)r]alv 6 (Tvyypa(f>ev^ 
'llp6BoTo<i dirol^eiv Ti]<i evBai/xovo'i 'ApaySia?. olop 
yap diTO poBcov khI vapKcaacov Kal vaKivdcov 
Kai KpLvcov Kal twv, eVi Be ixvppivrj<i Kal 
Ba(f)V'r]'i Kal dp,rre\dvdr}<i, tolovtov rjplv ro tjBv 
TrpoireSaXXev. rjaOevres Be rfj 0(T/j,rj koI '^prjard 
eK [laKpoiv TTQVcov eXiTLaavre'i Kar oX'iyov r]Bi] 
TrXrjcriov Tr]<i vi'jaov eyLvofieda. ev6a Br) Kal Ka9- 
ecopcofiev Xt,p.eva<i re 7roXXov<{ ire pi rrda-av ukXv- 
arovi Kal /xeyaXovi, irorapiov^ re Bcavyet'i e^ievra'i 
rjpeiia el<i rrjv ddXaaaav, en Be XeL/u,(ova<i Kal 
vXa<; Kal opvea /xovacKu, rd fiev eirl rcou tJovcov 
aBovra, rroXXd Be Kal eirl rcov KXdBwv dijp re 
Kov<po<; Kal evTrvov<i TrepLeKe)(yro rrjv ■^(^wpav Kal 



am not mistaken. We were amazed to see that ctiey 
did not go under, but stayed on the top of the waves 
and went about fearlessly. Some of them came up 
and greeted us in the Greek language ; they said 
that they were on their way to Cork, their native 
city. For some distance they travelled with us, 
running alongside, and then they turned off and 
went their way, wishing us luck on our voyage. 

In a little while many islands came in sight. 
Near us, to port, was Cork, where the men were 
going, a city built on a great round cork. At a 
distance and more to starboard were five islands, 
very large and high, from which much fire was 
blazing up. Dead ahead was one that was flat 
and low-lying, not less than five hundred furlongs 
off. When at length we were near it, a wonderful 
breeze blew about us, sweet and fragrant, like the 
one that, on the word of the historian Herodotus,^ 
breathes perfume from Araby the blest. The sweet- 
ness that met us was as if it came from roses and 
narcissi and hyacinths and lilies and violets, from 
myrrh and bay and vines in bloom. Delighted ^vith 
the fragrance and cherishing high hopes after our long 
toils, we gradually drew near to the island at last. 
Then we saw many harbours all about it, large and 
unfretted by beating waves; transparent rivers empty- 
ing softly into the sea ; meads, too, and wood.s and 
songbirds, some of them singing on the shore and 
many in the branches. A rare, pure atmosphere 
enfolded the piace^ and sweet breezes with their 

» 3, 113. 



avpai 06 Tivet rjhelai irviovaai rjpe/xa ri-jv vXtjv 
oieaaXevoT, wcTTe Kal cltto roiv KKahoov Kivovjxevwv 
repirva Kal avve'xrj fieXt] direcrupL^eTO, ioiKora 
T04? €7r €pr)fiia<i avXrifiaai, tmv TrXayi.coi' aiiXoiv. 
Kol ixi}V Kal /So?; (rvjuLficKToii rjKOveTO dOpov^, ov 
0opv/3coSi]^, a)OC Ota jevoLT av iv avp,TToaiw, 
TO)v fiev avXovvTcov, tmv he eTraSovrcov,^ ivicov 
Be KporovvTCDV irpo^ avXov rj KcBupav. TOVTOi<i G 
CLTTacTi KTjXovfxevot KaT7]Y6)]/x6v, 6 p p.i(T avT e<i he rrjv 
vavv aire^aivop.ev, tov z,KLv6apov iv avrfi Kal hvo 
TMV eraipwv aTroXi7r6vTe<i. 7rpol6vTe<; he hia Xec- 
fMOiivo'i evav9ov<i evrvy-^dvop.ev roL<; (f)povpol<i Kal 
TrepnToXoa, ol he htjaavre'i rjp,d<i pohivoL'i crre- 
(f>dvoLq — ovTo(; yap p,eyi(JTO<; irap avrolf heap6<; 
icrriv — dvrjyov &>? rov dp^ovra, irap' a)v hrj Ka9' 
ohov r)KOvcraiJ.ev o)? r) p,ev vrj(J0<; eh] tcov MaKdpcov 
TTpocrayopevo/u.evr], dp')(OL he 6 Kpj)<i 'Vahdpavdv;. 
KaX hrj dvax9evre<i co? avrov ev rd^et tmv hiKa- 
^OfMevcov earrip^ev rirapToi. r)v he r] ptev irpdiTr] 7 
hiKri TTepl AlavTO^ rov TeXapbwvo^;, etVe %/9^ 
avTov avvetvat Toi<i rjpaxTLv eire Kal fMij' Karrj- 
yopeiTO he avrov on pepy'jvoi Kal eavrbv aTre- 
KTovoi. TeXof he iroXXcoi' pr/devrtov eyvco 6 
'Pahdpavdv^, vvv pev avrov iriopevov rov eXXe- 
^opov nrapahoOrjvat 'iTnroKpdret rw Koiw larpS), 
varepov he a-o)cf)pov)](javra pere)^eiv rov cru/xTTO- 
aiov. hevrepa he rjv Kpicn<i iptoriKi], @7]creci}<; Kal 8 
MeveXdov rrepl rr]<; 'KX€vr]<; htaycovi^opevcov, 
irorepo) ^PV civrrjv avvotKeiv. Kal 6 'FahdpavOvi 
ihiKacre MeveXdw avvelvai avrrjv are Kal roaavra 
TTOvijaavri Kal Kivhvvevaavrt, rov ydpov eveKa' 

' lir(f.'i6yT(iiv Rohde : f-jraivovi'Toov MSS. 



blowing stirred the woods gently, so tlmt from tlie 
moving branches came a whisper of deUghtful, 
unbroken music, like the fluting of Pandean pipes in 
desert places. Moreover, a confused sound could be 
heard incessantly, which was not noisy but resembled 
that made at a drinking-party, when some are 
playing, others singing and others beating time to 
the flute or the lyre. Enchanted with all this, 
we put in, anchored our boat and landed, leaving 
Scinthai-us and two of my comrades on board. 
Advancing through a flowery mead, we came upon 
the guards and sentinels, who bound us wi-th rosy 
wreaths — the strongest fetter that they have— and / 
led us inland to their ruler. They told us on the 
way that the island was the one that is called the 
Isle of the Blest, and that the ruler was the Cretan 
Rhadamanthus. On being brought before him, we 
were given fourth place among the people awaiting 
trial. The first case was that of Ajax, son of Telamon, 
to decide whether he should be allowed to associate 
with the heroes or not : he was accused of having 
gone mad and killed himself. At last, when much 
had been said, Rhadamanthus gave judgment that 
for the present he should be given in charge of Hip- 
pocrates, the Coan physician, to take the hellebore 
treatment,^ and that later on, when he had recovered 
his wits, he should have a place at the table of 
the heroes. The second case was a love-affair — 
Theseus and Menelaus at law over Helen, to 
determine which of the two she should live with. 
Rhadamanthus pronounced that she should live with 
Menelaus, because he had undergone so much toil 
and danger on account of his marriage : then too, 

' A remedy for madness ; Hor. Sat.. 2. 3. 82. 



Kol yap av TM ©T/o-et koL aXXaf; elvai <yvvaiKa<;, 
TrjV re ^Afia^ova Kal ra? tov MLvcoo<i Ovyarepa'i. 
TpCrr} 8' iStKacrdt] irepl irpoehpia^ 'AXe^dvSpo) 9 
re Tw (PiXlttttov koI ^Kvvi^a rat Kapxn^oviw, 
Kot eho^e irpoix^iv 6 'A\e^av8po<;, Kal 6p6vo<; 
avTW eTedt] irapa Kvpov rov Ylepcrrjv tov TrpoTC- 
pov. rerapTot Be i;/Aet? irpoayjX^VP'^^' /^^^ ^ f^^^ ^^ 
ijpeTO TL TraOovre^ en ^wi^re? lepov x^plov eVt- 
Sainuev ///xet? Be iravra eh)<i Sn^yTjaciaeda. ovtw 
or] /jieTacrTrjaa/j-evo<; ij/xa^; ein ttoKvv ^povov ecrKe- 
TTTero Kal toU avve8poi<; eKoivovro irepi rip,wv. 
(TVvrjBpevov Be aXkoi re ttoWoI Kal ^ApiareiBr)^ o 
8iKato<i 6 'Adrjvato<;. w? Be eBo^ev avrw, cnre^i')- 
vavro, Trjq jxev (f)L\o7rpa'yfjioavi"T]<; Kal t?}? aTToBr)- 
pia<i, eireiBav cnroddvcofiev, Bovvai ra? evOvva-i, to 
Be vvv pr)Tov XP^v^^ ixeivavra^ ev rfj vqaw Kal 
avvBiairrjdevra^ rot? "^pcoaiv aTreXOeiv. era^av 
Be Kal TYjv irpodeafiiav rrj<; eTnBtjfiLa'; firj rrrkeov 

firjVMV eTTTtt. 

Tovvrevdev avropLdrwv r)/xlv rdv (necfxivwv 11 
7repippuevT0)v iXeXvfxeda Kal et? ttjv ttoXiv 
qyop-eda Kal eU ro tmv MaKapcov av/xTToaLOV. 
avrr) fxev ovv r) TroXt? wdaa xP^^^h '^o Be rei^o? 
TrepLKenat crp^apdyBivov iriiXai, Be elcriv eirra, 
Trd(Tat fiovo^vXoi Kivvafioo/Jbivof to fievroL eBa(f)0'i 
TO T?)? TToXew? Kal rj eVro? rov retxov^ yv 
eke^avTivrj' vaol Be Trdvroyv Oewv ^rjpvWov \iOov 
wKoBofX7]fj,evoi, Kal /3(opol ev avToU /jieyiaToi 
fjLOVoXidoi dfxedvaTivoi, e(f o)V ttolovctl raf 



Theseus had other wives, the Amazon ^ and the 
daughters of Minos.^ The third judgment was given 
in a matter of precedence between Alexander, 
son of PhiHp, and Hannibal of Carthage, and the 
decision was that Alexander outranked Hannibal, 
so his chair was placed next the elder Cyrus of 
Persia.3 We were brought up fourth ; and he asked 
us how it was that we trod on holy ground while still 
alive, and we told him the whole story. Then he 
had us removed, pondered for a long time, and 
consulted with his associates about us. Among 
many other associates he had Aristides the Just, of 
Athens. When he had come to a conclusion, 
sentence was given that for being inquisitive and 
not staying at home we should be tried after death, 
but that for the present we might stop a definite 
time in the island and share the life of the heroes, 
and then Me must be off. They set the length of our 
stay at not more than seven months. 

Thereupon our garlands fell away of themselves, 
and we were set free and taken into the city 
and to the table of the blessed. The city itself is 
all of gold and the wall around it of emerald.* It 
has seven gates, all of single planks of cinnamon. 
The foundations of the city and the ground within 
its walls are ivory. There are temples of all the 
gods, built of beryl, and in them great monolithic 
altars of amethyst, on which they make their great 

^ Hippolyta. ^ Ariadne and Phaedra. 

* Cf . Dialogues of the Dead, 25. 

* Lucian's city ia not necessarily a parody on the New 
Jerusalem, though the scholiast so understood it. 


eKUTOfi^a^;. mspl 8e rrjv ttoXiv pel 7roTafj.o<; fjuvpov 
rov KaWiarov, to 7r\dro<; TTij-^ecov eKarov 
^aaiXiKMv, ^dOo's Se irevre,^ ware velv evjxapwq. 
Xovrpa he iariv aurot<; olkol peydXoi vdXivoi, tw 
KivvaiJi(iip,(p i^Kaco/jievoi,' avrl /uevroc rov vSuto^ 
ev ral^ 7rvi\oL<; Spoao'i depfxtj eariv. eaOrjTL he 12 
Xpoivrat dpa-)(ViOi<=; Xeirrol'i, Tropcfivpol'^. avrol 
he (Tcojuara fiev ovfc e')(^ovaLV, aXV dva(f>ei<; Kat 
dcrapKOi elaiv, fiopcprjv he Kol Iheav fxovrjv efi(^aii>ov- 
(Jiv, kclI daco/maTOi ovre<i ofiw^ crvveardaiv Koi 
Kivovvrai Kal (^povovcn koI (^wvrjv dcjiidcriv, koX 
oXco<i eoiKe yvfiv/] ti<; 1) "^^XV civtwv TrepLiroXelv 
rrjv rov crco/xaTO^ o/xotoTrjTa TTepiKet/xev)]' el yovv 
/jlt) dyfratro ra, ouk dv e^eXey^ete jlut] elvai acb/jia 
TO opcofievov elal yap axrirep aKtal opdal, ov 
fieXaivai. yypdaKei he ovhei<;, oXV id)" rj(; dv 
rjXiKia<i eXOrj 'Trapafievei. ov /jLtjv ouhe vv^ Trap* 
avrol<i yiverai, ovhe r)p,epa irdvv Xap,7rpd- /caOd- 
irep he to XvKavye'; y]hr) irpo^ eco, /x7]he7T(o dvaTei- 
XavTo<i ijXiov, TOiovTo ^w? eTrex^t t^^ yrjv. koi 
fievToi Kal copav fxtav taacnv tou eTov<i' alel yap 
Trap' avTol'i eap earl Kal et? dvep,o<i Trvel Trap 
avT0L<; 6 ^e(f)vpo<;. rj he X^P^ irdcri, /xev dvOecnv, 13 
rrdo't, he (f)VTol<; ■^/xepoL^ re Kal (TKiepoi<; TeOrjXev 
ai fiev yap dfiireXoi hcoheKdcjiopoi elatv Kal Kara 
fxrjva eKacrrov Kap7ro(f)Opovcnv' rd^ he poia<; Kal 
ra9 pijXea'i Kal rrjv dXXrjv oiroopav eXeyov elvai 
TpiaKai,heKd(f)opov' evo^ yap /j,rjvo<; tov Trap' avTol<i 
^livcoov hl<i Kap7ro(f)opelv' dvrl he irvpov 01 (TTuxye^ 

^ irtvTf (i.e. e) Schwartz: not in MSS. 


burnt-offerings. Around the city runs a river of 
the finest myrrli, a hundred royal cubits wide and 
five deep, so that one can swim in it comfortably. 
For baths they have large houses of glass, warmed 
by burning cinnamon ; instead of water there is hot 
dew in the tubs. For clothing they use delicate 
purple spider-webs. As for themselves, they have 
no bodies, but are intangible and fleshless, with only 
shape and figure. Incorporeal as they are, they 
nevei'theless live and move and think and talk. In 
a word, it would appear that their naked souls go 
about in the semblance of their bodies. Really, if 
one did not touch them, he could not tell that what 
he saw was not a body, for they are like upright 
shadows, only not black. Nobody gi-ows old, but 
stays the same age as on coming there. 1 Again, it is 
neither night among them nor yet very bright day, 
but the light which is on the country is like the 
gray morning toward dawn, when the sun has not 
yet risen. Moreover, they are acquainted with only 
one season of the year, for it is always spring there 
and the only wind that blows there is Zephyr. 
The country abounds in flowers and plants of all 
kinds, cultivated and otherwise.^ The grape-vines 
yield twelve vintages a year, bearing every month ; 
the pomegranates, apples and other fruit-trees were 
said to bear thirteen times a year, for in one month, 
their Minoan, they bear twice. Instead of wheat-ears, 
loaves of bread all baked grow on the tops of the 

' Lucian makes a villainous pun here, contrasting htmeros 
(cultivated) with akieros (fond of darkness), as if the former 
word meant ' fond of daylight,' {kemtra) 1 


aprov k'roifiov eir' a/cpcov (pvovaiv loaTrep /uiVK7]Ta<;. 
TTTTyal 8e irepl ryv ttoXiv vSaTO<; fiev trevTe koI 
k^rjKovra koI TpiaKocnat, /jie\LTo<i Be aWat, 
ToaavTai, ixvpov 8e •jrevraKoaiat, /u-LKporepai fiivTOi, 
avTat, Kal Trorafiol ydXaKro<; eina kol otvou 


To ^e (TV/jbTToaiov e^oi t?}? 7ro\€0)<; 7re7roiT]v- 14 
rai iv TO) 'HA,i/o"tfo Kokovixevw TreSicp' Xei/ucov Be 
ea-Tiv /caWtcTTOif Kal irepX avrov vXv iravroia 
TTVKvr], eTria/CLa^ovaa Toy? KaraKeifxevov^;, Kal 
(TTpco/jLvr]v fxev eK rcav avOwv viro/Se/BXrjvrai, 
BiUKOvovvT at Be Kal irapa^epovaiv CKaara ol 
avefioL irXi^v ye tov olvo')(^oelv tovtov yap ovBev 
Beovrai, aXV €(tti BevBpa irepl rb crvfiTrocnov 
udXiva fieydXa t?}? BtavyeaTdTrj<; vdXov, Kal 
Kap'TTO^ eart twv BevBpcov tovtcov Tronjpia iravrola 
Kal Ta<i KaracT Keva^ Kal ra peyed^]. eTreiBav ovv 
Traplr) Tt<? e? to avpiroaiov, Tpvyi]aa<i ev rj Kal Bvo 
Tcov eKiTOipdrcov TrapariOerai, ra Be avriKa ol'vov 
TrXrjpT} yiverat,. ovtco pev Trtvovaiv, dvrl Be rcov 
aT€(jidvcov al drjBove'; koI to, aXXa ra povaiKo. 
opvea €K TMv TrXrjaiov Xeipcovcov Toi<i aropaaLV 
dvOoXoyovvra KaTav€i(f)ei avrov^ per wSj}? virep- 
TTCTopeva. Kal prjv Kal pivpl^ovrai (oBe' ve^eXai 
TTVKvat avacTTrdaacrai p,vpov eK rcov Trrjycov Kal 
TOV TTorapov Kal eiricnaaai virep rb avpLirocriov 
i)pepa TMV avep.wv vttoOXi^ovtcov vovai Xetrrbv 
oiarrep Bpoaov. iirl Be tw Beiirvuy povatKfj re Kal ^^ 
(pBai<; (TXoXd^ovcnv' oiBeTai Be avTol<s to. 'Oprjpov 
eiTT] pdXLtna' Kal avTb<i Be irdpecm Kal a-vvevay- 
yelraL avTOt<; inrep rbv ^OBuaaea KaTaK€ipevo<f. 
01 pev ovv y^opol ck iraLBcov elalv Kal TrapSevcov 



halms, so that they look like mushrooms. In the 
neighbourhood of the city there are three himdred 
and sixty-five springs of water, as many of honey, 
five hundred of myrrh — much smaller, however — 
seven rivers of milk and eight of wine. _\ 

Their table is spread outside the city in the Elysian 
Fields, a very beautiful mead with thick woods of 
all sorts round about it, overshadowing the feasters. 
The couches they lie on are made of flowers, and they 
are attended and served by the winds, who, however, 
do not pour out their wine, for they do not need any- 
one to do this. There are great trees of the clearest 
glass around the table, and instead ot fruit they bear 
cups of all shapes and sizes. When anyone comes to 
table he picks one or two of the cups and puts them 
at his place. These fill with wine at once, and 
that is the way they get their drink. Instead of 
garlands, the nightingales and the other song-birds 
gather flowers in their bills from the fields hard by 
and drop them down like snow, flying overhead and 
singing. Furthermore, the way they are scented is 
that thick clouds draw up myrrh from the springs 
and the river, stand over the table and under the 
gentle manipulation of the winds rain down a 
delicate dew. At the board they pass their time 
with poetry and song. For the most part they 
sing the epics of Homer, who is there himself and /I 
shares the revelry, lying at table in the place above ' V. 
Odysseus. Their choruses are of boys and girls, led 



e^dpyovcri 8e koL auvdSovcnv Kvvo/xof; re o AoKp6<; 
KOL Aplcov 6 Aeal3io<i koI ^AvuKpecov koI Xnjai- 
%0/jo'?* Kol yap TOVTOV irap avTOL<; ideaa-d/Jirjv, ijSt] 
tt}? KX.iv7]<i avTO) 8ir)Wajp.ev')]<;. eTrethdv he ovroi 
TTavaoyvraL aSnvTe<;, 8evTepo<i %opo9 Trapepxerai, €k 
KVKVwv Kol 'yeXihovoiv koI drjSovcov. iTrecSdv Se 
Kal ovroL aacoaiv, Tore ijSrj irdcra tj v\rj iiravXel 
Twv dveficov Karap')(^6vTwv. ixeyiarov he hrj Trpo? 16 
eitcfypoavpijv eKclvo e^ovaiv TTTjyai elcn hvo irapd 
TO av/xTToaiov, rj fiev ye\coTO<;, r] he r)hov7]<i' €k 
TOVTwv eKUTepaf; irdvTe^ ev dp^rj t?}? evcoyia'i 
TTLPovaiv Kat TO XoiTTov I'jho/j.evot Kal ye\(bvTe<i 

^ovX-o/xac he elirelv Kal tcov iTTiaijfiojv ovcrriva<; 17 
Trap avTol<i e6eacrdjj,i]v' irdvra^ jnev Toix; rip,Ldeov<; 
Kal Tov<; eVt "IXiov o'TpaTeiKxavTa^ TrXrp/ ye hrj 
Tov AoKpov A)',avTO<;, eKelvov he jjlovov e^aaKov ev 
TO) Tcbv dae/3o)v X^PV Ko\d^eaOai, ^ap/Sdpcov he 
Kvpov<; re du(})OTepov<; Kal tov 1kv07-jv ^Avd^apaiv 
Kal TOV SpoKa Zd/xoX^iv Kal No/xdv tov ^ItoXcco- 
TTjV, Kal ixrjv Kal AvKOvpyov tov AaKehaifioviov Kal 
'^(OKLwva Kal TeXkov Tov<i ^ AOrjvaLov;, koI tov<; 
cro(fiOV<i dvev Uepidvhpov. elhov he Kal ^(OKpdTTj 
TOV Zwc^poviaKOv dhoXecrxovvra jieTa N€<TTopo<; 
Kol UaXapLijhov';' irepl he avrov rjaav 'TukipOo^ 
re o AaKehaifiovio^; Kal 6 0eo"7rfeu9 Na/o/cttrcro? 
Kal ' TXa's Kai dXXoi koXol. Kau /xoi, ehoKet epdv 
TOV "TaKLvdov Ta iroXXa yovv eKelvov hcyjXeyy^v. 
eXeycTO he x^XeTralveiv avTW 6 'VahafiavOv; Kal 



and accompanied by Eunomus of Locri, Avion of 
Lesbos, Anacreon and Stesichorus. There can be 
no doubt about the latter, for I saw him there — by 
that time Helen had forgiven him.^ When they 
stop singing another chorus appears, composed of 
swans and swallows and nightingales, and as they 
sing the whole wood renders the accompaniment, 
with the winds leading. But the greatest thing 
that they have for ensuring a good time is that 
two springs are by the table, one of laughter and 
the other of enjoyment. They all drink from each 
of these when the revels begin, and thenceforth enjoy 
themselves and laugh all the while. 

But I desire to mention the famous men whom 
I saw there. There were all the demigods and 
the veterans of Troy except Locrian Ajax, the only 
one, they said, who was being punished in the 
place of the wicked. Of the barbarians there were 
both Cyruses, the Scythian Anacharsis, the Thracian 
Zamolxis and Numa the Italian. In addition, there 
were Lycurgus of Sparta, Phocion and Tellus of 
Athens and the wise men, all but Periander. I 
also saw Socrates, the son of Sophroniscus, chopping 
loffic with Nestor and Palamedes ; about him were 
Hyacinthus of Sparta, Narcissus of Thespiae, Hylas 
and other handsome lads. It seemed to me that 
Hyacinthus was his especial favourite, for at any rate 
he refuted him most. It was said that Rhadamanthus 

' Stesichorus had said harsh words of Helen, and was 
blinded by Castor and Pollux for his presumption. He 
recanted in a famous Palinode, of which some lines are still 
preserved (Plato, Fhaedrua, 243), and so recovered his eyesight. 


rjireiXiycevat iroWaKfi eK^aXeiv aurov e'/c tt}? 
VTjaov, rjv (fiXvapfj koI /xtj iOekr) d(f)el<; Tt)v elpco- 
veiav evoix^ij-dai. UXaTcov Be jxovo^ ov iraprjv, 
aXX iXiyero auro? iv ttj avaTrXaaOeicrri vir 
avTOV TToXei oIkgIv ■)(^pcofi€vo<i rfj TroXireia koX 
TOiij vop,oi<i 049 avveypa^jrev. oi fxevrot dfj,(ji^ 18 
ApL(TTi7nrov re koI 'EiTrcKovpov ra irpwra irap 
avroi^ i(f)€povTO T^Sei? re oVre? /cat K€)(^apiafxevoc 
Kal (TV/jLTTOTiKcoTaroc. iTaprjv he Kal Aiaco7ro<i 6 
<Ppv^' TovTM Se oaa Kal yeXwroTroia) 'x^pcovrai. 
AioyevTj'i p.ev ye 6 Xivcoireu'i roaovrov piere^dXev 
Tov rpoTTov, coare yi]p,ai fiev eralpav rrjv hatha, 
op^ela-Oai Se TroWa/ct? vtto fiedr]<i dviard/jievov 
Kai irapoLvelv. tiov he ZiTcoikcov ovSel^i Traprjv 
€TL yap eXeyovTO dva/Satveiv rov rl]^ dperrjf; 
opdtov Xo(j)ov- rfKOvop^ev he Kal irepl X.pvaL7nrov 
OTt, ov Trporepov avrw eTri^fjvat Trj'i vi^crov de/jLi^;, 
trpXv TO reraprov eavrov eXXe^opiar). Tov<i Be 
^KKahripalKov<i eXeyov idiXeiv fxev eXOetv, eirexeiv 
he ere Kal hiaaKeiTTeaOar fxrjhe yap avro tovto 
TTO) KaraXapbjSdveLV, el Kal vrja6<i rt<i TOtavTT) 
icTTLV. aXXo)^ re Kal rrjv eVt rov 'l?aha/j,dv6vo<;, 
oifiai, Kpia-LV ihehoLKecrav, are Kal to Kpiryjptov 
avTOi dvr}priKOTe<;. rroXXov'i he avrSiv e<f)acrKov 
opju,r]devTa<; dKoXovOelv toI<; d(f)CKvov/j,evoi,<i vtto 
va)9e[a<i diroXeiireadai firj KaraXa/j,^dvovTa<i Kal 
dvaa-rpe^eiv eK /jLecrrj^j t^9 ohov. 

OvTOL fxev ovv rjaav ol d^ioXoycoTaroc tcov ira- 19 
povrwv. Tiyiwai he fidXia-Ta rov 'Ax^XXea Kal /x.erd 
rovrov ©rjcreac Trepl hk <7Vvovala<i Kal dcfipohia-icov 



was angry at Socrates and had often threatened to 

banish him from the island if he kept up his nonsense 

and would not quit his irony and be merry. Plato 

alone was not there : it was said that he was livinsr in 

his imaginary city under the constitution and the laws 

that he himself wrote. The followers of Aristippus and 

Epicurus were in the highest favour among the hei'oes 

because they are pleasant and agreeable and jolly 

good fellows. Aesop the Phrygian was also there — 

they have him for a jester. Diogenes of Sinope had 

so changed his ways that he not only married Lais the 

courtesan, but often got up and danced and indulged 

in tomfoolery when he had had too much. None of 

the Stoics was there — they were said to be still on 

the way up the steep hill of virtue. With regard to 

Chrysippus, we heard tell that he is not permitted 

to set foot on the island until he submits himself to 

the hellebore treatment for the fourth time.^ They 

said that the Academicians wanted to come but were 

still holding off and debating, for they could not 

arrive at a conclusion even on the question Avhether 

such an island existed. Then too I suppose they 

feared to have Rhadamanthus judge them, as thev 

themselves had abolished standards of judgment. 

It was said, however, that many of them had started 

to follow people coming thither, but fell behind 

through their slowness, being constitutionally unable 

to arrive at anything, and so turned back half-way. 

These were the most conspicuous of those present. 

They render especial honours to Achilles and after 

him to Theseus. About love-making their attitude 

* See the Philosophers for Sale for another jest at 
Chrysippus' insanity. 



ouTO) (fypovovaiv fiLcyyovrat jxev dvacfyavSbv irdv- 
Tcov opcovra)}' Kal •yuvai^l kol appeal, Kal ouSa/ico? 
TOVTO avTols alcrxpov SoKel- /xovo'i Be So)/cpdT>]<; 
8c(OfivuTO Tj fjLtjv Kadapoi<i TrXrjaid^etv rot? veot^' 
KaX fievTot, "TrdpTd avrov eiriopKelv KUTejivcocrKOv' 
iroWdKa yovu 6 fiev "TdKLvdo<; rj o Nap«:/<j<T09 
wfioXoyovv, eKelvo<i Se r]pvelTo. at he yvvaiKe'; 
elcrt TTacTt Koival kol ouSet? (pdovei t&) TrXricriov, 
aX,\' eial •trepl rovro fidXiara HXaTcoviKcoTaTOL' 
Kal 01 7ralhe<i he rrapey^ovai, TOL<i ^ov\oiJievoL<i 

ovhev dvTL\6yOVT€<i. 

OvTTco Be Bvo j) T/oet9 rj/xepai hiekrfkvdeaav, 20 
Kal Trpoae\6(ov iyco 'O/xijpo) tu> iroirjTrj, o-;^oX?}9 
ova't]<i d/jL(f)o2v, rd re aWa eirvvdavopn-iv Kal 69tv 
etr) ^ . rouro <yap /xdXiara irap I'lplv elcreri vvv 
t,i)rela6aL. 6 he ovS" avro^ p-ev dyvoeiv e(f)aaKev 
C09 oi p-ev ILlov, ol he ZpLvpvalov, ttoWoI he 
Ko\o<p(t)viov avrov vop^i^ovaiv eivat p,evToi <ye 
eXeyev Ba^vXu)vio<i, Kal irapd ye rol^ TroXtrat^ 
ov)(^ "0/j,y]po<i, dXXd Ttjpdvrj<; KaXelaOar varepov 
he 6p,7]p€vaa<i irapa toI^ "RXXtjo-lv dXXd^ac rrjv 
irpocryjyopiav. €tl he Kal irepl rwv d6erovp,evcov 
(TTL'X^cov iTrrjpcorcov, el utt' ixeivov elev yeypapp^evoi. 
Kal 09 ecpaaKe TrdvTa<i avrov elvai. KareylvcoaKOv 
ovv Twv dp,<^l TOP Zr]v6hoTOV Kal ^Apla-Tapxov 
ypap^pariKcov ttoXXtjv rr]v ■y^vxpoXoyiav. eirel he 
ravra iKav(o<; direKeKpiro, irdXiv avrov ^pcorcov ri 
hr) TTore dirb Tr79 fH]vtho<; rrjv dpxv^ e7roir](jaro- 
Kal 09 elirev ovrax; erreXOelv avrw p,')]hev eTrtrij- 
hevaavri. Kal p.r]v KUKecvo erreOvp-ovv elhevai, el 
rrporepav eypa^lrev rrjv ^Ohvaaetav t^9 'lAmoo9, 

' ef?) Scliwaitz : uri Xtyov MSS. 


is such that they bill-aiid-coo openly, in plain sight 
of everyone, without any discrimination, and think 
no shame of it at all. Socrates, the only exception, 
used to protest that he was above suspicion in 
his relations with young persons, but everyone held 
him guilty of perjury. In fact, Hyacinthus and 
Narcissus often said that they knew better, but he 
persisted in his denial. They all have their wives in 
common and nobody is jealous of his neighbour ; in 
. this point they out- Plato Plato. Complaisance is the 
universal rule. 

Hardly two or three days had passed before I 
went up to Homer the poet when we were both at 
leisure, and questioned him about everything. 
•' Above all," said I, " where do you come from ? 
This point in particular is being investigated even 
yet at home." " I am not unaware," said he, "that 
some think me a Chian, some a Smyrniote and many 
a Colophonian. As a matter of fact, I am a Babylo- 
nian, and among my fellow-countrymen my name 
was not Homer but Tigranes. Later on, when I was 
a hostage (homeros) among the Greeks, I changed my 
name." I went on to enquire whether the 
bracketed lines had been written by him, and he 
asserted that they were all his own : consequently I 
held the grammarians Zenodotus and Aristarchus 
guilty of pedantry in the highest degree. Since 
he had answered satisfactorily on these points, I 
next asked him why he began with the wrath of 
Achilles ; and he said that it just came into his 
head that way, without any study. Moreover, I 
wanted to know whether he wrote the Odyssey 
before the Iliad, as most people say : he said no. 



&)? 01 TToWoL cpaaiv 6 Be rjprelro. on fiev 'yap 
ovhe TV(f)\o<; -qv, o koI avro Trepl aurov Xiyovaiv, 
auTLKa rjTTicrru^yiv' eoopcov yap, ooare ovSe irvvOd- 
veadai eheopirjv. iroWaKL'i he koI dWore rovro 
iTToiovi', el TTore avrov a')(o\j]V dyovra edopav 
Trpocricbv yap tc i7rvv0av6/jir]v avrov, Kal 09 Trpo- 
6v/xa><; Travra dTreKpivero, Kal [xaXiaTa fiera rrjv 
BiKTjv, 67rei8r] expaTTjcrev 'qv yap xi? ypacfyt] kut 
avTOV eTrevrjveypievri v/3pe(o<; vtto %epairov e^' 0I9 
avrov ev rfj iroirjaei eaKOiyjrev, Kal evLKfjcrev o 
"0/x7]po<; 'OSuaceo)? avvayopevovro<i. 

Kara he rov<; avrov<i ■)(^p6vov<i dcpiKero Kal 21 
Ilv6ay6pa<i 6 Xd/xi,o<; e-TTrdKa dXkayel^ Kal ev 
roaovroa ^(potq ^iorevcra<; Kal e/creXecra? t?;<? 
'\frv)(^q<i rd<i Trepiohovi. rjv he ■^pvaov^ 6\ov ro 
he^iov ijfXLrofxov. Kal eKpWq fiev avfnroXtrev- 
aaadai avrol<;, evehotd^ero he en rrorepov Ylvda- 
yopav r) l^v(f)op^ov ■)(^prj avrov 6vo/j,d^eiv. 6 /xevroi 
'E/xTreSo/cX?}? rjXdev /xev Kal avr6<i, rrepie^O of; Kai 
ro a6)[xa oXov d>7rr7]/j,evo<i' ov firjv rrapehe'xd'ij 
Katroi iroWa iKerevcov. 

IIpoi6vro<; he rov 'X^povov ivearrj 6 dyoov 6 22 
Trap' avroi<;, rd Savarovaia. rjyoivoderei he 
'A^tX\6i)9 TO TrifiTrrov Kal @r](Tev<; ro e/Bhofiov. 
rd fj,ev ovv dWa /xaKpbv dv elrj Xeyeiv rd he 
xecfidXaia rcov 7rpa-)(^devr(ov hirjy/jcrofMai. 7rdXi]v 
/xev evLK7]aev Kdpai>o<i ^ 6 d(f)" HpaKXeov^; ^Ohvaaea 
rrepl rov arecjidvov Karaycovcadfievos' Trvy/mTj he 
tcrrj eyevero ^Apelov rov Klyvrrriov, 09 ev K.opLvd(p 
redairrai, Kal ^EiireLov dXXi]Xoi.^ avveXOovroiv. 
irayKpariov he ov rlderai aOXa Trap avroZ'i. rev 
* Kapavos Gronovius ; Kapos MSS. 


That he was not blind, as they say, 1 understood nt 
once — 1 saw it,and so had no need to ask. Often again 
at other times I would do this when 1 saw him at 
leisure; I would go and make enquiries of him and he 
would give me a cordial answer to everything, particu- 
larly after the lawsuit that he won, for a charge of libel 
had been brought against him by Thersites because 
of the way he had ridiculed him in the poem, and 
the case was won by Homer, with Odysseus for his 

At about this time arrived Pythagoras of Samoa 
who had undergone seven transformations, had 
lived in seven bodies and had now ended the mi- 
grations of his soul. All his right side was of gold. 
Judgment was pronounced that he should become a 
member of their community, but when I left 
the point was still at issue whether he ought to be 
called Pythagoras or Euphorbus. Empedocles came 
too, all burned and his body completely cooked,^ but 
he was not received in spite of his many entreaties. 

As time went on their games came round, the 
Games of the Dead. The referees were Achilles, 
serving for the fifth time, and Theseus for the 
seventh. The full details would make a long story, 
but I shall tell the principal things that they did. 
In wrestling the winner was Caranus, the descendant 
of Heracles, who defeated Odysseus for the cham- 
pionship. The boxing was a draw between Areius 
the Egyptian, who is buried at Corinth, and Epeius. 
For combined boxing and wrestling they otter no 
' From his leap into the crater of Aetna. 


fxivTot Spofxov ovKeri fiefivtjfjiai o(Tri<; evc/crjaev. 
TTOirjTMV 8e rfj f^ev oXrjdeLa rrapa iroXv i/cpuTet 
''O/Jbrjpo'i, evLKrjaev he oficot; HcrtoSo'?. ra 8e ciOXa 
TjV airaai aTe(^avo^ 7rXaKel<i e'/c Trrepcov raoiveiwv. 

"A.prt he Tov dycovo'i avvrereXea p,evov rjyyeX- 23 
\ovTo 01 ev T(p X'^PV '^^^ aae^MV KoXa^o- 
/xevoi a-TToppij^avre'i to, Sea-fxa koI Ti)<i (f)povpd<i 
eTTLKpanjaavTef; iXavveiv eVt rrjv vPjcrov yyelcrdai 
he avTOiv <S>a\apLV re rov ^AKpwyaprlvov koI 
Bovaipiv TOV AlyuTTTiov Kol Ato/i7;S?/ rov %paKa 
KaX rov<i irepl XKipcova koX UiTvoKafj-TTTijv. u>^ 
he ravra rjKovaev 6 'Vahdpuav6v<i, eKTaaaei rov'i 
■}]pcoa<i eVl T^<? rjovo'i' TjyelTO he ©^/crey? re Kai 
'A;;^iX,Xet'9 fcal Ata? o TeXaficovio'i rjhr) aw<f)pov(ov 
Kot av/xfML^avTe'i ifidxpvro, kcu iviKr/aav oi r/pwe?, 
'A;)^;i\X,e&)? ra irXelara KaTop6(i)aavTo<^. rjpi'aTeva-e 
he Kol ScoKparij^; e-rrl tw he^tw raxdeh, ttoXv 
/jidXXov rj ore ^wi/ iirl Ar]\[a) efidx^To. irpoaLovroiv 
yap TeTTdpwv iro\ep,ioov ovk e(f>vy€ koX to Trpocrco- 
TTOV drpeiTTO^ rjv e</)' oh Kot varepov i^DpeOi] 
avT& dpicTTelov, Ka\6<i re koX fieya<; 7rapdBeicTo<{ 
ev Tw irpoaaTelcp, ev6a koX avyKoXoiv tov<; eracpovi 
hieXeyero, lSleKpa/<:ah^]/xi!av top tottov irpocra- 
yopeva-a<i. (TvX\a^6vT€<; ovv tou9 v€vtK7]fievovs 24 
Kal h7]aavTe<i direireiJi-^^av en jxdXXov KoXacrOr]- 
crofi€vov<i. eypa-jrev he fcal Tavrrjv rrjv fidyniy 
"Ofjbr}po<; Kol dinovri /xoi ehcoKev rd /3i/3XLa KOfXL- 
^eiv T0L<i Trap" rjfiiv did pcoiroL'i' dXX' varepov /cat 
ravra fierd TOiV dXXwv diTwXkaap.ev, rjv he y 
(jpXV '^^^ iroLrjixaTOfi avrr], 

NOy 86 fjboi evveTTc, Muvaa, p-dx^-jv veKvtov 


prizes. In the foot-race I do not remember who 
won and in poetry, Homer was really far the best 
man, but Hesiod won. The prize in each ease was 
a crown that was plaited of peacock feathers. 

Hardly had the games been concluded when 
word came that those who were under punishment 
in the place of the wicked had burst their bonds, had 
overpowered their guard, and were advancing on the 
island : that they were under the leadership of 
Phalaris of Acragas, Busiris the Egyptian, Diomed of 
Thrace, and Sciron and Pityocamptes. When Rhada- 
manthus heard of this he mustered the heroes on the 
shore. They were led by Theseus, Achilles and Ajax, 
the son of Telamon, who by this time had recovered 
his wits. They engaged and fought, and the heroes 
won. Achilles contributed most to their success, but 
Socrates, who was stationed on the right wing, was 
brave, "too — far more so than when he fought at 
Delium in his lifetime. When four of the enemy 
came at him he did not run away or change coun- 
tenance. For this they afterwards gave him a special 
reward, a beautiful great park in the suburbs, 
where he used to gather his comrades and dispute : 
he named the place the Academy of the Dead. 
Arresting the losers and putting them in irons, 
they sent them off to be punished still more severely 
than before. An account of this battle was written 
by Homer, and as I was leaving he gave me the 
book to take to the people at home, but later I lost 
it along with everything else. The poem began : 

This time sing me, O Muse, of the shades of the 
heroes in battle ' 



Tore S' ovv Kvdfiov<; i'^rjcravre';, wairep Trap avrol'i 
u6fM0<; iiretSav TroXe/xov KaTopduxrwaiv, elariwvTo 
ra iiTLviKia koX eoprrjv fjieyd\-r]v r^yov fi6vo<i Be 
avrrjq ov /Aeret^e tlvdayopwi, aXX,' dcmo<i iroppw 
eKuOil^eTO /jLvaarrofievo^ r-r^v Kvafio(j)ayiav. 

"HSy] Be fiy-jvoiv e^ BLeX-rjXvOoTcov irepl fieaovvra 25 
Tov e^BojJbov veoijepa crvviararo Trpdyfiara- 
Kivvpa^ 6 TOV %Kivddpov Trat?, fieya^ mv koI 
KoKo^i, Tjpa TToXvv i]Br) ^i^poi^oy t>}9 'EA-eV?;?, koI 
avTYj Be ovK d^avr]<i ^v i7n/xavo)<; dya-noiaa tov 
veavicKov ■7roXX,dKi<; <yovv koX Bievevov dWifKoi<i 
ev t5> av/jLTTOcriw koX irpovirLVOv Kol fxovoi e^avi- 
aTdfievot eirXavoivTO irepl rrjv vXrjv. Koi Brj Trore 
vir epwTO'i Kal dpbrj'^avia'i e^ovXevcraTO 6 K.i.vvpa<i 
dpirdcra^ ti]V 'Kkevrjv — eBoKei Be KUKecvrj tuutu — 
ot-xj^crOai dTn6vTa<; e9 TLva rwv eTriKeifievaiv vi)cru)V, 
rjTOi e<; rrjv ^eXkoo rj e? ttju Tvpoeaaav. crvvo)- 
fioraf; Be irdXai 7rpoa6i\7]<peaav Tpel<; TOiv eraipcov 
Twv e/mcov tov'? dpaavrdTOv;. tco fxevroi iraTpl 
OVK ejjbrjvvae TavTW rjirlaTaTO yap vir avTOV 
KOikvOrjcTOixevo^. fo)9 Be iBo/cei avTOi<i, ireXovp 
rrjv iTTi^ovXijv. Kal iireiBr) vv^ eyevero — eyM p-ev 
ov iraprjv eTvyyavov yap ev T(o (TvprKoauo Koip^oy- 
tji.evo<; — ol Be Xad6vTe<i Tov<i dXXov<; dvaXa^oi'Te<; 
TTjV '^Xevr]v vTrb cnrovBPj'^ dvi]'xPri(jav. icepl 26 
Be TO fiecrovvKTiov dveypojxevo^ 6 Met'eXao? e-nel 
epaOev ttjv evvrjv Kevrjv t*)? yvvacK6<;, ^oip' re 
laTT) Kal TOV dBeX<i)ov irapaXa^cov rfxde tt/oo? tov 
^acnXea tov 'FaBdfiavdvv. rj/xepa'i Be v7ro(f)ai- 
vovar}<i eXeyov ol aKOirol Kadopdv ttjv vavv ttoXv 
uTre'Xpvcrav' ovtq) Bt) ijx^i^daa<; 6 'PaBdp,avdv(i 



But to return — they cooked beans/ as is their 
custom when they are successful at war, had a feast 
in honour of the victory and made a great holiday. 
Pythagoras was the only one who did not take part 
in it ; he sat by himself and went dinnerless 
because he detested beans. 

Six months had passed and it was about the 
middle of the seventh when sedition arose. Cinyras, 
the son of Scintharus, a tall and handsome lad, had 
long been in love with Helen, and it was no secret 
that she herself was madly enamoured of the boy. For 
instance, they often winked to one another at table, 
drank to each other and got up together and 
wandered about the wood. Well, one fine day 
through love and despair Cinp-as determined to carry 
Helen off — she agreed to it — and go to one of the 
islands in the offing, either Cork or Cheesie. As 
accomplices they had long ago taken on three of the 
most reckless of my comrades ; but Cinyras did not 
inform his father, for he knew that he would not let 
him do it. When they had come to a decision, they 
carried out their stratagem. It was at nightfall, and 
I was not on hand, as I chanced to be taking a nap 
under the table. Without the knowledge of the 
rest they carried Helen off and put to sea in haste. 
About midnight, when Menelaus woke up, and 
found that his wife was not in bed, he made a 
great stir and took his brother and went to King 
Rhadamanthus. But as day began to break the 
lookouts said that they saw the ship far out at sea. 
Then Rhadamanthus put fifty of the heroes aboard a 

' An allusion to the Pyanepsia, the Athenian Beanfeast. 


TrevT/jKOPTa tcov i^puKav eh vavv novo^vXov aacjio- 
SeXivrjv Trap^yyeLkev BicoKeur oi Be vtto 7rpo6vfiia<i 
eXavvovre'i wepl [xeai'^ix^piav KaraXafi^dvova-iv 
avTov^ apri e<? rbv yaXaKTcoSrj tov wKeavov tottov 
efi^aivovra^ irXrjCTLOv r^? Tvpoecrcrr;?' Trapa ro- 
(TOVTOv rjXdov SiaSpdvar Kol dvaBijad/xevot rrjv 
vavv aXvcrei pohlvr) KareTrXeov. t) pev ovv 'KXevrj 
iSuKpvev re koI TJa^^^vrero KaveKaXuTrrero, tov<; 
8e dp,(f)l TOV K.tvvpav avaKpiva<i Trporepov 6 'VaSd- 
/u,av6v<i, et rive<; real aXXoi aviol<i avviaacrtv, &)? 
ovSeva eliTOV, ck tmv alSotcov Sijcra^; aTreTre/n^lrev 
e? TOV TOiv dae/Swv ')(^5ipov paXd^J] irpoTepov 
fLa(rTLy(o6evTa<i. e-yjrrjcpLaavTO 8e koI rjp.d'^ ep,- 27 
7rpodecrp,w<; eKirep-TreLv e/c Tr]<i v7]crov, ttjv iiriov- 
crav -r^pApav p^ovrjv €7rip,eLvai'Ta<;. 

l^VTavda 8r] iyco iiroTvicop^y^v re xal iSdicpvov 
ola €p,eXXov djaOd KaTaXiTroov avOi<; 7rXavi]d-q- 
creadat. avTol fievTOi irapep^vdovvTO XeyovT€<i ov 
TToXXwv CTcov dcfiL^ecrdai irdXiv &>? avTOv<i, Kai 
pbOL TjBr) et9 ToviTLov Opovov re koI KXialav eireBei- 
Kvvaav TrXrjaiov twv dpiaTcov. eycb Be irpoaeXOcov 
Tft) PaBap,dv0VL iroXXa l/ceTevov elirelv to, p,eXXovTa 
KOL vTToBec^ai fiot tov ttXovv. 6 Be etjiaaKev 
d(f)L^eaOai fiev et? Ttjv iraTpiBa iro'XXd irpoTepov 
irXavqdevTa koL KivBvvevaavTa, tov Be ')(^p6vov 
ovKeTi Tr}<i eiravoBov irpoadelvat rjOeXi-jcrev' dXXa 
Br) Koi BeiKvv<i Ta<; TrXrjo'Cov vrjaov<i — i(f>aivovTO 
Be irevTe tov dpi6p,bv, ciXXr) Be eKTrj iroppwdev — 
TavTa<i p,ev elvai ecpaa-Kev tmv dae^wv, ra? 
TrXrjcnov, A(f) (ov, e(f)r), rjBrj to ttoXv TTvp opd^ 
Kaiop,evov, cKTrj Be eKelvr) twv oveipoiv rj iroXi^- 
fieTCL TavTTjv Be rj r?}? KaXu-v/^-oO? vrjao';, dXX 


ship made of a single log of asphodel and oi'dered 
them to give chase. Rowing with a will, they over- 
took them about noon, just as they were entering 
the milky place in the ocean near Cheesie — that is 
all they lacked of escaping ! Securing the ship with 
a hawser of roses, they sailed home. Helen cried 
and hid her head for shame. As to Cinyras and the 
rest, first Rhadamanthus asked them if they had any 
other accomplices, and they said no ; then he had 
them secured by the offending member and sent 
them away to the place of the wicked, after they 
had been first scourged with mallow. The heroes 
voted, too, that we be dismissed from the island 
before our time was up, remaining only till the next 

Thereupon I began to cry aloud and weep because 
I had to leave such blessings behind me and resume 
my wanderings. But they cheered me up, saying 
that before many years I should come back to them 
again, and they even pointed out to me my future 
chair and couch, close to the best people. I went 
to Rhadamanthus and earnestly besought him to tell 
me what would happen and indicate my course. He 
said that I should reach my native land in spite of 
many wanderings and dangers, but refused to tell the 
time of my return. However, pointing out the islands 
near by — there were five in sight and a sixth in the 
distance — , "These," said he, " are the Isles of 
the Wicked, here close at hand, from which you see 
all the smoke arising : the sixth yonder is the City 
of Dreams. Next comes the island of Calypso, but 



ovSeTTQ) croi (palverai. cTreiSav Se ravra<i irapa- 
TrXevcrrjt;, rore hi] acpi^rj ei<? rrjv /u,eya\.7)v i]7reipov 
ry-jv ivavTiav rfj u^' vfiwv ^ KaroiKoufjLevr]' evravOa 
Bt) TToWa TraOoiv koL woLKiXa eOvr) SieXOwv koI 
av6 pu)TroL<i afiLKTOi^i eir ihrj fx-^a a<i ')(^pQvw irore T/^et? 
669 Tr)v erepav rjTveLpov. 

ToaavTa eiTrev, koI avaa7Tdaa<i dirb rrj<i 28 
7?}? pa\d-)(ii<i pi^av wpe^ev /xoi, ravrrj Ke\ev(Ta<i 
iv Tol'i fxcyio-Toi^; kivSvvoi^ 7rpo(T€V)(€crdar irap-p- 
veae 8e el kul Trore d(f)iKOL/j,r]v e? rrjvSe tyjv 'yi]v, 
l-LrjTe TTup fia'^^aipa aKoKeveiv /j,j]Te Oepfiovi 
eaOUiv /h?;t6 7rac8l virep rd OKTCOKacSeKa err) 
7r\rj(Tid^€iv' rovroiv yap dv /j,ep,VT]fX€VOV eXTrtSa? 
eX&LV TY)^ eh Tr]V V7]crov d(^i^ew<;. 

Tore pev ovv rd irepl rov ttXovv irapecrKeva- 
crdfjLijv, Kol iirel Kaipo^ rjv, (Tvvec(TTi(t)p,7)v avTol<;. 
rfj Se iiTLOvcrr] ekOoiv tt/so? "Op^ripov rov TroLrjrrjv 
eSeijOrjv avrov iroiricrai fioi, BlaTixov iTrlypap^fia- 
Kal eireiSrj erfrolrjcrev, ar)]\7)v ^tjpvXkov XlOov 
dva(Trrjaa<i eTreypa-yjra tt/oo? t& XifxevL. ro 8e 
eiriypa/jipa rjv roiovSe' 

AovKtav6<; rdSe irdvTa (f)i\.o<; fiaKapecrai Beotaiv 
elBi re koI irdXiv 7jX9e (f)L\r)v e? TrarpiSa yaiav. 

p,eiva<^ Se KaKeivrfv tijv rjfiipar, rfj eTriovar} 29 
dvr)y6p,7]v twv rjpcocov irapa'irep.'iTOVTWv. ev6a p,oi 
Kal 'OSfcrcrei'? TrpoaeXOoDV Xddpa Tyj<i IlT]veX67rr]<; 
SlSaicrtv eTTicTToXrjv et? flyvylav ttjv vTjcrov Ka- 
Xvyfroi Kop,i^eiv. (Tweirepii^e 8e p,oi 6 'VahdpavOv<; 
rov rropdfiea NainrXiov, 'iv edv Kara^dtiijiev 

* vmwv du Soul : ^/t«»' MSS. 


you cannot see it jet. When you have sailed by 
these, you will finally come to the great continent 
opposite the one which your people inhabit. Then 
at last, after you have had many adventures and 
have travelled through all sorts of countries and lived 
among unfriendly men, in course of time you will 
reach the other continent." 

With these words he plucked a root of mallow 
from the ground and handed it to me, telling me to 
pray to it in my greatest straits. And he advised me 
if ever I reached this country, neither to stir the fire 
with a sword-blade nor to eat lupines nor to make 
love to anyone over eighteen,^ saying that if I bore 
these points in mind I might have good hopes of 
getting back to the island. 

Well, I made prepai'ations for the voyage, and 
when the time came, joined them at the feast. On 
the next day I went to the poet Homer and begged 
him to compose me a couplet to carve up, and when 
he had done so, I set up a slab of beryl near the 
harbour and had the couplet carved on it. It was : 

One Lucian, whom the blessed gods befriend, 
Beheld what's here, and home again did wend. 

I stayed that day, too, and put to sea on the 
next, escorted by the heroes. At that juncture 
Odysseus came to me without the knowledge of 
Penelope and gave me a letter to carry to Ogygia 
Island, to Calypso. Rhadamanthus sent the pilot 
Nauplius with me, so that if we touched at the 

* The first is a real P^'thagorean precept, or what passed 
for such (Plut. Mor. 12 e) ; the other two are parodies. 



69 ra? vi]crov<;, yLi?;Set9 r]fid<i avWd^rj are tear 
aWrjv ifXTToplav KaTa7r\eovra<i. 

'ETrei 8e tov evcoS')'} aepa 7rpoLovTe<i TrapeXrfXv- 
deifiev, avTLKa ojfia'i oapLrj re Beivrj SfeSep^ero olov 
da(f)d\rov Kal Oeiov koI rrlrrrj'; dfia KUiofievoyv, 
Kol Kvlcra he rrovripa Kal d<^oprjro<; wairep airo 
dvOpooTrcov oirrwfjbevwv, Kal 6 drjp ^o(f)epo<i Kal 
opn')(\(i)hy-j<i, Kal Karecrra^ev e'f avrov Sp6ao<i irtr- 
r'ivri' rjKQvoixev Se Kol fxacrrl'yoyv yjro(pov Kal 
olfKoy^jv dvdpcoTrwv ttoWcov. ral<; fiev ovv 30 
dWaL<; ov rrpoaeaxofiev, 7^9 Se iire^rj/xev, roidhe 
riv kvkXco fjLev irdaa Kpi'ifivd)hrj<; Kat, diro^vpo'i, ire- 
rpai^ Kal rpd^f^ai KareaKXijKvta, BevSpov B ov8h> 
ovBe vBcop evrjv dvepirvaavre^ Be ofiwi Kara rovi 
Kprjfivov'i TrpofjfMev Bid rivo^ oKavOdiBovi Kal 
(TKoXoTTwv /xecrrP]<; drpairov, ttoWtjv dpLop^iav rf]<i 
y(t)pa<; i'^^ovcrrj'i. ek66vre<i Be errl rrjv eipKrijv Kal 
TO KoXacrrt^piov, rrpoira jxev rrjv (f)vaiv rod roirov 
idavfid^ofj-ev ro piev 'yap eBa(^o^ avro pLa-^aipai^; 
Kal (TKoXo-ylri rrdvrr] i^ijvdijKei, kvkXw Be Trora/xol 
rrepteppeov, 6 piev ^op/36pov, 6 Be B€vrepo<i a7p,a- 
T09, Be evBov irvpof, rrdvv fieja^ ovro<i Kal aTrepa- 
T09, Kal eppei oxrirep vBwp Kal eKVpuarovro oiairep 
ddXarra, Kal l')(6v<i Be el-)(ev 7roX\ov<;, rov<; puev 
Ba\ol^ TrpocreoiKorai;, roii^ Be puKpov^ dvBpa^t 
TreTrvpwfiivot^' eKokovv Be avrov<; \v^i'iaKov<;. 
et'o-o8o9 Be fiia arevrj Bia rrdvrwv rjv, Kal 31 
7rv\copo<i i^eio-rrjKei Tificov Adr]vaLo<;. wape\- 
dovref Be 0yu,fy9 rov NauTrXlov Kad^jjovpievou 
ecopcofjyev Ko\a^opievov<; 7roWov<; [lev ^aaiXea^, 
iroXXoix; Be Kal lBi(iOTa<;, &v eviovi Kal eryvcopi^op-ev' 
etBopiev Be kuI rov Kivvpav vairvu) virorvcpofievov 



islands no one miglit arrest us, thinking we were 
putting in on another errand. 

Forging ahead, we had passed out of the fragrant 
atmosphere when of a sudden a terrible odour 
greeted us as of asphalt, sulphur, and pitch burning 
together, and a vile, insufferable stench as of roasting 
human flesh : the atmosphere was murky and foggy, 
and a pitchy deAv distilled from it. Likewise we 
heard the noise of scourges and the wailing of many 
men. The other islands we did not touch at, 
but the one on which we landed was precipitous and 
sheer on all sides ; it was roughened with rocks and 
stony places, and there was neither tree nor water in 
it. We crawled up the cliffs, however, and went 
ahead in a path full of thorns and calthrops, finding 
the country very ugly. On coming to the enclosui'e 
and the place of punishment, first of all we wondered 
at the nature of the region. The ground itself was 
all sown with sword blades and caltrops, and around 
it flowed three rivers, one of mud, the second of blood 
and the inmost one of fire. The latter was ver\' 
large, and impossible to cross : it ran like water and 
undulated like the sea, and it contained many fish, 
some similar to torches, and some, a smaller variety, 
to live coals. They called them candlefisli. 
There was a single narrow way leading in, past all 
the rivers, and the warder set there was Tiraon of 
Athens. We got through, however, and with 
Nauplius for our conductor we saw many kings 
undergoing punishment, and many commoners too. 
Some of them we even recognized, and we saw Cinyras 



eK Twv alBoLcov airr^prrifievov. TrpoaeTiOeaav Bk ol 
7repi,r]<yr)Tal Kol Tovf iKdcrrav /Siof? kuI raf d/xap- 
Tia<; i(f) al<i KoXd^ovrac koI jxeyLara^ aTraaoJv 
rifjLcopta^ virejievov ol ylrevcrdfievoi rt Tvapd rov 
^iov Kol ol /XT) TO, dXrjOr] avyyeypa(f)OTe<i, iv 0Z9 
Kal K.Tr]crca<i 6 K.vl8co<; rjv Koi 'HpoSoro? koX oKKol 
TToWoL. TOVTOVf; ovv opoiv iyo) ')(pr]aTd<i eZ%oi/ 
et? Toviriov Td<; i\,7riSa<;' ovBev yap ifiavro) yfrev8o<i 
eLTTovrt avvrjinaTdixtiv. ra')(e(o<; ovv dvaarpe-^a^ 32 
iirt rrjv vavv — ov yap iSvvdfirjv (f)epeLv rrjv oy^iv 
— da7Taad/j,evo<; rov l^avirXiov direifkevaa, 

Kai yLter' oXlyov ec^aivero 'irKrjaLov rj tcov oveipoiv 
vrjco^, dfxvBpd koI d<Ta(fiJ]<; IBe'cv el')(€ Bk Kal avTrj 
TL Tocf 6velpoL<i irapaTrXijcnov' v'ire)((tipeL yap 
nrpocnovTcov rjficov Kal viricpevye Kal Troppcorepco 
V7rej3aive. KaTa\a,86vTe<; Be irore avTrjv Kal elcr- 
7rXev<TavTe<; el<; rov "Tttvov Xtfxeva irpocrayopevo- 
fxevov ifkriaiov twv ttvXcov tmv i\€(f)avTLVQ)v, y to 
Tov *A\€KTpv6if0<i lepov icTTiv, irepl Bei\r}v oyjnav 
dire^aivoixev irapekdovre'i Be e? ttjv ttoXiv ttoX- 
Xov<} oveipovi Kal 7roiKiXou<; ecopcofiev. irpcoTOV Be 
/3ovXofMai irepl t*"}? 7r6Xeco<; elirelv, eirel fiijBe 
oXXm rcvl yeypairrai, irepl avTt]<;, 09 Be Kal /xovo^ 
eirefivijaOr) "Ofxr)po<;, ov irdvv uKpi^o)^ avveypa- 
yjrev. kvkXm fiev irepl irdaav avTTjv vXr] 33 
dviaTTjKev, rd BevBpa Be ecrri fj.7]Kcove^ vyjr^jXal 
Kal fiavBpayopac Kal eir' avTcJv iroXv ti irXrjdo'i 
vvKTeplBctiv TovTO ydp /xovov ev rfj vrjaw yiverai 
opveov. iroTafio<i Be irapappel irXrjaiov vrr 
avTcov KaXov/juevo<i NvKTi7ropo<i, Kal irrjyal Bvo 
irapd rd<i irvTua- ovofiara Kal ravTat'i, rf} fiev 



triced up as aforesaid in the smoke of a slow fire. 
The guides told the life of each, and the crimes for 
which they were being punished ; and the severest 
punishment of all fell to those who told lies while i 
in life and those who had written what was not true, ) 
among whom were Ctesias of Cnidos, Herodotus and 
many more. On seeing them, I had good hopes for 
the future, for I have never told a lie that I know 
of. Well, I turned back to the ship quickly, for 
I could not endure the sight, said good-bye to 
Nauplius, and sailed away. 

After a short time the Isle of Dreams came 
in sight close by, faint and uncertain to the eye. It 
had itself some likeness to a dream, for as we 
approached it receded and retired and retreated 
to a greater distance. Overtaking it at length and 
sailing into the harbour called Sleep, we landed near 
the ivory gates, where the sanctuary of the Cock is, 
about dusk, and on entering the city, we saw many 
dreams of all sorts. But first I desire to speak of the 
city itself, since no one else has written about it, and 
Homer, the only one to mention it at all, was not 
quite accurate in what he said.^ On all sides of 
it is a wood, in which the trees are tall poppies and 
mandragoras, and they have a great number of bats 
in them ; for there is no other winged thing in the 
island. A river flows near which they call Sleep- 
walker, and there are two springs by the gates, 
» Odysa. 19, 560 ff. 



Niiyp€TO<;, rfj he Uavw^ta. 6 7rept/3oXo9 Be Tr]<; 
TToXe&j? Li-v^T^Xo? re kuI ttolklXo^, I'piSi ttjv %poav 
oiioiQTaro<i' irvkai jxevToi CTreicnv ov 8vo, Kaddirep 
"0/jLrjpo<} eip7]K€V, dWa reacrape^, Svo [xev npo^ to 
T)}? BXa/ceta9 irehlov d7ro/3Xe7rovcrai, i) fiev cnBr)pd, 
T} he eK Kepdfxov ireiroLripbevr), KaQ^ a? eK.e<yovTo 
dirohrifieiv avTcov o'i re (f)0^epol ical (poviKol koX 
d7rr]vel<i, hvo he 7rpo9 tov Xi/xeva koI Ttjp OdXar- 
rav, 7] /xev Keparivrj, q he KaO' i)v rjfxec<; iraprfk- 
dofiev eXecpavTivTj. elcnovTL he ei9 t^i^ ttoXcv ev 
he^id fiev iart, to Nvktwov — (Te/3ov(Tc yap deSyv 
ravTTjv fjbd\i(TTa koX tov ^ AXeKTpuova' eKeivo) he 
Tfkrjaiov tov Xtfievo^ to lepov ireiroli^Tai — iv dpi- 
crrepa he to tov "Tttvov ^aalXeia. ovTO<i yap hi] 
ap')(^et Trap' avT0t<; aaTpdira^ hvo koI virdp-^ov^ 
TreTTOLrjfievo'i, Tapa^Lcovd re tov Is/iaTaioyevovi Kal 
TlXovTOK\ea tov ^avTaaiwvo<i. ev fiearj he ttj 
dyopa TTTTiyr] Tt9 eaTiv, fjv KoXovac KapecoTiv Kal 
irXricriov vao\ hvo, 'A7raT»;9 Kai ^AX')]0ei,a(;' ev6a 
Kal TO dhvTov iaTiv avTol<i Kal to piavTelov, ov 
TrpoeL(TTrjKeL TrpoiprjTevcov ^AvTi(f>(ov 6 tmv ovetpcov 
vTTOKpiTij';, Tavrrjii irapa tov Tttvov Xa^cbv t^9 
Tf/i^9. avTMV fxevToi T(ov ovelpiov ovre (f)V(n<; 34 
ovTe Ihea tJ avTifj, aX}C oi fiev fiaKpol rjaav Kal 
KoXol Kal eveiheis, ol he jxiKpol Kal d/jLop(f)oi, Kal 
ol fiev 'X^pvcreoL, &)9 ehoKovv, oi he TaTreivol re kuI 
evTeXel<;. rjcrav h ev avTOt<: Kal TTTepcoToi Tive<i 
KoL TepaT(ohei<;, koI dXXoi KadaTrep €9 Trofnrrjv 
hiea Kevacr fievoi, ol fiev eV ^aaLXea<i, ol he €9 6eov<i, 
ol he et9 ciXXa TOiavTa KeKOcrfii^fievoi. TroX\ov<i 
he avTO)v Kal eyvojpiaafiev, TrdXai Trap" rffiiv 
ewpaKOTe^, at hrj Kal Trpoarfeaav Kal ■^crTrd^ovTo 




named Soundly and Eight-hours. Tlie wall of the 
city is high and parti-coloured, very like a rainbow 
in tint. The gates in it are not two, as Homer says, 
but four. Two face Slowcoach Plain, one of which 
is of iron and the other of earthenware ; through 
these, it is said, the fearful, murderous, revolting 
dreams go out. The other two face the harbour 
and the sea, one of which is of horn and the other, 
through which we came in, of ivory. As one enters 
the city, on the right is the temple of Night, for 
the gods they worship most are Night and the Cock, 
whose sanctuary is built near the harbour. On the left 
is the palace of Sleep, who rules among them and has 
appointed two satraps or lieutenants. Nightmare, son 
of Causeless, and Rich, son of Fancy. In the centre 
of the square is a spring which they call Drowsimere, 
and close to it are two temples, that of Falsehood 
and that of Truth. There too is their holy of holies 
and their oracle, which Antiphon, the interpreter of 
dreams, presided over as prophet, having had this 
office from Sleep. As to the dreams themselves, 
they differ from one another both in nature and in 
looks. Some were tall, handsome and well-pro- 
portioned, while others were small and ugly ; and 
some were rich, I thought, while others were 
humble and beggarly. There were winged and 
portentous dreams among them, and there were 
others dressed up as if for a carnival, being clothed to 
represent kings and gods and different characters of 
the sort. We actually recognised many of them, 
whom we had seen long ago at home. These came 


VOL. I. ^ 


ft)? av Kal (Tvvrjdei^; V7rdp)(^ovTe^, kol TrapaXa/SofTef; 
riixa<; koX KaraKOL/u.icravTe'i irdvv Xa/xTrpw^; Kal 
Se^^w? i^evt^ov, rr'jv re dWrjv v7roSo)(^7]v fieja- 
XoTrpeTri] irapaa-KevncravTef; koX VTricr^vovfMevoi 
/SaaiXea'i re TtoLrjcreLv koI crarpdrra^. eviOL Se 
Kal dirrj'yov r)/u,d<i et? rd^ 'Trarpiha<i Kal rov<i 
olKeiov<i erreZeiKWOv Kal avdrj/xepov eiravrj'yov. 
^fx,epa<i fxev ovv rpidKovra Kal taa<i vvKTa<i 35 
Trap' avTot<i i/netva/xev Ka6evSovre<; evco')(^ov/xevot. 
eireira he d(f)Vco ^povrrj<i /u,eydXri<i Karappayei<Tr](i 
dvejpo/xevoi Kal dva6op6vre<; dvr])(^di]/jiev iirtotri- 

Tpiralot S' eKeWev rfj ^flyvyia vi](T(p rrpoa- 
a'^ovre'i dire^aivoiiev. rrporepov 8' 670) Xvcra'i 
rrjv eTTicrroXyv dveyivoxr kov rd yeypayniAva. rjv 
8e roidSe' ^08vcrcrev<i l^aXvxjroc 'x^alpeiv. "Icrdi 
fie, ft)? rd TTpcora e^eTrXevaa irapd crov rrjv a-^^ehlav 
KaracTKevacrdfievo'i, vavayia '^(^pycrdfievov /jloXi^ 
vTTo AevKoOea-i Stacrcodrjvai ei? ri)v tmv <i>aidKcov 
')((i>pav, v(j) o)v e? r^-jv oiKeiav d7ro7Te/.i(j)deh Kare- 
Xa^ov 7roXXov<i rr}? yuvaiKO<; fjivr]arrjpa<i ev T049 
rjfierepot<i rpv(po)vra<;' diroKreiva'i he diravra<; vtto 
TrfXeyovov varepov rov ck Ktp/c?;? fxoi yevofievov 
dvrjpeOrjv, Kal vvv elfii ev rfj M.aKdpcov vi'jaM irdw 
fieravoMV eVt ru) KaraXiirelv rrjv rrapd aol hiairav 
Kol rrjv VTTO crov rrporeivofievijv dOavacrlav. rjv 
ovv Kaipov Xd^wjiai, dirohpa'^ d(pi^o/xai rrpa ere. 
ravra jxev ehtjXov rj eTnaroXij, Kal irepi rj/^cojv, 
oTTco^; ^evLaOoifxev. eyu> he TrpoeXOcbv oXtyov 36 
diro rf]<; OaXdaarj<i evpov rb (rmjXaiov roiovrov 
otov "OjjLrjpo<; elrrev, Kal avrrjv raXaatovpyovcrav. 



up to us and greeted us like old acquaintances, took 
us with them, put us to sleep and entertained us 
very splendidly and hospitably. They treated us 
hke lords in every way, and even promised to make 
us kings and nabobs. A few of them actually took 
us off home, gave us a sight of our friends and 
families and brought us back the same day. For 
thirty days and thirty nights we stopped vdth them 
and had a fine time — sleeping! Then of a sudden a 
great thunder-clap came ; we woke up, sprang out of 
bed and put to sea as soon Jis we had laid in 

On the third day out from there we touched at 
the island of Ogygia and landed. But first I opened 
the letter and read what was in it. It was : 
" Odysseus to Calypso, greeting. 

" Soon after 1 built the raft and sailed away from 
j^ou I was shipwrecked, and with the help of Leucothea 
managed to reach the land of the Phaeacians in 
safety. They sent me home, and there I found that 
my wife had a number of suitors who were living on 
the fat of the land at our house. I killed them all, 
and vas afterwards slain by Telegonus, my son by 
Circe. Now I am on the Isle of the Blest, thoroughly 
sorry to have given up my life with you and the 
immortality wliich you offered me. Therefore, if I 
get a chance, I shall run away and come to you." 
In addition to this, the letter said that she was to 
entertain us. On going a short way from the 
sea I found the cave, which was as Homer described 
it,^ and found Calypso herself working wool. When 
> Odyas. 5, 55 flf. 



(o<i Se rr/v eViCTToXr);^ eXa/Sev koI iireXe^aTO, 
irpcora fiev eVi ttoXv iSuKpvev, eTreira Be TrapeKciXei 
y][xa<i eiTi ^evia kul eiaTia Xa/xTrpco? koI Trepl tov 
'O8vacreco<; eTTVvOdvero koI irepl tt}? IlT]veX67rrj<;, 
oTTOia re e'lr] rrjv oyjnv kuI el aaxppovoir), KaOdirep 
08vacrev<i TrdXat irepl ainrj'i eKopbira^ev koX r)fiel<i 
TOLavra aTreKpcvd/xeda, i^ wv elKa^ofxev ev^pa- 
vetaOai aurrjv. 

Tore fjiev ovv d'iTe\66vTe<i e-rrl vavv TrXrjaiov eVt 
rrj<; ipovo^i eK0ifMi]dt]/j,6V. ewOev he dvr]<^ojxe6a 37 
(T^dhpoTepov KaTi6vro<i tov TrvevfiaTO^' koX 8)] 
X^l/^ciaOevTe^; rjfjbipa'i Svo Trj rpiTrj TrepiirLTnofiev 
T0t9 K.o\oKvvdo7TetpaTat<;. dvOpwiroi 8e elaiv ovroi 
aypiot eK twv Tfkrjaiov vrjcrwv \r]arevovTe<i rov<; 
7rapa7rXeovTa<i. to, ifkola he e^^ovcrt fieydXa 
KoXoKvvdiva TO fjbrjKO'^ irrj-^^eoov e^)]KOVTa' iireihav 
yap ^tjpavwat rt-jv KoXoKVvOav, Koi\dvavT€<{ avT7]v 
KUL €^e\ovTe<i Trjv evTepicavrjv ifiTrXeovcrtv, laroU 
/jLev ')(^pcop,evot KaXa/nLvoi^;, uvtI he t% odoin]^; rq> 
(fivWo) Tr]<; KoXoKuvdi]^. Trpocr^aXovTe^ ovv i)ijuv 
aTTO hvo 7rX7] pwfxdTcov efid')(pvTO Kol ttoXXov^ 
KaT6T pav fiaTt^ov /SdXXovre^ uvtX XiOwv tm airep- 
/MXTi T(ov KoXoKvi'Ocbv. dj)(^a)fidX(o<; he iirl ttoXv 
vavfxaxovvT£<; Trepl fiecr^j/x^piav eiho/xev KaroTriv 
TMv KoXoKuv8o7T€cpaT(ov 7rpoa7rXiouTa<i Tov'i Ka- 
pvovavTa<;. 77 oXefiioi he rjaav dXXrjXoL<;, &)9 ehet^av 
eVei yap KaKelvoi fjcrBovro auroi)? einovTa^, rj/xojv 
fiev oiXiyoop'qcxav, TpaTro/xevoc he eV eKeivov; evav- 
fia)(^ovv. 7;/xe49 he ev ToaovT(p i7rdpavTe<i ttjv 38 
o66vr]v e(f)evyofiev d7roXt7r6vT€<; avTOVs f-iaxop-euov;, 
Kal hifXoi rjaav /cpaT7]crovTe<i ol KapuovaiiTac arc 



she had taken the letter and read it, she wept a long 
time at first, and then she asked us in to enjoy her hos- 
pitality, gave us a splendid feast and enquired about 
Odysseus and Penelope — how she looked and 
whether she was prudent, as Odysseus used to boast 
in old times. 1 We made her such answers as we 
thought would please her. 

After that, we went back to the ship and slept 
beside it on the shore, and early in the morning 
we put to sea in a rising wind. We were storm- 
tossed for two days, and on the third we fell in with 
the Pumpkin-pirates. They are savages from the 
neighboui'ing islands who prey on passing sailors. 
They have large boats of pumpkin, sixty cubits long ; 
for after drying a pumpkin they hollow it out, take 
out the insides and go sailing in it, using reeds for 
masts and a pumpkin-leaf for a sail. They attacked 
us with two crews and gave us battle, wounding 
many of us by hitting us with pumpkin-seeds instead 
of stones. After fighting for a long time on even 
terms, about noon we saw the Nut-sailors coming up 
astern of the Pumpkin-pirates. They were enemies 
to one another, as they showed by their actions ; for 
when the Pumpkin-pirates noticed them coming up, 
they neglected us and faced about and fought with 
them. But in the meantime we hoisted our canvas 
and fled, leaving them fighting. It was evident that 
the Nut-sailors would win, as they were in greater 
1 Odysa. 5, 201 ff. 



KOt •K\eiov<i — irevre yap el^ov TrXy^putfiaTa — Kal 
diro la'X^i'porepcov vecbv /j,a)(^6p€vot' ra yap irXola 
))v avTol'i Ke\v(f)ri Kapvwv 'i]/iiiTOfia, KeKevcofxeva, 
fiiye6o<i 8e eKaaTOU rjfxiro/xov et9 /xyKO^ opyvial 

'ETret Be d7r€Kpv-^a/j.€V avTov<;, Ico/xeda toi'9 
rpavju,arLa<i, Kal to \onrov ev Tot<i ottXoi^ co? eV/- 
Tvav rj/x€V, dec TLva<^ €7n^ov\a<; TrpoaSexofievcr ov 
pcLTTjv. oinrcii yovv ehehvKGL 6 ijXio^, Kal diro 39 
TLVO<^ ipr'j/jLov vqaov irpocrrjXavvov r]fuv ocrov eiKoai 
av8p6<i eVi 8€\<pcv(ov /xeyuXcov 6)(^ov/JLevoi, XrjcrTal 
Kal ovTOi' Kal 01 SeXcpU'eii avrov^ ecfiepov dacpa- 
A,w9, Kal dvaTTijSMvref; e-^^pe/xeri^ov wairep lttttoi. 
eTrel Be TrXt-jcrLdV rjaav, hiaa-rdvre<i ol /nev evdev, 
ol Be eiOev e^aXXov r}pd<i ai]TT[ai<; ^rjpal^ Kal 
6(f)6aXpoL^ KaoKivojv. to^cvovtcov Be Kal y/xcov 
Kal dKovTi^ovTcov ovKeri virefjievov, dXXarpw6evre<i 
ol TToXXol avTcov 7r/309 rr]v vfjaov Karecfivyov. 

Uepl Be TO /leaovvKTiov yaX7]v)]<; ovarji; 40 
eXdOofxev irpocroKeiXavTe'; dXKVovo<i KaXid iraji- 
fxeyeOef araBlatv yovv yu avrtj e^^Kovra rb 
Trepi/j-eTpov. eTreirXeev Be r] dXKvcSov rd (pa ddX- 
TTovaa ov TToXv /xeLwv rtj'i KaXidq. Kal Bij dva- 
TrrapLevrj fiiKpov pev KareBvae ti]v vavv tS> dvepbw 
roov inepoiv. w^ero S' ovv (pevyovaa yoepdv riva 
(f)(ovr]v TTpOLe/biei'T]. eTn^avre^i Be T^/iet? rj/jLepa<i 
y]Br) v7ro(f)aivova7]<; e6eu>pe9a ttjv Ka\idv a-^eBta 
peyd'^T] TrpoaeoiKVtav eK BevBpcov p^eydXcov crvp,- 
Tre(f)oprjp,evi]v' eirrjv Be Kal (pa irevraKocna, eKaa- 
TOV avTMV Xtou ttlOov 7repL7rXr]0eaTepov. i'jBr] 
p,evroL Kal oi veorrol evBoOev i<pa'LvovTO Kal 
eKpco^ov. TreXcKeaiv yovv BiaKO'^avre'; ev t(ov 



numbers — they had five crews — and fought from 
stouter ships. Their boats were the halves of empty 
nutshells, each of which measured fifteen fathoms in 

When we had lost them from sight, we attended 
to the wounded, and thereafter we kept under arms 
most of the time, always looking for attacks. And we 
did not look in vain. In fact, the sun had not yet 
gone down when from a desert island there came out 
against us about twenty men riding on huge dolphins, 
who were pirates like the others. The dolphins 
earned them securely and plunged and neighed like 
horses. When they were close by, they separated 
and threw at us from both sides with dry cuttle-fish 
and crabs' eyes. But when we let fly at them with 
spears and arrows, they could not hold their ground, 
but fled to the island, most of them wounded. 

About midnight, while it was calm, we unex- 
pectedly ran aground on an enormous kingfisher's 
nest ; really, it was sixty furlongs in circumference. 
The female was sailing on it, keeping her eggs 
warm, and she was not much smaller than the 
nest — in fact, as she started up she almost sunk the 
ship with the wind of her wings. She flew oif, how- 
ever, uttering a plaintive cry. We landed when day 
began to break, and observed that the nest was like 
a great raft, built of huge trees. There were five 
hundred eggs in it, every one of them bigger than a 
Chian wine-jar, and the chicks were already visible 
inside them and were chirping. We cut open one 



(owv veoTTOv ainepov e^eKoXdyjrafiev ecKOcri yvTrtov 

'ETret 8e TrXiovre'i airelxoiiev Tri<i koXuk; oaov 41 
araSiovi SiaKoaLou<;, repara 'i)[Juv fxeyaXa Kai 
dav/xaara eTrea/jpiavev 6 re yap iv ttj Trpv^ivrj 
ynqvicTKO'i a(f)VOi iTrrepv^aTO Kol avej^orjaev, /cat o 
Kv^€pvr]ri]<; 6 ItKivdapo'i (f)a\a/cpo<; r/ST] oiv aveKo- 
ixrjaev, koL to ttuvtcov 8?] irapaho^orarov, o yap 
iVto9 Ti}9 v€(ii<i i^e/BXdcTTijcrev koi K\d8ov<i cive- 
(pvaev Kal eirl rw UKpro iKap7ro(f)6prjaev, o oe 
Kapiro^ rjv av/ca Kal aracJyv'Xrj ptXaiva, ovttq) 
Triiretpo^. ravra lSoi'tc^ w? ei/co? irapd-xOy-ifxev 
Kal rjvxoP'eda To7<i deoc<i 8ta to uWokotov tov 
(})avrdcr/jbaro<i. ovttco Be irevraKoaiov^ crTaSiov^ 42 
8ceX66pT6<i e'lhofxev vXijv iieyiaTrjv Kal Xdcriou 
TTiTvcov Kal KVTrapiTTcov. Kal rjfieU fxev euKacrafiev 
ijTreipov elvar to S' rjv 7reXayo<; d^vacrov appli^oa 
tevhpoi<; KaTa7re(pvreup.evov' elcrr/jKeL 8e rd BevBpa 
ofico^ dKivyjra, 6p6d Kaddirep eirLTrXeovTa. ttXtj- 
crLdaavTe<i ovv Kal to irdv Karavoi]aavTe<i ev 
diropw elxo/J-eda tl -xph Bpdv ovre yap Sid 
TMV SivSpcoi' 7rA,eiJ^ hvvarov rjv — irvKva yap Kai 
irpo(se')(r] virPip^eu — ouTe dvaaTpe^etu iSoKei 
pdhiov iyoi he dveXOoiv i'rrl to jxeyLaTov hevhpov 
direaKoirovv ^ to. iireKeiva 07ra)9 fc'xo'» '^^'' ^(^P^v 
eVl a-Tahlov^ jxIp irevTiJKOVTa t] oXiya 7rXeLov<; 
TTjv vXrjp ovaav, eireiTa Be avdi<i erepov cDKcavov 
eKBe-xpfJi^vov. Kal Bt] iBoKei i)iuv dvadefievou^ 

' iveffKSirovv vulg.: tii€<r/ct{iroui/ T, Nil^a. 


of the eggs with axes and took from tlie shell a 
featherless chick fatter than twenty vultures. 

When we had sailed a distance of two hundred 
furlongs from the nest, great and wonderful signs 
manifested themselves to us. The gooseneck ^ sud- 
denly grew feathers and started cackling, the sailing- 
master, Scintharus, who was already bald, became 
the owner of long hair, and what was strangest of all, 
the ship's mast budded, branched, and bore fruit at 
the summit ! The fruit consisted of figs and black 
raisin-grapes, which w^ere not yet ripe.'^ On seeing 
this, we were disturbed, as well we might be, and 
offered a prayer to the gods on account of the 
strangeness of the manifestation. We had not 
yet gone five hundi'ed furlongs wlien we saw a very 
large, thick forest of pines and cypresses. We 
thought it was land, but in reality it was a 
bottomless sea overgrown with rootless trees, in spite 
of M'hich the trees stood up motionless and straight, 
as if they were floating. On drawing near and 
forming an idea of the situation, we were in a 
quandary wliat to do, for it was not possible to sail 
between the trees, they being thick and close 
together, nor did it seem easy to turn back. 
Climbing the tallest tree, I looked to see how things 
were on the other side, and I saw that the forest 
extended for fifty stades or a little more, and that 
another ocean lay beyond. So we resolved to lift the 

* In ancient ships the gooseneck was an ornament on the 
stem, or {as here) on the stern. Nowadays it is a device for 
fastening a spar to a mast. 

^ A parody on the experience of the pirates who carried 
oflf Dionysus {Hymn. Horn. 7, 38). 



Tr)p vavv iirl rrjv k6/j,tjv twv SevSpcov — ttvkvt) 8e 
rjv — inrep^i^aaaL, el Swal/xeOa, ei? ttjv OaXaTTav 
TTjV eTcpav Kai ovt(o<; iiroiov/xev. e«:S?;crai'Te9 <yap 
avrrjv KaXro fxeydXca Kol dveXOovT€<i iirl to, SevSpa 
fi6\i<; avifitjcrdfxeOa, kol 6evre<i eVl rwv KXahoov, 
7reTaaavT€<i ra icTTia KaOdirep iv OaXdrrr] 
eTrXeofiev rov dvifiov 7rpoa)dovvro<i eTTiavpofievot,' 
evOa Sr) koX to ^KvTLfxd')(pv rov TrotTjrov eiro^ 
iTTeiarjXde [xe — (prjalv <ydp irov KdK€cvo<;' 

Tolaiv S' vXrjevra 8ia irXoov ip)(^o/xevotcriv. 

^laadfievoL he o/i&)9 Tr]v v\r)v d^LKofieOa e? 43 
TO vBcop, KoX TrdXcv 6yu.ota)9 KaOevTe^ ^ ttjv vavv 
eirXeo/jiei' Bia KaOapov kuI Biavyov<; vSaTo<i, d)(pi 
8r) i7T6aT7]/j.ev y^dafxaTi fieyaXw eK rov i/Saro? 
SiecTTWTO? yeyeviineva, Kaddirep ev rf] yfj ttoXXukl^ 
opoofiep vrro aeia/xo)v yevo/neva Sia-^mpca/nara. rj 
fxev ovv vav<i KaOeXovrcov r)fj,(ov ra laria ov paZlw^i 
ecrrrj irap* oXlyov eXBoiiaa Kareveydi'piaL. virep- 
Kv-^avre<i he 7]jj,et<i ecopco/xev /3d0o<; oaov arahicov 
■^iXlwv ixdXa ^o^epov kuI Trapdho^ov eiarjjKec 
yap TO vhcop coairep /j-eimepta/xevov' irepi^Xeirovre'; 
he opwfiev Kara he^id ou Trdrv iroppwfev ye^ivpav 
eire^evy fximpi vharo^ avi'd7rrovro<; rd rreXdyr) 
Kara ri^v eirtc^dveLav, eK T7']<; er^paii OaXdrrrji; et? 
T'qv krepav hiappeovro^;. it poa eXda avre^; ovv rat's 
Kco7rai<{ KUT eKtivo rrape^pd/xofjiev Kal fierd 7roXXi]<; 
dyoii>ia<; €7repdaap,ev ourrore 'npoahoKi'}aavre<;. 

EivrevOev t)pa<i vrrehe^^ero iTe\ayo<i 7rpoar]ve<; 44 
Kai, vrjGo'i ov fieydXr), evirpocnio^, avvoLKOvjievr]' 
evejjLovro he avrrjv dvOpwiroi dyptoi, BouKe(f)aXoi, 

^ KaBevres Cobet : KaTaOfvres MSS. 


ship on to the tree-tops, which were thick, and cross 
over, ri' we could, to the farther side ; and that is what 
we did. We made her fast to a large rope, climbed 
the trees and pulled her up with much ado. Setting 
her on the branches and spreading our canvas, we 
sailed just as if we were at sea, carried along by the 
force of the wind. At that juncture a line of the 
poet Antimachus came into my head ; he says some- 
where or other : 

" And unto them their forest cruise pursuing." 
We managed the wood in spite of everything 
and reached the water. Lowering the ship again 
in the same way we sailed through pure, clear 
water, until we came to a great crevasse made by 
the water dividing, like the cracks that one often 
sees in the earth, made by earthquakes. Though 
we got in the sails, the ship was slow to lose head- 
way and so came near being engulfed. Peering over 
the edge, we saw a precipice of fully a thousand 
furlongs, most frightful and unnatural — the water 
stood there as if cut apart ! But as we looked about 
us we saw on the right at no great distance a bridge 
thrown across, which was of Avater, joining the 
surfaces of the two seas and flowing from one to the 
other. Rowing up, therefore, we ran into the stream 
and by great effort got across, though we thought 
we should never do it. 

Then we came to a smooth sea and an island 
of no great size that was easily accessible and was 
inhabited. It was peopled by savages, the Bull- 
heads, who have horns in the style that the 



KepaTa €Xovt€<;, olov Trap' rj/xlv rov MivwTavpov 
uvaTrXaTTOvcTLv. airo^dvTe^ he Trpoijeifxev vSpev- 
(TOfi€voi /cat cnria Xijyjropevoi, el Tvodev 8vv7]6ei7]- 
fxev ovKeri jap ecxopev. koX vScop fiev avrov 
ttXtjctlov evpopev, dWo Be ovSev ecfyaivero, ttXtjv 
fjLVKr]d/j,6<; TToXvf; ov TToppcoOev rjKoveTO. B6^avTe<i 
ovv djeXrjv elvat ^omv, Kar o\l<yov 7rpo-)(^ci)povvre<; 
eTrearripev TOc<i dv6pco7roi<i. ol Be IBovref Jjpd<i 
ioLcoKov, Kol Tpei<i pev roiv eraCpcov \ap/3dvovaiv, 
01 oe XoiTToc 7rpo<; rrjv dakarrav Karecjievyopev. 
elra pevroL nrdvTe^ orrXiadpevoL — ov yap eBoKei 
Tjptv aTipcopiJTOU'i irepiiBelv Tov<i ^tXou? — ipiri- 
TTTopev Tolii BovKe:})d\oi^ rd Kpea rwv dvjjprjpevcov 
8iaLpovp6voL<;' (f)o/3)]cravT€'i Be iravra^i BiMKopev, 
Kai KT€ivopev ye oaov Trevrij/covra Ka\ ^(ovraf 
avTcov Buo \ap^dvopev, kuc avdi<; OTrlaco dvaarpe- 
(f)opev Tov<i al'^paXcoTovif eT^oi/re?. cmiov pevroL 
ovBev evpopev. ol pev ovv dWoi Traprjvovv diro- 
a-(f)dTTeiv T0U9 el\t]p;x6V0V<i, eyoo Be ovk iBoKipa^ov, 
aXka Brjaa'i e(f)vXaTTov avrov<^, dypi Br] d(f)iK0PT0 
Trapa tcjv BovKecf)d\u)v Trpea-^ei^ diraiTovvre'; eirl 
\vrpoi<i rov<i avvei\r]ppevov<;' avvlepev yap avrcop 
BiavevovTwv Kal yoepov ri piVKwpevwv oicnrep 
iKeTevovTwv. rd Xvrpa Be rjv rvpol vroXXol Kal 
1X0 ve<; ^7]pol Kal Kp6p,pva koI eXa<^oi Terrape?, 
TpeT,<; eKaaTT] TroSa? e^ovaa, Bvo pev tov<} oirlcra), 
01 Be Trpoao) (rvveiTecjiVKea-av. eirl TovTOL<i drro- 
BovTe<i Tov(; avveiXrippevov; Kal piav rjpepav 
eTTLpeLvavre^ dvi'jxP^-lpev. 

"Hot; Be l'xdve<^ re t'^plv ecpaivovTO Kal opvea 45 
irape-rrerero Kal aXX.' oTTocra 7% TrXt-jcriov ov<n]<; 
(rrjpeia Trpocpaiverai. per oXiyov Be kol dvBpa^ 



Minotaur is represented at home. Landing, we 
went up country to get water and food if we could, 
for we no longer had any. Water we found close 
by, but there was nothing else to be seen, though 
we heard a great bellowing not far off. Thinking it 
was a herd of cattle, we went ahead cautiously and 
came upon the men of whom I spoke. On seeing 
us, they gave chase, and ca^otured three of my 
comrades, but the rest of us made our escape to 
the sea. Then, however, Ave all armed ourselves — 
it did not seem right to let our friends go unavenged 
— and fell on the Bullheads while they were portion- 
ing out the flesh of the men they had slain. We 
put them all to flight and gave chase, killing about 
fifty and taking two alive : then we turned back to 
the ship with our prisoners. We found no food 
though. The rest therefore urged that the captives 
be killed ; I did not approve of this, however, but 
put them in irons and kept them under guard until 
ambassadors came from the Bullheads, asking for 
them and offering a ransom. We understood them 
because they made signs and bellowed plaintively as 
if in entreaty. The ransom was a number of cheeses, 
dried fish, onions, and four^does, each of which had 
only three feet, for while they had two behind, the 
forefeet had grown together. In exchange for all 
this we surrendered the captives, and after stopping 
there a single day we put to sea. 

Already we began to see fish, birds flew by and 
all the other signs that land was near made their 
appearance. In a little while we saw men who were 



el'Sofxev Kaivw rw rpoTrw vavriXia^ y^pw jxevov^' 
avTOi 'yap koI vavjai, koI fj/e? yaav. Xe^w 8e rov 
ttXov tov rpoTTov VTrrioi KeipevoL eVt rov vSaro<; 
op6(jiaavTe<; ra alSoia — fieydXa 8e (jiepovcriv — e^ 
avroiv odovTjv 7rerdaavT€<i Kal Tal'i ')(^6pa\v Tov<i no- 
Sewva'i KaTexovre^ ep,7TL7rrovro<i rov dvep,ov eirXeov. 
dXXoL Se perd toutoi/? eVt (peXXcov Kadi]p,€voi 
^ev^avT6<; Svo SeXcpiua^; i]Xavv6v re Kai rjvioxovv 
01 8k Trpol6vT6<i eirecrvpov'To tol"? (peXXov^;. ovtol 
r}p,d<i ovre •^Slkovv ovre e(f)evyov, aXX' rjXavvcv 
aSew? re koI elpi^viKco^; to elSo<i rod t)perepov 
ttXolou 0avp.d^uvTe<i /cal irdvTodev irepiaKO- 


Eo-Tre'yoa? Se ijSrj irpocn'jxPTjp.ev vrjcrco ov p,€- 46 
lyaXi]' KaTfo/ceiTO Se vtto yvvaiKOiv, &)? ivop,i- 
^opev, EXXaSa (pwvhv Trpolepevoiv irpoarjeaav 
yap /cat iSe^wvvTO Kol rjcJird^ovTO, irdw eraipifcoy^; 
H:eKOcrp,>ip,evai kuI KaXal irdaai kol vedvi8e<;, 
7ro8)]p6i'i Tov<i ;)^tT&ifa9 eiriavpopevaL. tj p,ev ovv 
ur](To^ ifcaXelTo Ka^aXovaa,^ i) 8e iroXa avrrj 
Toapapoia. XajBouaat S' ovv })pd<i at yvvacfce<; 
eKacTTrj 7rpo<i eavrrjv d-TTijyev koL ^ivov iiroielTO. 
iyo) 8f: piKpov diroaTd^; — ov yap T^^T^crra epavTCVo- 
prjv — d/cpi^eo-Tepov re Trepi^XeTTcov opco iroXXcov 
avdpMTToyv ocTTd Kal Kpavia Keip-eva. Ka\ to p^ev 
^orjv icndvai Kal tov^ eTatpov<; avyKaXelv Kal if 
ra oirXa ^w/^eif ovk iSoKLpa^ov. it po\eipL(Tdpevo<i 
he TT]p pbaXd^W TroXXd tjvxoprjv avrrj 8ia(f)vyelv 
€K TO)v TTapovTcov KaKOiV yLtex' oXlyov Se T?}? 
^evr]<i 8iaK0i>()vpiev7](} el8ov ra aKeXtj ov yvvaiK6<i, 
(iXX ovov OTrXa?' Kal hi] a7ra<r(ip,ei'0<; to ^'(j>o<f 
^ 'EK0a\ovaa T, Nil^n : Ka^aXovnaa, Schwartz, after Guyet. 



following a novel mode of sailing, being at once 
sailors and sliips. Let me tell you how they did it : 
they lay on their backs on the water, hoisted 
their jury-masts, which are sizeable, spread sail on 
them, held the clews in their hands, and were off 
and away as soon as the wind struck them. Others 
came next who sat on corks and had a pair of 
dolphins hitched up, driving them and guiding them 
with reins ; in moving ahead, the dolphins drew the 
corks along. They neither offered us harm nor ran 
away from us, but drove along fearlessly and peace- 
fully, wondering at the shape of our boat and 
examining her from all sides. 

In the evening we touched at another island of 
no great size. It was inhabited by women — or so 
we thought — who spoke Greek, and they came up 
to us, welcomed and embraced us. They were got 
up just like courtezans and were all beautiful and 
young, with tunics that swept on the ground. The 
island was called Witcheiy, and the city Watertown.^ 
Each of the women took one of us home with her 
and made him her guest. But I excused myself for 
a moment — I had misgivings — and on looking about 
rather carefully, saw many human bones and skulls 
lying there. To make an outcry, call my comrades 
together and arm ourselves did not seem best to me, 
but I fetched out my mallow and prayed to it 
earnestly that I might escape the ills that beset me. 
After a little while, as my hostess was waiting on me, 
I saw that her legs were not a woman's but those of 
an ass. Then I drew my sword, caught and bound 
' Both names are uncertain in the Greek. 



avWafx^dvo) re avrtjv koI hr]aas Trepl twv d\.(ov 
uveKpivov. v Be, UKovaa fjbei', eiirev 8e o/xw?, 
avTa<; /nfv elvat daXarrlov^ yvvalKa<; OvoaKeXea^; 
7rpoaa<yop€vo/jiei'a<;, Tpo<p7]v Se TroLelaOac rovi 
e7nSr)/.iovvra< ^evov<i. (iirechav yip, e^'?. fieOvau)- 
/uev auTov<i, crvveuvrjOelcrac KOifxcoixevoi^ eTrty^eipov- 
fi€v. uKovcra^ Se ravTa iKeivrjv fiev avrov 
KarekLirov hehefievriv, avTo<i he uveXdwv iirl to 
Tejo'i e/36(t)v re koI tov<; iratpovi a-vveKoKovv. 
firel 8e avv^]\9ov, ra irtivra ejLn]Vvov avrot<i Kai 
TO, re oard eheiKwov kol ijyov eaco rrrpo<; Tqv 
8e8efievi]v j; Be avriKa vBoyp iyevero koX d<^avi)<s 
rjv. 6/jico<i Be TO ^i(f)0<i et? to vBcop KaOrjKa Treipco- 
pi,evo<i' TO Be al/jia eyeveTO, 

Ta%ew9 ovv eirl vavv KaTe\dovTe<; aTreirXev- 47 
aafiev. koI iirel rj/u.epa virrivya^e, Trjv re ■)]7r€ipov 
d7re^Xe7To/u.€V elxd^opiev re elvai Trjv dvTi7repa<i 
TTJ vcp* i)[xwv oLKOvfievT) KeifJbevrjV. TrpoaKVvtjaavTef; 
S' ovv Kal irpoaev^djjLevoi Trepl tmv fieWovTWv 
eaKOTTov/xev, Kal TOt<? fiev eBoKCi i7rij3daiv /lovov 
audi<; oTTiao) dvacrTpefpeii', rot? Be to fiev TrXotov 
avTOV fcaTaXiTTuv, dveX06vTa<; Be e? ttjv fieaoyaiav 
TTeipaOrjvai twv evoiKOvvTcov. ev oaro Be TauTU 
iXoyi^o/xeOa, ■^etficbv a(poBpo<i eirnTeacov Kal 
rrpoaapd^a<; to aKucf)0'i tw alytaXro BieXucrev. 
r}/ji€i<i Be /xoXi'i i^ev^i^d/xeda to. oirXa eKacrT0<; Kal 
et Ti dXXo ol6<i T€ ')]v dprraadfievoL. 

TaOra jxev ovv to, fJ-expi' t?}? ere/cia? yi)'; crvveve- 
yOevTa fiot ev tjj OaXdTTrj Kal Trapd tov ttXovv ev 



her and questioned her about the whole thing. 
Against her will she told me that tliey were women 
of the sea, called Asslegs and that they fed on the 
strangers that visited them. " When we have made 
them drunk," said she, " we go to bed with them 
and attack them in their sleep." On hearing this, I 
left her there tied up, and myself went up to the 
housetop and cried out and called my comrades to- 
gether. When they had come, I told them every- 
thing, showed them the bones and led them in to the 
woman who was tied up, but she immediately turned 
to water and disappeared. Nevertheless I thrust my 
sword into the water as a test, and the water turned 
to blood. 

With all speed we went back to the ship and 
sailed away. Wlien the light of day began to show, 
we saw land and judged it to be the world opposite 
tlie one which we inhabit. After doing homage and 
offering prayer, we took tliought for the future. 
Some of us proposed just to land and then turnback 
again, others to leave the boat there, go into the 
interior and see what the inhabitants were like. 
While we were debating this, a violent storm struck 
the boat, dashed it ashore and wrecked it, and 
we ourselves had much trouble in swimming out 
with our arms and anything else that we could 
catch up. 

Thus far I have told you what hapjiened to me 
until I reached the other world, first at sea, then 



Tat<; V7](T0i<; kol ev tco aepi koX fxera ravTa ev tm 
Ki)TeL KoX iirel i^i'iXOofiev, irapd re rot? rjpoiat koI 
Tol<; oveipoi^ koI to, reXevrala rrapa rol<i Bou/ce- 
(fjdXoi'i Koi raU ^OvocxKekeat,'^, ra he errl T)]<i 7?}9 
iv Tai9 i^t]'i ^l/3\oi<i hc7]y}]aofiaL. 



duringmyvoyage amongthe islands and in the air,then 
in the whale, and after we left it, among the heroes 
and the dreams, and finally among the Bullheads 
and the Asslegs. What happened in the other world 
I shall tell you in the succeeding books.^ 

> The biggest lie of all, as a disgruntled Greek scribe 
remarks in the margin ! 



This essay is rhetoric pure and simple, and was probably 
written early in Lucian's career. It is famous because it 
contains a vivid description of a picture by Apelles, which 
was again translated into paint by Botticelii in " La 
Galium ia." 


Aeivoi' ye rj ayvota kol ttoWcov /caKcov avdpco- 1 
77049 anla, waitep ay\vv riva Kara'^^eovaa tmv 
TrpayfJLaTwv kuI rrjv uXijOeiav ajxavpovcra Kai rov 
eKaarou ^lov eirrfkvyd^ovaa. ev (Tkotm yovv 
7r\avo)p€VOL<; Trafxe? ioiKap,€v, p.d\\ov 8e Tf^Xoi? 
6/j.oia 7re7rovdap,€v, tu> pev TTpoairTaiovTe'; dX6y(o<i, 
TO Se v7rip^aiP0VT€<i, ovBev Seov, koI to p.€v ttXtj- 
aiov KoX irapd 7r6Sa<i ov^ opo)VTe<;, to he iroppoy 
KOL irdpLiToXv Bi€crrT]Ko<i oj? evo-)(Xovv Seotore?- koI 
6\w<i i(j)^ eKCLCTTOV ru)v irpaTTopevcov ov BiaXel- 
TTopev TO, TToWa oXtadaivovTe^. Toiydproi ixvpia<i 
i)Sr] rol<; Tpay(i^8o? iSacrKd\oi.<i d<^oppa<; et? ra 
hpdpaja to toiovto '7rapea^)]Tai, tou? AaBBa- 
Ki8a<; Kol TOLi? UeXoTriSwi koI to, tovtoi^ irapa- 
irXrjaLa' ^^(ehov yap ra rfrXelara rcov ev rfj aKrivrj 
dva^aivovTwv KaKOiv evpot Ti<? av vivo Tr]<; dyvoia<i 
KaOd-nep viro rpaycKOv rtvo<i 8aLpL0i'0<i Kexoprj- 

Ae7&) Se Kal e? ra dXXa piev diro^XiiTaiv, 
pdXiara Be e? ra<; ovk dX->i6ei<i Kara rwv avvnOwv 
Kal (j)iX(cv BLa/3oXd<i, vcp' MP vSr] Kal oIkol dvd- 
araroi yeyoiacrc Kal 7r6Xec<; dpZ'qv airoXcoXaai, 



It is really a terrible thing, is ignorance, a cause 
of many woes to humanity ; for it envelops things 
in a fog, so to speak, and obscures the truth and 
overshadows each man's life. Truly, we all resemble 
people lost in the dark — nay, we are even like blind 
men. Now we stumble inexcusably, now we lift our 
feet when there is no need of it ; and we do not see 
what is near and right before us, but fear what is far 
away and extremely remote as if it blocked our path. 
In short, in everything we do we are always making 
plenty of missteps. For this reason the writers of 
tragedy have found in this universal truth many and 
many a motive for their dramas — take for example, 
the house of Labdacus,i the house of Pelops and their 
like. Indeed, most of the troubles that are put on 
the stage are supplied to the poets, you will find, by 
ignorance, as though it were a sort of tragic divinity. 

What I have in mind more than anytliing else is 

slanderous lying about acquaintances and friends, 

through which families have been rooted out, cities 

have utterly perished, fathers have been driven mad 

^ King of Thebes, father of Laius. 



TTUTepa re Kara ttulBcov e^e/ndinjaav kol dSeXcpoi 
Kara rdv oixo^yevoiv koL TralBef Kara rwv yeiva- 
fiivcov Kol ipaaral Kara rS)V ipco/xevcov TroWal 
8e Kal (f)i\Lat avveKoirrjaav koX opKoi ^ avve-^v- 
6r)<Tav VTTO t?}? Kara Td<i Bta^o\d<; TriOavorriTO^. 
Xv ovv ft)9 r]Ki(JTa nrepi'iri'KTwp.ev avral<s, inrohel^ai 2 
^ov\o/j,ai TO) \6y(p KaOdirep iiri Tivo<i <ypa<^r}<i 
oirolov Tt ear IV i) Sia^oXt} Kal iroOev dp')(^eTai koL 
oirola ipyd^erac. 

MaXXov Be 'A7reWr}9 o 'E</)ec7to9 TrdXai ravri]!' 
irpovKa^e rtjv elxova- koI yap av Kal ovro^ Bia- 
/3Xri6el<i Trpo? rbv TlroXe/jLaiov &)<? /ut,eTecr'^r]Ka)<; 
SeoBora tt}? avvcofinaiwi ev ^vpco, — o Be 
' A7reXXr)(i ou^ ecopdKei ttotc tjjv Tvpov ovBe rov 
QeoBorav, ocrri^; rjV, eyivwaKev, rj Kad' oaov ^'jKoue 
YlroXeixaiov tlvcl v'7Tap-)(ov elvat to, Kara ri]v 
^oLVLKrjv eTTirerpa/j-fxevov. dXX o/aw? rwv dvri- 
re)(ycoi> ri<; ^Avri(f>tXo<i rouvofia viro cf)66vov rr}? 
Trapd ^aaiXel riixrj^ Kal inro '^ rr]<i Kara rrjv 
re-^vrjv i^rfXorvTrla^ Karelirev avrov Trpo? rev 
TLroXe/ialov co? eti] K€K0iv(i}V7]Ka}<; rwv oXcov Kal 
&)<? 6ed<jat,r6 Ti? avrov ev ^olvikh ovveartoo/xevov 
(&eoB6ra Kal Trap" oXov ro Belnvov Trpo? to oS? 
avra> KoivoXoyovp-evov, Kal reXoif d7recf)r]v€ rip/ 
Tvpov uTToaraaiv Kal TlyXovcriov KardXi]y}riv eK 
rr]<i ^ ATreXXov crvfi^ovXyi^; yeyovevai. 

'O Be TlroXepalo<i ci)9 av Kal rdXXa ov Kapra ' 3 
(f>peui]pr)<; Tt? mv, dXX ev KoXaKeta BecnroriKfj 
redpap/j.ero<i, ovr(o<i e^eKavOrj Kal (rvverapd^dr) 

' SpKoi Cobet : oJkoi MSS. 

* virb Hervvenlen : not in MSS. 

" K&pra Cesncr : ■ko.w du Soul : Kapra. itiw MSS. 

362 ^ 


against tlieir children, brothers against own brothers, 
children against their parents and lovers against 
those they love. Many a friendship, too, has been 
parted and many an oath broken through belief in 
slander. In order, then, that we may as far as 
possible avoid being involved in it, I wish to show in 
words, as if in a painting, what sort of thing slander 
is, how it begins and what it does. 

I should say, however, that Apelles of Ephesus 
long ago preempted this subject for a picture ; and 
with good reason, for he himself had been slandered 
to Ptolemy on the ground that he had tiiken part 
with Theodotas in the conspiracy in Tyre, although 
Apelles had never set eyes on Tyre and did not 
know who Theodotas was, beyond having heard that 
he was one of Ptolemy's governors, in charge of affairs 
in Phoenicia.^ Nevertheless, one of his rivals named 
Antiphiliis, through envy of his favour at court 
and professional jealousy, maligned him by telling 
Ptolemy that he had taken part in the whole enter- 
prise, and that someone had seen him dining with 
Theodotas in Phoenicia and whispering into his ear 
all through the meal ; and in the end he declared 
that the revolt of Tyre and the capture of Pelusium 
had taken place on the advice of Apelles. 

Ptolemy, who in general was not particularly sound 
of judgment, but had been brought up in the midst 
of courtly flattery, was so inflamed and upset by this 

' The storj' is apocryphal, as Apelles must have been in 
his grave nearly a hundred years when Theodotus (not 
Theodotas) betrayed Ptolemy Philopator ("219 B.C.). 



7r/309 T?}? TrapaSo^ov ravTij^; 8ia/3o\T]<;, Mare 
fjLTjhev rcbv elKorcov Xoyiadfievo^, firjS' ore avri- 
r€')(^vo^ rjv 6 hia^dWwv fi->]B' on {jiLKp6repo<i -t) 
Kara rrfkiKavrriv TrpoSocriau ^coypdcfio^, Kal ravra 
ev TreTTovflco'i vrr avrov Kal rrap ovrivovv rwv 
ofioreyvcov rerifitj/nevci, aXV ovSe to irapdirav 
el e^errXevaev 'ATreXX?}? e? Tvpov i^erd(Ta<;, 
evOix; e^6fir]viev^ Kal /So/}? eveiriixirXa ra ^aalXeia 
rov d')(^dpiarov KeKpayax; Kal rov eTTL^ovXav Kal 
(TvvoifJLoriiv. Kal el ye fir) rcov avveiXr^fjuixevcov 
rifi dyavaKrrjaa<s eVt rfj rov ^Xptk^lKov diat- 
a-^vvria Kal rov cWXtov 'ArreWijv Kare\ei']aa<; 
ecjjT) fjLtjdevo'i avrol'i KeKoivcovriKevaL rov dv9p(orrov, 
drrereriJLriro av rrjv xetjiaXijv Kal TrapaireXeXavKei 
roiv ev Tvpcp KaKwv oiihev avro<; a'irio<i yeyovcoq, 

'O juiev ovv UroXe/ialo^ ovrw Xeyerai ala-)(vv- 
drjvai eVl rot? yeyovoaiv, ware rov [xev ^ ArreXXr^v 
exarov raXavroa iBcopijaaro, rov fie ' Kvri(^iXov 
hovXeveiv avrw TrapeScoKev. 6 Se 'A7reXXfj<i ojv 
irapeKLvOvvevae fiefivij/xevof; roiaSe rcvi clkovc 
rjfjLvvaro rr)V Bia/3oXijv. ev Se^ia tk dv7]p Kd6)]rai 
ra uira 7rajj./jLeyt.dr) e^^wv fiLKpov ^elv roi<; rov 
MlSov rrpoaeoiKora, ri]v %eipa Trporeivcov iroppco- 
dev en rrpoaiovatj rfj Aial3oXfj. irepl Se avrov 
ear da L hvo yvvalKe<i, "Ayvoid fioi SoKel Kal 
TTroX,?;!^^?* krepwOev he irpoaepyeTai rj Aia- 
^oXtj, yvvaiov e<; VTrep^oXrjv rrdyKaXov, vtto- 
Oepfiov Be Kal irapaKeKivrj^evov, olov 8rj rijv 
Xvrrav Kai ri]v opyi)v heiKvvovaa, rfj fiev dpi- 
arepa 8j.8a KaiopLevy-jv e)(^ovaa, rfj erepa Se veaviav 
riva rcov rpL-)(^cov avpovaa rd<; ■y^elpa^ opeyovra 
' ii,€ft.j]vitv A.M.H. : toS* /xrjiltiv MSS. 



surprising charge that he did not take into account 
any of the probabilities, not considering either that 
the accuser was a rival or that a painter was too 
insignificant a person for so great a piece of treason — 
a painter, too, who had been well treated by him 
and honoured above any of his fellow-craftsmen. 
Indeed, he did not even enquire whether Apelles 
had gone to Tyre at all. On the contrary, he at 
once began to rave and filled the palace with noise, 
shouting "The ingrate," "The plotter," and "The 
conspirator." And if one of his fellow-prisoners, 
who was indignant at the impudence of Antiphilus 
and felt sorry for poor Apelles, had not said that the 
man had not taken any part whatever in the affair, 
he would have had his head cut off, and so would 
have shared the consequences of the troubles in Tyre 
without being himself to blame for them in any way. 
Ptolemy is said to have been so ashamed of the 
affair that he presented Apelles with a hundred 
talents and gave him Antiphilus for his slave. 
Apelles, for his part, mindful of the risk that he had 
run, hit back at slander in a painting. On the right 
of it sits a man with very large ears, almost like 
those of Midas, extending his hand to Slander while 
she is still at some distance from him. Near him 
stand two women — Ignorance, I think, and Suspi- 
cion. On the other side, Slander is coming up, 
a woman beautiful beyond measure, but full of 
passion and excitement, evincing as she does fury 
and MTath by carrying in her left hand a blazing 
torch and with the other dragging by the hair a 
young man who stretches out his hands to heaven 



et? rov ovpavov Kat fiaprupofievov tou<; Oeov^. 
TjyeiTaL Se avifp (i)')(p6'? koX ap.opijio'i, o^v SeSopfcco'; 
KUL eoiKO)(; T0i9 e/c voaov fj,aKpd<; KaTecTKXrjKOji. 
rovTov ovv eliciL rov ^dovov civ Tt<? eiKaaeie. Kol 
firjv Kat a\Xat Tive^ Bvo rrapofiapTovcri irporpe- 
TTovcraL 'cflt irepicrreKXovcrai koI Karavocrfiouaai 
TTjv AiaBoXrjv. &)<? Be jjlol koI ravra^i i/j-yjvuaev 6 
7repn]yi]r)]<; tt}? eiKovos, i) /xeu xi? 'ETTiySouX?) ^ "^^v, 
7] Be 'ATrdrr). kutottiv Be r]Ko\ov9et irdvv irevOi- 
K(b^ Ti9 icTKevacr/xivrj, /xeXavec/jLcov Kal KmeaTra- 
pajfxevr], ^lercivoia, olfiac," avri] eXeyero- iirecrTpe- 
(j)ero yovv et? TOVTrccrco BaKpvovaa koI /ier' alBov<i 
■ndvu TTjv ^AXijdeiav Trpoaiova-av vTre/BXeirev. 

OvTa><i fxev A7reW?}<? rov eavrov k'lvBvvov iirl 
T^9 ypacf}rj<; ifiL/xy^aaTo. (pipe Be Kal Tj/iet'i, el 6 
BoKel, Kara ryv rov 'Ec^ecrtoi; (^(oypd(f)ou Te-)(yriv 
BieXdcofieu to, irpoaovra ry Bia/3o\fj, irporepov 
ye bp(p Tivl 7repLypdy}ravTe<i avnjv ovrco yap av 
rjfjLiv Tj eiKcov yivoiro (pavepcorepa. ean rolvvv 
BiajBoki] Karrjyopia Ti? e^ eprjixiwi yivofiivy], tov 
Karrjyopovfievov \e\rjduia, eK rov /xovo/j.epov<i 
dvavTc\eKT(i)<; TreTriaTev/xevr). rntaurr] fxev 7) viro- 
deaif TOV \6yov. rpicov 8' ovrwv TrpoacoTTCov, 
KaduTrep iv rat? KO)/^a>Biai<;, tov Bia^dWovroii 
Kat TOV Bia^aWo/jiivov Kal tov 7rpo<i ov rj Bia/3o\7] 
yiveTai, Kaff' eKacTov avTMV eirLaKoin^crcoixev cla 
elKo<i elvai to. yivojxeva. 7 

TlpwTov fxev Br], el BoKel, irapaydycopiev tov 
Trpa)Tayw)Vi(TT7]v tov BpdfiaTO^, \eyco Be tov iroi- 
r]T7]V Trj<i Bia/3oX7]<;. outo<; Be B'j £09 p^ev ovk 

' Tis 'EiTi0ov\ri Burmoister : 'Etii0ov\ti th MSS. 
^ ol/ Jacobs : Kal MSS. 



and calls the gods to witness his innocence. She is 
conducted by a pale ugly man who has a piercing 
eye and looks as if he had wasted away in long ill- 
ness ; he may be supposed to be Envy. Besides, 
there are two women m attendance on Slander, 
egging her on, tiring her and tricking her out. 
According to the interpretation of them given me 
by the guide to the picture, one was Treachery and 
the other Deceit. They were followed by a woman 
dressed in deep mourning, with black clothes all in 
tatters — Repentance, I think, her name was. At all 
events, she was turning back with tears in her eyes 
and casting a stealthy glance, full of shame, at 
Truth, who was approaching. 

That is the way in which Apelles represented in 
the painting his OAvn hairbreadth escape. Come, 
suppose we too, if you like, following the lead of the 
Ephesian artist, portray the characteristics of slander, 
after first sketching it in outline : for in that way 
our picture will perhaps come out more clearly. 
Slander, then, is a baseless accusation, made with- 
out the cosrnizance of the accused and sustained 
by the uncontradicted assertion of one side. This is 
the subject of my lecture, and since there are three 
leading characters in slander as in comedy — the 
slanderer, the slandered person, and the hearer of 
the slander, — let us consider what is likely to happer 
in the case of each of them.^ 

In the first place, if you like, let us bring on the 
star of the play, I mean the author of the slander. 
That he is not a good man admits of no doubt, I am 

^ This partition, derived from Herodotus (7, 10), is not at 
all strictly followed by Lucian in developing iiis theme. 


ayaOo'i avBpoi7ro<; icm, iracnv o2/j,ai yvcopifiov 
ov8el<; yap av dyaOo^ kukmv atrio^ yivotTO rCo TrX-rj- 
(Tiov, a\7C ear IV ayaOoiv dvSpMV dcf) 0)V ev TToiouaiv 
avTol Tov<; (f)i\ou^, ovk d<p' wv tou9 aSXov^ aSt- 
Kovvre<i alriciyvrat, Koi fiLaeZadai TrapaaKevd- 
i^ouaiv, evSoKtfiecv So^av evvolaf 7rpo(T\a^6i>T€<;. 

"ETTCiTa Be ox? d8iK0<; 6 roiovro^i /cal TTapdi>op.6<; 8 
eart Koi dae/3)]<; koI toi^ y^pwfxevoL'i eVi^^y'/xfo?, 
pdSiov Karapadelv. rl^; yap ovk dv 6/xo\oyy']a€ie 
Ttjv fxev IcroTrjTa ev diravrL koX ro fiijSev irXeov 
8iKatO(Tvvy]<; epya elvai, ro he dviaov re /cal 
rfK.eoveKTLKov d8i,KLa^; o Se rjj 8ia/3o\f] Kara rwv 
drrovrwv \d9pa '^p(op,evo<i ttco? ov 7r\eoveKrr]<; 
ecrrlv oXov rov dKpoarijv (7(f)er€pi^ojLievo^ koI 
7rpoKara\a/j.^dvo)v avrov rd cora Kal dTTOf^pdrrcov 
Ka\ ru> hevrepoi Xoym TrayreXw? d/3ara Kara- 
GKevd^wv aura vrro rrj<; cta^o\t'}<; 7rpoe/u,7re7r\f)- 
(Tfxiva; e(T)(^drr)<; dSiKLa<i ro roiourov, ox? (patev av 
Kal ol dpiaroi ra)v vofxoderojv, olov o SoXmv /cat o 
ApaKcov, evopKov rroirja-dfievot, rot? 8iKaarat<i ro 
6,uoL(o<; djjL^olv dKpodadai Kal ro ryv evvoiav 1'(ti]v 
Tot? Kpivofievot<; diTOvefxeLV, dypi av 6 rov Bevrepov 
X0709 7rapare6el<; Oarepov ')(eLpa>v rj dfxeivwv (pavfj' 
irplv Be ye dvre^erdcrai r7]V diro\o^iav rfj Karrj- 
yopia, 7ravreXco<i dae/Stj Kal dvoatov i)yi'jaavro 
eaecrdat r)]v Kpicnv. Kal yap dv Kal aurovf; 
dyavaKrrjaat rov<i 9eov<i e'lrroifiev, el rep Kari]yoprt) 
fier dBeia'i d deXet Xiyeiv eTTirpeiroiixev, drrocfypd- 
^avre'i Be rco Kary]yopov/.Lev(p rd wra i) rCo aropart, 
atcoTTCovra ^ Kara-ilr)](f)L^oip.eda ru) rrporepfo Xoyro 

^ Corrupt, and not yet satisfactorily emended, rh arSixa 
(riunrwvTos Halm. 



sure, because no good man would make trouble for 
his neighbour. On the contrary, it is characteristic 
of good men to win renown and gain a reputation 
for kind-heartedness by doing good to their friends, 
not by accusing others wrongfully and getting them 

Furthermore, that such a man is unjust, lawless, 
impious and harmful to his associates is easy to see. 
WTio will not admit that fairness in everything and 
unselfishness are due to justice, unfairness and 
selfishness to injustice? But when a man plies 
slander in secret againsb people who are absent, is 
he not selfish, inasmuch as he completely appropriates 
his hearer by getting his ear first, stopping it up 
and making it altogether impervious to the defence 
because it has been previously filled with slander ? 
Such conduct is indeed the height of injustice, and 
the best of the lawgivers, Solon and Draco, for 
example, would say so, too ; for they put the jurors 
on oath to hear both sides alike and to divide 
their goodwill equally between the litigants until 
such time as the plea of the defendant, after 
comparison with the other, shall disclose itself to be 
better or worse. To pass judgment before weighing 
the defence against the complaint would, they 
thought, be altogether impious and irreligious. In 
truth, we may say that the very gods would be angry 
if we should permit the plaintiff' to say his say 
unhampered, but should stop our ears to the defen- 
dant or silence him,i and then condemn him, 

' The Greek is here corrupt. The translation merely 
gives the probable sense of the passage. 



Ke'XjeLpwjikvot, ware ov Karh ro SiKaiov Kal ro 
vo/xifjiov Kol T ov opKov TOP StKaaTtKov (^airj ti<; av 
yiyveaOai to,^ 8ia/3o\d<;. el he tw firj d^ioTncrroi 
SoKOvcriv ol vo/j^oderai irapaLvovvreq ovrco SiKaia'i 
Kot dfiepet<; Troteccrdat ra? Kpicrea, 'jroirjrrjv /xoi 
80KCO TOP dpiarov eirdyeiv rw \6j(p ev jxdXa irepi 
TovToyv d'iro(prjvdixevov, fidWov he vojjt,o6eTi]aavTa. 
(f)rjal he, 

fiijTe hiKrjv hLKdcrr)<i, irplv d/xcpo) /xvdov dKovarj^, 
rjiricnaro 'ydp, olfiat, Kal ovto<; co? ttoWmv oinwv 
ev Tft) yStft) dhiKrj/xdrcov ovhev civ Ti? evpoi ^(^elpov 
ovhe dhiKcoTepov rj dKpirov^ Tiva<; Kal d/xoLpov<i 
Xoycov KaTahehiKdadar oirep e^ diravTO^; hia- 
^dWcov eiTL'xeipel irotelv aKpcrov virdyfov tov 
hia^aWofiei'Ov rf) tov dKovovro^; opyfj Kal rijv 
uTToXoylav rw XaOpaio) Trj<; KaTrjyopLa'; irapaipov- 

Kat yap dirappT^aiacno^ Kal het\o<; a7ra<? 
TOtovTO^ dv9pa>7ro<i ovhev e? TOVficfyave^ dywv, dW 
axTirep ol \oy^oiVTe<; e^ d(f>avov<i iroOev ro^evcov, co? 
p.t]he dvrird^aadat huvarov elvai iMTjhe dvraycovi- 
(Tacrdai, dX}C ev uTropla Kal dyvoia tov TToXeptov 
hiacpOeipecrdai, /xeyia-TOV eaTi arj/xelov tov firjhev 
vyi€<; T0U9 hia^dX\ovTa<; \eyeiv. eVet ei.' rt? ye 
raXrjdi] KaTip/opovvTi eavTW avvcTricrTaTai, ovto<;, 
ojfiat, Kal €49 TO (f)avepov iXey)(^et Kal hievdvvei Kal 
avTe^eTa^ei tw Xoyw, Mairep ovheU av ck tov 
7rpo<^avov<; vikuv hwd/uievo^ evehpa iroTe Kat diraTT) 
)(pr]aa(,T0 KaTa tcov TroXe/jLUCov. 



conquered by the first plea. It may be said, then, that 
shmder does not accord with what is just and legal, 
and what the jurors swear to do. But if anybody 
thinks that the lawgivers, who recommend that ver- 
dicts be so just and impartial, are not good authority, 
I shall cite the best of poets in support of my con- 
tention. He makes a very admirable pronouncement 
— indeed, lays down a law — on this point, saying : * 

" Nor give your verdict ere both sides you hear." 

He knew, I suppose, like everyone else, that though 
there are many unjust things in the world, nothing 
worse or more unjust can be found than for men to 
have been condemned untried and unheard. But 
this is just what the slanderer tries his best to 
accomplish, exposing the slandered person untried 
to the anger of the hearer and precluding defence by 
the secrecy of his accusation. 

Of course, all such men are also cowardly enemies 
of free speech ; they do nothing in the open, but 
shoot from some hiding-place or other, like soldiers in 
ambush, so that it is impossible either to face them or 
to fight thera, but a man must let himself be slain in 
helplessness and in ignorance of the character of the 
war. And this is the surest proof that there is no 
truth in the stories of slanderers ; for if a man is 
conscious that he is making a true charge, that man, 
I take it, accuses the other in public, brings him to 
book and pits himself against him in argument. No 
soldier who can win in fair fight makes use of 
ambushes and tricks against the enemy. 

' Though this verse was frequently (juoted in antiquity, 
its authorship was unknown even then, and it was variously, 
attributed to Phocylides, Hesiod, and Pittheus. See liergk. 
Poet. Lyr. Graec. ii, p. 93. 

VOL I. 371 



'ISoi B' av Tt9 Tov<i TOLovTOV<i [xaXicTTa ev re 10 
^aaiXecov avXal'i koI irepl ra<; tmv ap^ovTcov koI 
hvvacnevovTwv cf)i\ia<i evdofci/j.ovvra'i, ev6a irokv^ 
[lev <p06vo<;, fivpiai Be viropoiat, Trd/jLTToWai, Se 
KoXaKetcov koI Sia/BoXayv V7To6ecr€i.<i' ottov yap del 
/xei^ovi eXTTtSe?, evravOa icaX ol (pduvoi 'x^aXeiroi- 
TepoL Kai ra fiicrr) i7na<j)a\eaTepa koI at ^t]\oTV- 
TTLUt KaKorevvea-repac. iravre^ ovv aWnXov^ 6Pv 
oeoop/caai Kai otairep ol /jLOvo/ia')(ovi>T€<i eiTLrTjpovcnv 
el TTOv Ti yvpA'OiOev p,epo<i Oeuaaivro rov a(t)paTo<i' 
Kai 7rpcoT0<i avro<i €KaaTO<i elvat jSovXop.evo'^ Trapw- 
oelrat koX irapay KOivl^erai rov irX'qaiov Kai rov 
irpo avTOv, (U hvvano, VTrocnra Kai inrocrKeXi^et. 
ev6a fiev •^prjarcx! urexvw'i ev6u<i dvarerpaTrrai 
Kac irapacreavpTat. Kai rb reXeuTatov driixwi 
e^ecoarat, o he KoXaKevriK(i)repo<i Kai tt/so? Ta<:; 
roiavTa<; KaKorjdeia<; nrLOav out epo<; evSo/ci/xei- Kai 
6X(W9 6^ (f)ddaa<; Kparer rd <ydp Tov'Opt]pov irdvv 
eTraXrjOevovaiv, on rot 

^uvo'i KvvdXio^; Kai rov Kraveovra KareKra. 

TOiyapovv w? ov irepl jxiKpwv rov dycovo^ ovrof; 
7rotKiXa<i Kar aXXrjXwv o8ov^ eTTivoovcriv, 0)v 
ra-)(i(Trr] Kai ema ^aXeardrr] ecrrlv i) rP)<i 8ia/3oXy<;, 
rr)V fjLev dp^rjv diro (pdovov t) /xtcrot"? eveXrrLSa ^ 
Xafx^avovcra, oiKrporepa Se Kai rpayiKa eTrdyovaa 
ra reX")] Kai ttoXXmv avpcpopcav dvdrrXea. 

Ov /xevroi /MKpov ov8e dirXovv ecrri rovro, oj'i 11 
av Ti9 VTToXd^oL, dXXd ttoXXyj^; fiev re')(vri<;, ovk 
0X17779 he dy^ivoia<i, dKpi^ov<i he rivo<i eTn/xeXeia^i 

' 6 (not in beat MSS.) is necessary to the sense. 
* fvfKiTi^a Herwerden : tveXmSos MSS. 



For the most part, suc'n men may be seen enjoying 
high favour in the courts of kinccs and anions the 
friends of governors and princes, where envy is great, 
suspicions are countless, and occasions for flattery and 
slander are frequent. For where hope runs ever high, 
there envy is more bitter, hate more dangerous, and 
rivalry more cunning. All eye one another sharply 
and keep watch like gladiators to detect some part 
of the body exposed. Everyone, wishing to be first 
himself, shoves or elbows his neighbour out of his 
way and, if he can, slyly pulls down or trips up the 
man ahead. In this way a good man is simply 
upset and thrown at the start, and finally thrust off 
the course in disgrace, while one who is better 
versed in flattery and cleverer at such unfair 
practices wins. In a word, it is "devil take the 
hindmost ! " ; for they quite confirm Homer's saying: 

"Impartial war adds slayer to the slain." i 

So, as their conflict is for no small stake, they think 
out all sorts of ways to get at each other, of which 
the quickest, though most perilous, road is slander, 
which has a hopeful beginning in envy or hatred 
but leads to a sorry, tragic ending, beset with many 

Yet this is not an insignificant or a simple thino- 
as one might suppose ; it requires much skill, no 
little shrewdness, and some degree of close study 

^ niad 18, 309. 



Seofievov ov yap av roaavra e/SXaiTTev i) Sca- 
f3o\i], el fjLr] indavov Tiva rpoirov iyivero' ouS' av 
Kariaxve rrjv irdvTwv laxvporepav dX/jOeiav, el 
/XT] TToXv TO iiraywybv Kal iridavov Koi fivpla aXka 
TrapeaKevaaro Kara rcov aKovovrcov. 

Aia/3uXXeraL p,ev ovv co? to tt6\v /xaXicrTa o 12 
Tifxcopevo^ Kal Sea rovro roi^ v7To\ei7ro/j.evoi<i 
avTOv iiTL(f)6opo^- aTraj'Te? yap twS' eTriro^utov- 
rai KaOdirep re KcoXvfia Kal ipLiroScov irpoopw/j.evot, 
Kat eKa(JTO<; o"erai, tt/swto? avTo<; eaeadat rov 
Kopv^alov eKelvov iK77o\iopK7]aa<; Kal t?}? (piXiai; 
aTroaKevaaafiivo<i. olov tl kol tVt to?? yvpvLKol<i 
ciyMaiv kirl roiv t>pop.ewv yiyverai,' KuKel yap 6 
fiev dya0o9 Spopeu^ Trj<i vcnrXrjyyo^ ev6v<i Ka-ra- 
TTeaoixJT]^ povov tou irpuaw i(f)iepei>o<f Kal rrjv 
hidvoiav dTToreiva<^ irpo'; to rep/j-a Kdv roc<i iroal 
Ti)v iX-rriSa t?"/? vLKrj<; ex<^v rov'^ irXTjalov ovdei^ 
KaKovpyel ovSe tc rwv - Kara rov^ dywviard^ 
TToXvTTpayp.ovel, 6 Se KaKcx; eKelvov Kal dva9Xo<i 
dvraya>viar7}<i d7roypov<; rijv eK rov rd^ov; eXTTiSa 
i-rrl r?]v KaKorex^iav irpdrrero, Kal rovro p,uvov 
i^ a7ravro<i aKoirel, ottw? rov rpexovra iTria-^cbv 
rj ip'TTohiaa'; eTriaropiel, &>?, d rovrou Siapdproi, 
ovK dv TTore viKf/aat hvvdpevo^. opolco^ Se rovroi<; 
Kav ral<i (^iXta/<? rcov evSaipuucov rovrcov yiverai- 
6 yap 7rpoexo)v avrUa iiri^ovXeveraL Kal dcpvXaK- 
T09 iv fi€(T(p Xy](f)6e}<> rcov Bvap-evMV dvrjpTrdaOi], oi 
Be dyarrwvTai Kal (feCXoc SoKovaiv i^ o)v dXXov<i 
fSXdirreiv eSo^av. 

To re d^i.o'inarov rP}<i Bia^oXrj<i ov^ ct>9 ervyev 13 

1 Th^ Ualni : t<^ 1\1SS. « tuv Capps : toO MSS. 



For slander would not do so much harm if it were not 
set afoot in a plausible way, and it would not prevail 
over truth, that is stronger than all else, if it did not 
assume a high degree of attractiveness and plausibility 
and a thousand things beside to disarm its hearers. 

Generally speaking, slander is most often directed 
against a man who is in favour and on this account is 
viewed with envy by those he has put behind him. 
They all direct their shafts at him, regarding him as 
a hindrance and a stumbling-block, and each one 
expects to be first himself when he has routed his 
chief and ousted him from favour. Something of 
the same sort happens in the athletic games, in foot- 
races. A good runner from the moment that the 
barrier falls ^ thinks only of getting forward, sets 
his mind on the finish and counts on his legs to 
win for him ; he therefore does not molest the man 
next to him in any way or trouble himself at all 
about the contestants. But an inferior, unsports- 
manlike competitor, abandoning all hope based on 
his speed, resorts to crooked work, and the only 
thing in the world he thinks of is cutting off the 
runner by holding or tripping him, with the idea 
that if he should fail in this he would never be able 
to win. So it is with the friendships of the mighty. 
The man in the lead is forthwith the object of plots, 
and if caught oflT his guard in the midst of his foes, 
he is made away with, while they are cherished and 
are thought friendly because of tlie harm they 
appeared to be doing to others. 

As for the versimilitude of their slander, calum- 
niators are not careless in thinking out that point ; 

1 Races were started in antiquity by the dropping of a 
rope or bar. 



eiTivooiKTiv, aXV eV rovrrp ro ttcw avrol^ iarrcv 
epyov SeSoiKoat, ru Trpoad^aL airwhov tj kul 
aWoTpLov. ft)? '^ovv errl iroXv ra Trpoaovra tg) 
Sia^aWofiivo) 7rpo<i ro %etpot' pera^dWovre'i 
ovK d7TLHdvov<; TToiovvrat ra? KaryjyopLa<;, olov 
TOP fiev larpov Sia^dWovaiv &>? (papfiaKea, rov 
irXovaiov Se &)? rvpavvov, rov rvpavviKov Be &><? 


'Ei'/oTe pbivroL Kai 6 dKpo(t)pbevo<; avro^ viro- 14 
/3dWet Tf;9 8ta^o\rj<i rd<; d(fiop/j,d<;, koX rrpo^ rov 
eKeivov rporrov ol KaKorj6eL<i avrol dp/u-o^ofievoi, 
evaroyovaiv. rjV p-ev yap i^rfkorvrrov avrov bvra 
tScoai, Aterevae, (paai, rfj yvvai/cl aov irapd ro 
hel-nvov kol dmhoiv e? avrijv eareva^e, kul 1) 
SrparoviKT] tt/jo? avrov ov pdXa aiySw?* kuI 6X(o<i 
epcoriKau rive^ kol pbOi^i-Kal tt/Oo? avrov at Sca- 
/SoXaL i)v Be Troi't]riKo<i 77 Kal eirl rourw peya 
(ppovf), Md Ai e)(\evaae aov ^cX6^evo<i rd 
eirr) Kal Bieavpe Kal dperpa el-nev avra Kai 
KaKoavvOera. Trpos Be rov evae^rj Kal (^iXodeov 
(09 dOeo'i Kal dvocno^ 6 c^tXo? Bi.a/3dXXerat Kat 
ft)9 TO 6elov 7rapu)6ovp,eio<i Kal rt]v irpovoiav 
dpvovpevo'i' o Be aKovaa^ ev6v<i p,vco7ri Bia 
rov ft)T09 rv7rel<; BiaKeKavrac d><i ro eiKO'i Kai 
direarpaTrrai rov (piXov ov 7repip€iva<; rov dKpi^i] 
eXeyx_ov. oXco^ yap rd roiavra emvoovai Kal 15 
Xeyovaiv, d pidXiara taaaiv eV opyijv Bvvdp,eva 
irpoKaXeaaaOaL rov uKpocofievov, Kal ev9a rpcoro^ 
iarcv CKacrro'i eiriardpievoi, eV eKelvo ro^evovcri 
Kal aKOvrL^ouaiv e<? avro, coare rf] irapavriKa 
opyfi rerapayp-evov prjKeri a^oX^jv dyeiv rfj 
e^erdaet rrj(; dXrjdeLa<i, dXXd Kav 9eXr) ri^ 



all their work centres on it, for they are afraid to 
put in anything discordant or even irrelevant. For 
example, they generally make their charges credible 
by distorting the real attributes of the man they are 
slandering. Thus they insinuate that a doctor is a 
poisoner, that a rich man is a would-be monarch, or 
that a courtier is a traitor. 

Sometimes, however, the hearer himself suggests 
the starting-point for sl.mdei', and the knaves attain 
their end by ada])ting themselves to his disposition. 
If they see that he is jealous, they say : " He signed 
to your wife during dinner and gazed at her and 
sighed, and Stratonice was not very displeased with 
him." In short, the charges they make to him are 
based on passion and illicit love. If he has a bent 
for poetry and prides himself on it, they say : " No, 
indeed ! Philoxenus^made fun of your verses, pulled 
them to pieces and said that they wouldn't scan and 
were wretchedly composed." To a pious, godly man 
the charge is made that his friend is godless and 
impious, that he rejects God and denies Providence. 
Thereupon the man, stung in the ear, so to speak, 
by a gadfly, gets thoroughly angry, as is natural, and 
turns his back on his friend without awaiting definite 
proof. In short, they think out and say the sort of 
thing that they know to be best adapted to provoke 
the hearer to anger, and as they know the place 
where each can be wounded, they shoot their arrows 
and throw their spears at it, so that their hearer, 
thrown off his balance by sudden anger, will not 
thereafter be free to get at the truth ; indeed, how- 
ever much a slandered man may want to defend 
himself, he will not let him do so, because he is 

1 The reference is to Philoxenus, a poet of Cythera, who was 
sent to the quarries for refusing to praise the bad verses of 
Uionysius, Tyrant of Syracuse. ^^^ 


ciTToXoyeladai, /xi] •TrpoaieaOai, rS) TrapaZo^w tt)? 
aKpodcreca &)? dXtjOel TrpoKaTeiXtjp.ju.evou. 

Ai'vaifiooTarov yap to el8o<; r?}? Sca^o\i]<; to 16 
uTTevavTLOV TT]^ Tov aKOuovTo^; e7ri0i'fjbia<;, oirore kuI 
irapa YlToXefiaiu) ru> ^iovvaw i7rtK\i]devri iyevero 
Ti? 09 Sie/SaWe tov UXaTcoviKov Ai]jjL7]Tpiov, oti 
vScop re TTLvei Kol pL0V0<; tmv dX\(oi' yvvaiKeia ovk 
ivehvaaTO iv Tot<; Aiorucrto/9' Kal et ye /nrj KXT]Oel<; 
k'codev eirie re ttuvtcov opcovTcov koX Xa^cov Tnpav- 
Tivihiov €Kvp^dXiae Kal Trpocrcop-^tjaaTO, ciTroXrjoXet 
av &)? ou;)^ rjhofX€vo<; tco /Slu) tov /3aatXia)<;, dXX' 
dvTiao(f)icrTT)<; coi> Kal dvTiTe')(yo^ tij^ YlToXepatov 

Yiapa he 'AXe^dvSpay /xeyicrTt] iroTe iraaoiv rjv \1 
Sia^oXi], el XeyoLTO^ Tt? yu.?) cre^ecv fi^jSe TrpocrKvvelv 
TOV 'HcpaiaTLCova' iirel yap direOavev 'l{(j)aiaTUov, 
viro TOV €p(OTo<i WXe^avSpa e^ovXijOt] irpoadelvai 
Kal TovTo Trj Xonrfj [xeyaXovpyia Kal 6eov x^ipo- 
Tovrjaai tov T€Te\euT7]K0Ta. evOu<; ovv ved)<^ re 
dvecTTTjaav ai TroXet? Kal Te/u,evr} KaOiSpveTO Kal 
8fopol Kal OvalaL Kal eopral tm Kaivco tovtm 
dew eireTeXovvTo, Kat o peyiaro^ 6pK0<; yv diraaiv 
'\\<^ai(TTUov. el Sfc" Tt? rj iieihidaeie irpo^ to, yivo- 
p,eva rj [xrj ipaLvono irdvv evae^oiv, 6dvaT0<i 
eireKeiTO 't-j ^i]pia. viroXap.^dvovTe^; he ol KoXaKef 
TTjv /xeipaKiooSi] TavTifv tov' ±We^dvhpov eirLOvpuiav 
irpocre^eKaiov evdv<; Kal dve^oiiTvpovv oveipaTa 
Sir]yov/j,evot tov ll<pa(,a'TL(ovo<i, e7n(f)aveLa<; Tiva<i 
Kal IdfiaTa it pocrdirTOVTe^ avTw Kal fiavTeia^ eiri- 

* J\v Sia0o\ri, el \iyoiro A. M.H. : Uv Sia0o\i] \eyoiTo, el 
't\oiro MSS. 


prejudiced by the surprising nature of what he has 
heard, just as if that made it true. 

A very effective form of slander is the one that is 
based on opposition to the liearer's tastes. For in- 
stance, in the court of the Ptolemy who was called 
Dionysus ^ there was once a man who accused Deme- 
trius, the Platonic philosopher, of drinking nothing 
but water and of being the only person who did not 
wear women's clothes during the feast of Dionysus. 
If Demetrius, on being sent for early the next morn- 
ing, had not drunk wine in view of everybody and 
had not put on a thin gown and played the cymbals 
and danced, he would have been put to death for not 
liking the king's mode of life, and being a critic and 
an opponent of Ptolemy's luxury. 

In the court of Alexander it was once the greatest 
of all slanderous charges to say that a man did not 
worship Hephaestion or even make obeisance to him 
— -for after the death of Hephaestion, Alexander for 
the love lie bore him detennined to add to his other 
great feats that of appointing the dead man a god. 
So the cities at once erected temples; plots of ground 
were consecrated ; altars, sacrifices and feasts were 
established in honour of this new god, and every- 
body's strongest oath was "By Hephaestion." If 
anyone smiled at what went on or failed to seem 
quite reverent, the penalty prescribed was death. 
The flatterers, taking hold of this childish passion 
of Alexander, at once began to feed it and fan it 
into flame by telling about dreams of Hephaestion, 
in that way ascribing to him visitations and cures 
and accrediting him with prophecies ; and at last 

^ Probably Ptolemy Auletes, father of Cleopatra, who 
styled himself " the new Dionysus." 



^r]/ii'^ovTe<;' koI TeXn<; eduov irapehprp kuI aXe^i- 
KUKM 6e(c. he ^ KXe^avhpo<i i]8er6 re clkovwv 
Kal TO, TeXevrala eTrlareue fcal fieya i(f)p6vei 
wtcravei ov Oeou 7rat<; 0)v puovov, aWa Kal 0€ov<; 
TTOielv Svvdfievo^;. irocov^; to'lvvv olcojieda rcov 
'AXefay8,oou <p[\(ov Trapa rbv Kaipbv eKeivov airo- 
Xavaat r7]<i H(f)aicrTL(i)vo<i OeiorrjTO^, Sca/SXijdevra'i 
(B9 ov Ttjjiwcn Tov Koivov airdvTCdv Oeov, Kal Sia 
TOVTO €^€\aOevTa<i Kal r^? tov I3aaikew<i evvoia<i 
eKireaovra^; rore Kal ^AyaOoKXy^ 6 '^dpLi.o'i 18 
ra^iap'x^cbv Trap" 'AXefat'S/ow Kal ri/LLcopLevo^ Trap* 
avTOV ixLKpov helv avyKadeip')(^d'ri Xeovrt Bia^X'ijdel'i 
on, BaKpvaeie Trapicov tov Hcpai.aTicoi'O'i Tcicpov. 
aX)C ixeivo) fiev ^or)6rjcrac XeyeTat HepSiKKa^ 
iirofjLoa-d/jievof; KaTct TrdvTcov 6eS)v Kal kuto, 
'}i<paiaTLa)vo<;, otl 8r} KVvrjyeTovvTL ol tpavevTa 
evapyrj tov Oeov e7riaKrj-\^at elirelv ^AXe^dvSpco 
(f)ei(Ta(Tdat A.yadoK\eov<i' ov yap a><; aTnaTovvTa 
ovSe ft)9 €7rl veKpcp SuKpvcrai, dWa t^9 irdXai 
avvT]Oeia<; fivrjuovevcravTa. 

H S' ovv^ KoXaKeia Kal t) Sia^oXrj tots [xaXtcTTa 19 
')(a)pav ea-^e 7rp6<; to ^AXe^dvSpov irddo^ (tvvtl- 
OepLevrj' KaOdjrep yap iv TroXtopKia ovk eVi to, 
ijylrrjXd Kal diroKpi'jpLva Kal da^aXrj tov T€L')^ov<; 
TTpoaiaaiv ol iroXep^ioi, dXX rj av d(f)vXaKT6v Ti 
fiepo^ rj aaOphv a'laOcovTai rj raireivov, eirl tovto 
Trdcrv Swd/met ')(o3povaiv &)9 paaTa rrapeiahvvaL 
Kal kXelv 8vvdp,evoi, ovtco Kal ol Sia^dXXovTe<i 6 
Ti av dadeve<; 'iScoai t^J's '^V)(,^]<i Kal inroaadpov Kal 
eveirl^aTov, tovtm 7rpoa/3dXXovat Kal irpoadyovcn 

» S'oJ;/ A.M.H. : 70!;^ MSS. 


they began to sacrifice to him as ''Coadjutor" and 
"Saviour."^ Alexander liked to hear all this, and 
at length believed it, and was very proud of him- 
self for being, as he thought, not only the son of 
a god but also able to make gods. Well, how manv 
of Alexander's friends, do you suppose, reaped the 
results of Hephaestion's divinity during that period, 
through being accused of not honouring the uni- 
versal god, and consequently being banished and 
deprived of the king's favour? It was then that 
Agathocles of Samos, one of Alexander's captains 
whom he esteemed highly, came near being shut up 
in a lion's den because he was charged with having 
wept as he went by the tomb of Hephaestion. But 
Perdiccas is said to have come to his rescue, swearing 
by all the gods and by Hephaestion to boot that 
while he was hunting the god had appeared to him 
in the flesh and had bidden him tell Alexander to 
spare Agathocles, saying that he had not wept from 
want of faith or because he thought Hej)haestion 
dead, but only because he had been put in mind 
of their old-time friendship. 

As you see, flattery and slander were most likely 
to find an opening when they were framed with 
reference to Alexander's weak point. In a siege 
the enemy do not attack the high, sheer and secure 
parts of the wall, but wherever they notice that any 
portion is unguarded, unsound or low, they move all 
their forces against that j)lace because they can very 
easily get in there and take the city. Just so with 
slanderers : they assail whatever part of the soul 
they perceive to be weak, unsound and easy of 
access, bringing their siege-engines to bear on it 

^ In this way they made him out the associate of Apollo. 



Ta<j ixr]'^avd<i, Koi reXo? eKTroXiopKovat yu,ijoevo? 
ciVTiTaTTOfxevov fDjSe rrjv €(poBov alaOofxevov. €lt 
eTreiSav ivro^ aira^ twv Tei')(^Siv 'yevcovrai, TTVpiro- 
\ovat, Trdvra koL iralovat^ koX a(j}arroucn koI 
e^ekavvovcnv, ola elKO<; dXicTKOfiev'q'i '^v-)(r}<; Koi 
i^r]vSpa7ruS[(T/jLei^7]<; epya elvat. 

M.r]^av7]fMara 8e avroi<i Kara rov ukovovto^; rj 20 
re inrdrri koL to yjrevBo'i koX rj iirLopKia koX irpocr- 
\L7rdprjai<; koX dvaicryyvjia koX dWa fxvpla 
paSiovpy^fiara. 17 Se 87] fieyLarrj Traawv 7) KoXuKela 
fc'cTTt, (Tvyyevtjf;, /xdWov 8e aSe\(^?; Ti? ovaa Ti]<; 
8ia^oXr}<;. ovSel^ yovv ovtco j€vvd8a<; icrrl Kal 
dSafxdvTivov rei^o? tt}? "^^XV^ 7rpo^€/3Xrifj,evo<;, 09 
ouK av ivSoLT] 7rp6<i Ta^ t?}<? Ko\aK€ia<; 7rpoa^o\d<i, 
Kal ravra v7ropvTTova7]<; Kal rov^ 0€fi€\Lov<; 
u(f)aipov(rrj<i t?}? Sta/SoX?}?. Kal ra fiev iKT6<; 21 
ravTa. evhoOev 8e iroWaX irpohocnat crvvaycavi- 
^ovrai, rd^i '^eipa<; opeyovaai Kal ra? TruXa? 
dvaireTwcjai Kal iravTa rpoirov rfj dXdxret, rov 
uKovovTO^ aup.7rpo6vfiovfX€vai,. irpcorov piev to (f}i\6- 
Kaivov, (puaei nrdaiv dv6po)7roi<; inrdp'y^et,, Kai to 
d-^iKopov, eTreira Se to 7rpo<; Ta irapdSo^a tcov 
uKOUcTfxdTcov eTro/xevov."^ ov yap olS" oVto? i]S6,ue0a 
7rdvT€^ \a0p7]Sd Kal 7ry009 TO ov'i Xeyofieva Kal 
fiea-Ta virovoia'i dK0V0VT€<;'^ olhayovv Tiva^ oi/Tft)9 
?;Se&)9 yapyaXi^ofX€vov<; Ta MTa vtto tmv Bia^oXcoj 
oicnrep Tov<i 7rT€poi<i KV(Ofievov<i. 

1 TTalov<Ti Basle ed. of 1563 : Kaiovai MSS. 

2 k\KAiJ.ivnv'> A.M.H. 

' Text Du Soul : Kadp-q^a koX Vfths ras \fjo/xfvas ko] /..ecrras 
vvovolas aKOvovres (o«oas) MSS. : wo! irphs rhs \a6pri5a \(yo- 
fieyas Ka) ^tarhs viroi'oias aKods JacobitZi, 



and finally capturing it, as no one opposes them or 
notices their assault. Then, when they are once 
vdthin the walls, they fire everything and smite and 
slay and banish ; for all these things are likely to 
hap])en when the soul is captured and put in 

The engines that they use against the hearer 
are deceit, lying, perjury, insistence, impudence, and 
a thousand other unprincipled means ; but the most 
important of all is flattery, a bosom friend, yes, an 
own sister to slander. Nobody is so high-minded 
and has a soul so well protected by walls of adamant 
that he cannot succumb to the assaults of flattery, 
especially when he is being undermined and his 
foundations sapped by slander. All this is on the 
outside, while on the inside there are many traitors 
who help the enemy, holding out their hands to him, 
opening the gates, and in every way furthering 
the capture of the hearer. First there is fondness 
for novelty, which is by nature common to all 
mankind, and a fastidious taste also ; and secondly, 
a tendency to be attracted by startling rumours. 
Somehow or other we all like to hear stories 
that are slyly whispered in our ear, and are packed 
with innuendo : indeed, I know men who get as 
much pleasure from having their ears titillated with 
slander as some do from being tickled vidth feathers. 



ETreioav roivvv viro rovrcov airdvrwv a-vfifia- 22 
Xov/xevoi TTpocnreawai, Kara Kpdro<; aipovaiv, 
oifiai, KUL ovSe Sva)(^6prj<i ?; vlk7] yevoir av prihevo<i 
uvTiTTapaTaTTOfxevov firjSe dp.vvo[xevov to.? irpocr- 
po\a<i, aWa rod /ie/' dKovovTO<; €K6vro<i eavrov 
€vSiS6vT0<i, rov Sia^aWo/xevou Se rrjv im(3ov\r}V 
ayvoovi'TO'i' axrirep jdp ev vvktI iroXeco'i d\ov(Tr]<i 
Kadev8ovr€<i ol Sia^aWo/xevoo cfioveuovrat. oo 

r\.ai TO TravTwv oc/criaTov, o /xev ov/c eioco? tu 
yeyev 7] fxei^ a Trpoaep-x^ejai rw (j)i\w (pathpo<; are 
fiTjSev eavTU) (f)av\ov avveTnardfxei'o^; koX rd 
avvrjdi] Xeyei /cat iroLel, iravrl rpoirw 6 d6Xio<i 
€vi]Sp€u/x€vo<i- 6 Se r)v jxev e^J} to yevvalov koX 
iXevdepov koI TrappijacacrTiKoi', ev9v<; i^epprj^e rrjv 
6pyi]v Kol TOP Ovfiov e^e^ee, koI TeA.09 Ti]v uttoXo- 
yiav 7rpoaiefxevo<i eyvco fiuTr/v kutu tou (f)iXov 24 
7rap(o^v/x/xevo<i. yv Se dyevveaTepo<i koI raTreivo- 
T€po<i, irpoaLtTai fiev koI Trpoapieihia toI<; ■)(^el\€aiv 
dKpoL<i, fJLiael he koI XdOpa tou? oSovtw; hiairpieL 
KUi, ft)9 7roir]T/j'i cf)r](Ti, ^vaaohofxeveL ttjv opyrjv. 
ov Brj eyo) ovSev oljxai dSiKcoTtpov ouSe SovXoTrpe- 
ireaTepou, ivhaKovTa to ■y^elXo'^ viroTpecpen' ti]V 
XoXr)p KoX TO puao'i ev avT(2 KaTuKXeiaTuv av^tiv 
eTepa fxev KevOovTa evl c^pealv, dXXa Be Xeyoina 
Kai vTTOKpivofxevov iXapd) koI kw/juko) tCo TrpoadiTTO) 
p,dXa TrepiTraOrj Tiia Kal lov yepovaav TpayrpBiav. 

yiaXiaTa he tovto 7rda)(^ovaii', eTrethdv irdXat 
<^tXo? o evhia/3dXXa)v hoKwv eliai tCo evhia^aX- 
Xo/xevo) iroiSjTai'i' Tore yap ovhe (fxopr^v 



Theiefore^ when the enemy falls on with all these 
forces in league with him^ he takes the fort by stonn, 
I suppose, and his victory cannot even prove difficult, 
since nobody mans the walls or tries to repel 
his attacks. No, the hearer surrenders of his own 
accord, and the slandered person is not aware of the 
design upon him : slandered men are murdered, 
just as sleeping men are murdered when a city is 
captured in the night. 

The saddest tiling of all is that the slandered 
man, unaware of all that has taken place, meets his 
friend cheerfully, not being conscious of any misdeed, 
and speaks and acts in his usual manner, when he 
is beset on every side, poor fellow, with lurking foes. 
The other, if he is noble, gentlemanly, and out- 
spoken, at once lets his anger burst out and vents 
his wrath, and then at last, on permitting a defence 
to be made, finds out that he was incensed at his 
friend for nothing. But if he is ignoble and mean 
he welcomes him and smiles at him out of the 
corner of his mouth, while all the time he hates 
him and secretly grinds his teeth and broods, as the 
poet says,^ on his anger. Yet nothing, I think, is 
moi'e unjust or more contemptible than to bite 
your lips and nurse your bitterness, to lock your 
hatred up within yourself and nourish it, thinking 
one thing in the depths of your heart and saying 
another, and acting a very eventful tragedy, full of 
lamentation, with a jovial comedy face. 

Men are more liable to act in this way when 
the slanderer has long seemed to be a friend of 
the person slandered, and yet does what he does. 

^ Homer ; the word is frequent in the Odyssey (e.g. 9, 
316; 17, 6G). 



a/eovecv en deXovai tmv hia^aWofxevwv rj rtov 
uTToXoyovfxevcov, to u^toTriarov tt}? KaTr}yopLa<; 
eK T'Pj'i TTuXat 8oKovcn]<i (f)cXia<i TrpoeiXrjcf^ore'i, 
ovBe Tovro Xoyt^ofievoc, oti ttoXXoI TroWaKd ev 
Tol^ (j)t\TdTOi<i [xiaov^ irapaiTiTnovcnv alrlaL tov^ 
aX\ov<; \av6dvovcraL' koX eviore ol<; avT6<; t<9 
evo'xp'i eari, ravrl (f)6daa<; KaTi-jyuprjae rov ttXt)- 
a'iov eKcjivyeiv ovrco ireipwfievo'i rrjv Sia/SoXrjv. 
Kol 6\w<i e'xjdpov fiev ovSeU ap roX/xijcrece 8ia- 
IBaXelv a'TviaTo<i yap avrodt i) Karriyopla irpo- 
hrjXov exovaa rrjv alriav to2<; SoKoCat Se pciXiara 
(j)i\0L<i iirtxeipovcri r7]v tt/oo? tov^ d.KOvovTa's 
euvoiav ipipP^vai "Trpoaipov/xevoi, on eVi rw eKeivcov 
av/x(f)epovTt ouoe rcov OiKeioTaTcov dirkayovTO. 

EiVl hk Tive<; at kuv fidOcoaiv vcrrepov d8iKco<; 25 
hia^e^Xrjpevovi trap at-roi? tou? (f)lXov<?, 6p(o<; 
iir ULcrxvin]^ wv l-n'iaT&VGav ov^ en TrpocTueaOat 
ovoe irpoajBXeTretv roXficoaiv avTOt<} coairep t]8iKi]- 
pevoi, on pi]Eev dSiKovvrwi e-rreyvaiaav. 

Toiyapovv ttoXXcov kukcov 6 ^LO<i eirXt'jadri vtvo 26 
TMv ovTco paOL(o<; Kol dve^erda-Tco'i ireTna-Tevp.ei'cov 
hia^oXwv. 7] p^ev yap "Avreta 

redvairi^ (c}>7]cr[v), w Upolr, ■>) xdKrave BeXXepo- 


09 /A eOeXev (f)tX6Tr]Ti p^iy/jpevat ou/c eOeXovarj 
avTrj irpoTepa iirix^ipi'/aaaa koI virepocpBelaa. 



In that ease they are no longer wilh'ng even 
to hear the voice of the men slandered or of those 
who speak in their behalf, for they assume in 
advance that the accusation can be relied on 
because of the apparent friendship of long standing, 
without even reflecting that many reasons for hatred 
often arise between the closest friends, of whicli 
the rest of the world knows nothing. Now and 
then, too, a man makes haste to accuse his neigh- 
bour of something that he is himself to blame for, 
trying in this way to escape accusation himself. 
And in general, nobody would venture to slander 
an enemy, for in that case his accusation would not 
inspire belief, as its motive would be patent. No, 
they attack those men who seem to be their best 
friends, aiming to show their good will toward their 
hearers by sacrificing even their nearest and dearest 
to help them. 

There are people who, even if they afterwards 
learn that their friends have been unjustly accused 
to them, nevertheless, because they are ashamed of 
their own credulity, no longer can endure to i-eceive 
them or look at them, as though they themselves 
had been wronged merely by finding out that the 
others were doing no wrong at all ' 

It follows, then, that life has been filled with 
troubles in abundance through the slanderous stories 
that have been believed so readily and so un- 
questioningly. Anteia says : 

" Die, Proetus, or despatch Bellerophon, 
Who offered me his love, by me unsougiit," * 

when she herself had made the first move and had 

1 Homer, Iliad 6, 164. 



Kal fXLKpov o veavia<i ev rfj rrrpo'i t)]V Xi/xaipav 
aVfiirXoKfj Seetpdiipr) eTTLrljiLov accxppoavvTTi viro- 
ax^^v Kol TT)'^ 7rpo<i rov ^evov alhov<; viro pidj(\ov 
yvvaiKO'i e'7n^€J3ovK.ev[xevo^. rj Se 'i^aiSpa, KUKelvT] 
TO, ofioia KaTeiTTOUcra rod irpoyovou, eirupaTOV 
iifroir](X€ rov 'IttttoXutov yeveadaL vtto rov 7raTpo<; 
ovBev, 0) Oeo'i, ovhev avoatov elpyacrfxevov. 

Nat, (f)>]cret Tt<;' aX)C a^ioTnaTo^ ecniv iviore 27 
6 Sia/3(iWcov avijp rd re aXXa Blkulo^ koL <rvver6<i 
eivat Sofccov, /cal ^XPV^ irpoaex^iv avKo are fx^jSev 
av roLovro KaKOvpy/^aavru ap ovv rov ^Apiarei- 
8ov ear I ri^ hiKai6repo<i; aA,V bfiw^ KUKelvof; 
avvearrj eirl rov SepLicrroKXea koI crvpirapoi^vve 
rov hrjpbov, 7]^;, (paalv, eKeivo<; iro'X.LrLKrj'i (pt\orLpLa<i 
vTTOKeKVKTpievo';} BiKaio<; fxev yap o)? tt/Oo? rou<i 
a\Xov<i 'A/DtcTTa'S?;?, dvdpwTTo<i Be Kul avro'i rjv Kal 
XpXy'iv et^e, Kal r]yd'na riva Kal epLiaei. Kal et ye 28 
d\'rj6t]<; iariv 6 irepl rov Yla\afirjSov<; X0709, 
avveroorarof; rcov 'A^aiwj/ kciv rol'i dWofi dpicrro^; 
rr)v em^ovXrjv Kal eveBpav vrro (f)d6vov ^alpcrai 
(Tvvre6etKM<i Kara dv8p6<; o/xaip-ov Kal (piXov Kal 
eirl rov avrov klvBvvov eKireTrXevKoro'i' ourwi €p(^v- 
rov diraaiv dv9punroL<i 1) irepl ra roiavra dpLapna. 
ri yap dv Ti<? rj rov ^WKpdrrjV \eyoi rov duKWi 29 
7r/oo9 roiJ<i ^ A.9ipa'iov<i Bia/3e/3\r]/j.evov to? dae^rj 

' vTTOKfKvtfffifvoi MSS. : Viro KeKvifffMfvos Guj'et. The con- 
struction ia correctly explained in the scholia. 



been scorned. So the young man came near getting 
killed in the encounter witli the Chimaera, and was 
rewarded for his continence and his respect for his 
host by being plotted against by a wanton. As for 
Phaedra, she too made a similar charge against her 
stepson and so brought it about that Hippolytus was 
cursed by his fiither ^ when he had done nothing 
impious — good Heavens, nothing ' 

" Yes," somebody will say, " but now and then 
the man who brings a personal charge deserves 
credence, because he seems to be just in all other 
matters and sensible also, and one would have to 
heed him, as he would never do such a scoundrelly 
thing as that." Well, is there anyone more just than 
Aristides .'' But even he conspired against Themis- 
tocles and had a hand in stirring up the people 
against him, because, they say, he was secretly 
pricked by the same political ambition as Themis- 
tocles. Aristides was indeed just, in comparison with 
the rest of the world ; but he was a man like anyone 
else and had spleen and not only loved but hated on 
occasion. And if the story of Palamedes is true, the 
most sensible of the Greeks and the best of them in 
other ways stands convicted of having, through envy, 
framed a plot and an ambush to trap a kinsman and 
a friend, who had sailed away from home to front 
the same peril as he "^ ; so true is it that to err in this 
direction is inborn in all mankind. Why should I 
mention Socrates, who was unjustly slandered to the 
Athenians as an irreligious man and a traitor ? or 

^ Theseus: the story is told in the Hippolytus of Euripides. 

2 Odysseus trapped Palamedes by getting a forced letter 
from Priam hidden in his tent and then pretending to 
discover it. 



Kal err'i^ovXov; 7) rov ®e/j.t,aroK\ea rj tov MiXrid- 
Srjv, TOL"? fxera T7]XLKavTa<i vlfca<i iirl irpohoaia t?}9 
'EXkdhof; VTVOTTTOV^ yevofievov^; (xvpia •yap ra 
TrapaSely/xara koX a^eSov ra irXetara ')]Sr] 

Tt ovv 'x^pr] Kol TTOielv rov 76 vovv exovTU 30 
i) dpeTi]<i rj dXr}6ela<i d/j,(f)tal3i]T0vvra; oirep, 
olfxai, Kal "0/z?;/909 iv toj Trepl "Zetp/jvuiv p-vOw 
rjvi^aro irapaTrXelv KeXevaa<; rdii oXeOptov^ rav- 
ra<; roiv dKOVcrp^dTCOv rjSovd<i Kal UTrocppaTTeiv 
TO. oira Kal p,7] uveh'}v avrd avaTreravvveiv rolf; 
TrdOeL irpoeCXripbpbivoL'i, dXX^ i7naTi]aavTa uKpi/Sfj 
Ovpwpov TOV Xoyiap^ov aTraat rol^ Xeyopevoii; ra 
piev d^ta TrpoateaOai Kal irapa/BdXXeaaai, ra 
(f)avXa Be uTTOKXetetv Kal dircodelv' naX yap dv etrj 
yeXoLov rrj<; p^ev olKLa<i dupwpov'i KaOicrrdvai, ra 
&ra he Kal rrjv htdvoiav dve(pyp,eva edv. eireihav 31 
roivvv roiavra irpoair] n^ Xeycov, avro i(p eavrov 
Xph ■''0 rrpdypa e^erd^eiv, p.i'jre rjXiKiav rov Xeyovro^ 
opoivra pi7]re rov dXXov /3iov pi^re rrjv ev rot? Xoyoa 
dyx^voiav- oa(p ydp Tt? 7riOavoi)r6po<i,roaovTO) eirt- 
peXearepa^; Selrat t?}? e^erdaeco^. ou See roivvv 
TTtareveiv dXXorpla Kpiaet, pdXXov Be pLcrec rov 
Karrjyopovvro^, dXK eavrco ri^v e^eracni' (pvXaKreov 
T/}? dX7]deia<;, diroSovra Kal ra) Bia^dXXovrt rov 
<p66vov Kal ev t^ai'epw irotrjadpievov rov eXeyxov 
T?}? eKarepov Siavoia^, Kal pnaelv ovro) Kat ayarrdv 
rov BeSoKipLaap.evov. rrplv he rovro rroirjcrai e/c 
rrj<i 'npd>rq<i 8i,a^oXf]<i KCKivrj^evov, 'HpdKXei<i, co? 



Themistocles and Miltiades, both of ■whom, after 
all their victories, came to be suspected of treason 
against Greece ? The instances are countless, and 
are already for the most part well known. 

"Then what should a man do, if he has sense 
and lays claim to probity or truthfulness ? " In my 
opinion he should do what Homer suggested in his 
parable of the Sirens. He bids us to sail past these 
deadly allurements and to stop our ears ; not to hold 
them wide open to men prejudiced by passion, but, 
setting Reason as a strict doorkeeper over all that is 
said, to welcome and admit what deserves it, but 
shut out and drive off what is bad. For surely, 
it would be ridiculous to have doorkeepers to guard 
your house, but to leave your ears and your mind 
wide open. Therefore, when a man comes and tells 
you a thing of this sort, you must investigate the 
matter on its own merits, without regarding the years 
of the speaker or his standing, or his carefulness in 
what he says ; for the more plausible a man is, the 
closer your investigation should be. You should not, 
then, put faith in another's judgment, or rather 
(as you would be doing), in the accuser's want of 
judgment,^ but should reserve to yourself the province 
of investigating the truth, accrediting the slanderer 
with his envy and conducting an open examination 
into the sentiments of both men ; and you should 
only hate or love a man after you have put him to 
the proof. To do so before that time, influenced 
by the first breath of slander — Heavens ! how 

^ Literally, "in the accuser's hatred." To secure some- 
thing like the word-play in the Greek, the sense had to 
sufifer slightly. 


/j,eipaKict)Se<; /cal raireivov koI irdvroiv ov"^ rjKKTTa 
aSiKov. dWa Tovrwv diravroyv atTiov, oirep ev 32 
dpxfl e^rjixev, rj djvota koX to iv (tkotw ttov elvai 
Tov eKaarov rpoTTOv o)? et ye 6eo)v Ti? diroKoKv- 
■yjreiev rj/XMv tou? /3lov<;, oi")(oiTO dv (f)€V'yovaa e? to 
^apaOpov 7] Zia^oXrj ^copav ovk €)(^ovaa, o)? dv 
7r£(f)(OTia/jiepa)v tojv Trpayfidrccv viro ttj^ d\r]6eia<i. 



childish, how base and, beyond everything, how un- 
just! But the cause of this and all the rest of it, as 
I said in the beginning, is ignorance, and the fact 
that the real character of each of us is shrouded in 
darkness. Hence, if some one of the gods would 
only unveil our lives. Slander would vanish away 
to limbo, having no place left, since everything would 
be illumined by Truth. 



SIGMA t'.v. TAU, 

This mock prosecution, probably not by Lucian, but 
much later than his time, is based upon the fact that in the 
Attic dialect many words originally written with double s 
came eventually to be pronounced and written with double t, 
and incidentally mentions words in which / has been substi- 
tuted for r ; g for k and I; z, x, and r for .«, and t for c?, th, 
and z. It cannot be adequately translated, for we have 
nothing of the sort in English. 


['Etti ap')(^ovTo<; ^KpLardp')(ov ^a\ripew<i, \lvave- 1 
■^LO)vo<i €^B6/jbT) i(TTa/j,evov, ypa(f)r)v eOero to S-lj/jba 
7rpo<i TO Tad e^rl tmv eTrra ^t^oivrjevTcov /Sms' kuL 
v7rapx,ovTcov dpTrayi]';, cKfyyjpfjcrBai Xiyov ttcivtcov 
rb)v €1' SittXm rav CKcpepofievcov.] ^ 

l^expt /J.ev, 0) ^^'0)vt']evTa BiKacrrai, o\ ly a ySiKov- 2 
fj.r]v viro Tovrovl rod Tav Karaxpcofievov toi<; 
ifiol<; Kol KaraipovTO'^ ev6a fir) Set, ov ^apeco^ 
e^epov TTjv ^\dl3i]v koI TrapyJKovov evia tcov \€yo- 
fievwv viro rr)^ fierpLorrjTO^;, r)v tare fie (f)uXda- 
aovra irpo^ re v[xd<i koL ra? aWa? crvWaj3d(;' 
eirel Se e? toctovtov r]Kei 7r\eop€^La<; re Kal dvo- 
fiia<;,^ (ocrre id)' ol<; i)cx 6^(^11(7 a 7roX\.dKi<; ovk dya- 
TTMV, aW' * r/S?; kuI irXeioi Trpoa/Std^erac, di>ay- 
/caica avTO evOvvoi vvv irapd toi^ dp,(^0Tepa 
elhocTLv v/xtp. Seo? Be ov p-iKpov fioi irrl rovroL<i ^ 
rrj<; dirodXi-^eco'i iirepx^Tai tt}? ejnavrov' roU yap 

^ Soin r: AIKH *nNHENTnN vulg. * Wanting in r. 
' avouias Lelimann, Hervverden, Sommerbrodt : avnlas 
MSS. ■* &\\' K. Scliwartz: aAA' (or word omitted) MSS. 

^ Tovrois Herwerden : tois (Tfjs) MSS. 



[7m the year that Aristarchus of Phalerum vms archon, 
on the seventh clay of the month Pyanepsion, Sigma 
brought suit against Tau before the seven Foivels for 
assault and robbery, alleging that he had stolen all the 
words that are pronounced with double /««.] 

Vowels of the jury, as loncj as the -wrongs that 1 
underwent at the hands of this fellow Tau through 
his misusing my property and establishing himself 
where he had no business were but slight, I did not 
take the injury to heart, and I ignored some of the 
things that I heard because of the equable temper 
wliich, as you know, I maintain toward you and the 
other letters. But now that he has come to such a 
pitch of self-seeking and lawlessness that, not content 
with what I have repeatedly let pass in silence, he is 
trying to wrest still more from me, I am compelled 
to call him to account before you, who know both 
sides. Besides all this, I am more than a little afraid 
of my own ejection ; for by making greater and 



'irpo7r€7rpa'y/.(,evot<; aei ri fxel^ov TrpoariOev dpSrjv 
ue T?7<r ol/C€La<; aTroOXi-ylrei ')(^copa<i, w9 oXiyov Selv 
Tjav^^iav dyayovTa firjSe ev ypd/mfiacriv dpidp,el- 
adai, iv tcr(p he KclaOai rov yjrocfiov.^ 

AiKatov ovv ou->^ u/j,d<i, oc SiKci^ere vvv, dWd 3 
KaX rd XotTrd ypafijuara rrji^ ireipa'i e')(eiv Tivd 
^vXaKTjv el yap i^earat to?<; j3ov\op,evoL<; drro 
rrj<; Ka6 avra rd^eco^ e? dWorpiav Bid^eaOai kol 
TOVTO einrpeylrere vp,el<;, mv ^a)/3t9 ovSev KadoXov 
TV ypd(^eTai, oup^^ opw rtva rpoTTOv ai awrd^et^ 
ra v6/jii/xa, ecji ol<; ird'^di] ra Kar dp^d<i, e^ovcnv. 
dW' ovT€ vp,d<i oljjbal irore e? roaovrov a/^eXeia? 
T€ Kol 7rapopdaeo)<; ■)]^€n', coare eTTiTpeyp-at rivd 
/Jb7] BcKUia, ouTe, el Kadv(f)7]aeTe top dyoiva vfiel^, 
e/j,ol 'TTapaXeiTTTeov eaT\v dSiKov/nevfo. ox; eWe 4 
Koi Toiv dWwv dvcKOTTTjaav rore at ToXfiai ev9v<; 
dp^ap,evo)i> irapavop^lv, KaX ovk dv eTroXe/xei 
P'^xpi' vvv TO Ad/ii/38a Tcp 'Vco SiajuL^ia^ijTovv irepl 
T?79 Kicr^pew^ KaX KecfiaXapyla^, out€ to Td/xfia tw 
KdTTTra Bit]y(ovl^€To KaX e? ')(€ipa<; jxiKpov Seiv 
i]p'X^€TO 7roXXdKi<; iv tm yvacjyeUp virep yva(f)d\X(ov, 
eTreTravTO S' dv Kal Trpo? to Aa/x/9Sa fiaxo/J^evov, 
TO fx6yi<; d^atpovfievov avrov Kal pidXiaTa irapa- 
KXeTTTOv, KaX ra XoiTrd S" dv r]pep.ei, (Tvy)(yaea><i 
dp')(eG6ai irapavoixov KaXov yap eKaaTov fievcLv 

* >^6ipov r : <p6^ov nx 



greater additions to what he has ah-eady done he will 
altogether eject me from my own estate, so that if 1 
keep quiet I shall scarcely count at all as a letter, 
and shall be no better than a hiss. 

It is fitting, then, that you who are now on the 
jury and all the other letters, too, should be on your 
guard against his pernicious activity, for if anyone 
who wants to may work his way out of his own place 
into someone else's, and if you Vowels, without whom 
nothing can be written that means anything, are 
going to permit this, I do not see how society is 
to keep the orthodox distinctions of rank which 
were fixed for it in the beginning. But I do not 
think you Avill ever reach such a pitch of negligence 
and carelessness as to permit anything unjust, and 
even if you do shirk your duty I cannot overlook my 
wrongs. If only the others had been thwarted in 
their audacity long ago, when they first began to be 
law-breakers ! In that case, l^ambda would not be at 
war with Rho, disputing the possession of pumice- 
stone (Kt'cTTj-Vts — Kia-rjpLs) and headaches (K€(^aXaXyi'a — 
Ke^aXapyi'a), nor would Gamma be quarrelling with 
Kappa and again and again almost coming to blows 
with him at the fuller s (yvacfyeiov — Kvac^tioi') over 
pillows (yi'd4,a\\a — Kvdcf)aXXa), and he would have 
been prevented from fighting with Lambda, too, 
openly stealing from him with some difficulty {fx6Xi<i — 
yu-oyis) and slyly filching ivithout any doubt (^jxaKicrra— 
ixdyia-ra^) ; and the rest would also have refrained 
from beginning illegal confusion. Surely it is best 
for each of us to stay in the place which belongs to 

1 The word fxiXurra may have been pronounced {.Layi-ara by 
the common people at some time or other, I know of no 
evidence that it was ever so written. 



ecj) •^9 TeTVX^]K€ Ta^eo)?" to Se vTrep^aLvtiv t'? a 
/jLT) '^pi] XvoPTo^ earl ro BiKatov. Kal 6 ye tt/^wto? 5 
yjiicv Tou? vo/j,ov<; tovtov^ SiarvTrcoawi, etVe Kao- 
/X09 6 vrjaicort]<; etre YlaXafn'jSrj'i o l^avirXiov, — 
Kol "^i jjuwi'lhr] he eviOL TrpoaaTrrovai rijv Trpofxr}- 
Oeiav ravrrjv — ou rrj rd^ei povov, KaB' rjv at 
TrpoeSpiat /Se/Saiovvrat, Stcopiaav, tl jrpcoTOV 
earai i) Seurepov, dWa Koi TroiorrjTa^, a<; CKacrTOV 
rj/MMV G')(eL, Kal hwup^ea avvelhov. Kal up.iv p.ev, 
Q} SiKacnai, rrjv p,ei^co SeSojKaat TLp.i]v, on kuB 
avTci hvvaaOe (ftOeyyeadai, rjp^icfyoovoi'i Be ti]v 
e0e|-?}9, OTi Trpoady'jKJ]'; etV to dfcovadi]vat Seirar 
iraawv Be €ax,dTi]v ivopnaav e;^6tt' p^olpav evvea ^ 
rSiv TTcivTcov, ot? ovSe (pcoiri] irpoaeaTi Kau avTu. 
TO, p,ev ovv (^covi]evTa (fivXciaaeiv eoiKS Tov<i 


To Se ye TaO touto, ov yap e;^a) '^etpovt, avio G 
ovop-daaL p)]p.aTt t) oj Kokelrai, o p,d Tov'i Oeov^, 
el p,r} e^ vpcwv hvo crvvTjXOov dyaOoX koi KaOi']- 
KovTe<i opatlf/vai, to re "A\(f)a Kal to T, ovk av 
'>)K0va6ri p,ovov, tovto toIvvv eToXp-rjaev dhiKelv 
f.Le TrXeio) tmv TTcoiroTe ^lacrapievcoi', ovop,d- 
Tcov p,ev Kal p)]p.dTcov dTveXdaav TraTpcocop, 
eKSiM^av- Be 6p,ov auvBeap-cdv dp-a. Kal irpoOeaecov, 
&J9 pLrjKeTi (pepetv ti-jv eKTOTTOv -nXeove^iav. o6ev 
Be Kal ciTTO TLi'COP dp^dfievov, topa XeyeLV, 

* ivvia second Aldine ed., Fritzsclio : tvia MSS. 
" airtxAnav . . . ficSiu^av K. bchwartz : aireAaaai . . ^k- 
Siw^at MSS. 



him : to go where one has no right is the act of a 
law-breaker. The man who first framed tliese laws 
for us, be he the islander Cadmus ^ or Nauplius' son 
Palamedes (and some attribute this provision to Simon- 
ides), did not determine which of us should be first 
and which second solely by putting us in the order 
in which our places are now fixed, but they also 
decided the qualities and powers that each of us has. 
To you, jurors, they gave the greatest honour, because 
you can be sounded by yourselves; to the Semivowels 
they gave the next highest, because they need 
something put with them before they can be heard ; 
and they prescribed that the last place of all should 
belong to nine letters which have no sound at all by 
themselves. 2 The Vowels should enforce these laws. 
But this Tau here (I cannot call him by a worse 
name than his own), who, as Heaven is my witness, 
could not have made himself heard unless two of 
your number. Alpha and Upsilon, stout fellows and 
good to look on, had come to his aid — this 'J"au, 1 
say, has had the audacity to injure me beyond 
all precedent in acts of violence, not only oust- 
ing me from my hereditary nouns and verbs, but 
banishing me likewise from conjunctions and pre- 
positions all at once, so that I cannot stand his 
monstrous greed any longer. Where and how lie 
began it, you shall now hear. 

^ Tiie story usually ran that Cadmus brought sixteen 
letters from Phoenicia to Greece, and that four were added 
to these by Palamedes and four more by Simonides (not the 
poet, but a physician of Syracuse). Cadmus is here called 
an islander because some versions of his story made him 
come from Tyre, not Sidon. 

2 The Greek " mutes " are nine in number. Sigma, as a 
semivowel, claims higher rank. 



^EireStj/jiovv irore Ku/SeXw, — to hi iarc iroXixvt.ov 7 
ovK dr]Be<;, a-rrotKov, to? e;^et X0709, ^K9i]vaioiv — 
€7rriyo/xr]v Be Kol to Kpartarov 'Pw, yeirovcov to 
^iXTiaTov KaT-ijyofJbijv Be irapa KcofiwBicov tlvi 
TrotijTfj' Afcrtyua;^o? eKoXecTO, Boicurfo? fxev, &>? 
e(f)aLveTO, to jevo'i aveKadev, airo fiecni<; Be a^tcov 
Xi<yea6at t?}? 'ArrfA:?}?* Trapa tovtco Bt] tw ^evw 
TYjv Tov Tav TOVTov TrXeove^iav efjxopaaa- /j-^xpi 
fiev yap 6X17069 e7re')(^elpei, TeTTapa KaTUToX/iicov 
Kal^ TeTTapdfcovTa \eyeiv, €ti Be Tt'jp.epov kol 
Ta bfioia eTTKTTTWfievov IBia tuvtX Xeyeiv, airoaTe- 
povv jie TMV (Tvyyeyev7]/j.evcov koI crvvTedpafi/xepoov 
ypa/jL/xdrcov, (TvvijOeiav (p/xrjv ^ kol olaTov rjv fioi 
TO aKova-jxa /cat ov ttcivv tl iBaKvofirji^ tV avTOif. 
OTTOTe Be eK tovtcov dp^dfxevov eToXjjii^ae KaTTiTe- 3 
pov ecTreip koI KUTTV/xa koI iriTTav, cItu direpu- 
dpidaav Kol ^acriXiaaav'^ ^aa-iXcTTav ovo/xd^eiv, 
ov /xeTpiCt)<i eVt tovtol<; dyavaKTui Kal Tri/xTrpa/xai 
BeBio<; jxi-j Tft) y^povw kcu to, avKa tvku Td ovo/id-arj. 
Km fiot 7rpo9 Ai09 ddup,ovvTi Kal /j,e/j,ovo)p.€va> tmv 
^07]d7]aovTO}v avyyvoiTe t/}9 BiKaia<i opypji;- ov 
yap irepl fiiKpa Kal Ta tv^ovtu icrTiv 6 kIvBwo^, 

' Tf TTapa KaraTo\/j.u<v Ka\ A.M.H , following Halm (rtTTopo 
Kal) and the scholia : not in MSS. 

* Word-order (and Kal for not after avyyfyfi'ri/Li.fvaiv) A. M. H. : 
TfTTapaKoi'ra \fyfiv, a.-jro(TTfpovv /j.e ruv ffvyyeyfirj/u.ii'cci' jmot, 
(Tvvf)diiav ^'nrif avvT^dpaufJ-eiwy ypa/.i.fjLa.Ta>v, Itj . . . Kiyfiv, Ka\ 
olffruv K.r.K. MSS. 

* ^aaiKioaav A.M.H., following K. Schwartz (.Thv Q.) -. not 
in MSS. 



Once I made a visit to Cybelus, which is rather an 
agreeable little village, settled, the story has it, by 
Athenians. I took with me sturdy Rho, the best of 
neighbours, and stopped at the house of a comic poet 
called Lysimaclius, evidently a Boeotian by descent, 
though he would have it that he came from the 
heart of Attica.^ It was at that foreigner's that 
I detected the encroachments of this fellow Tau. As 
long as it was but little that he attempted, venturing 
to mispronounce foia (jea-crapa — reTTapa) and forty 
(recra-apaKovTa — TeTTapaKovTo), and also to lay hands on 
lo-day {a-rjixepov — rrJ/Acpoi), and the like and say they 
were his own, thus depriving me of my kith and kin 
among the letters, I thought it was just his way and 
could put up with what I heard, and was not much 
annoyed over my losses. But when he went on and 
ventured to mispronounce tin [Kaao-iT^pov — KaTTirepov) 
and shoe-leather (Kacrcrv/xa — KOLTTv/xa), and tar (^Triaaa — 
TTiTTa), and then, losing all sense of shame, to miscall 
queens (^Paaikiada — /SacriAiTTa), I am uncommonly 
annoyed and hot about all this, for 1 am afraid that 
in course of time someone may miscall a spade ! ^ 
Pardon me, in the name of Heaven, for my righteous 
anger, discouraged as I am and bereft of partisans. 
I am not risking a trifling, everyday stake, for he is 
robbing me of acquaintances and companions among 
the letters. He snatched a blackbird, a talkative 

' Lysimaclius is called a Boeotian because to say « for t 
was a characteristic of the Boeotian dialect. 

* An allusion to the English saying is here substituted for 
a similar allusion to its Greek equivalent, " to call a fig a 
ng' (to avKa avKo. ovof/.d^eiy), 

VOL. I. O 


a^aLpovfMevw tmv avvijdcov kuI (Tvvecr)(^oi\aK6raiV 
fxoi ypa/xiiidTcov.^ Kuaaav {xov, XdXov opveov, ix 
fieacov ft)? CTTo? eiireiv rcov koXttcov dpirdaav 
KtTTav (ovofiaaev d^elXeTO 8e fxov (f)dcrcrav dfia 
viqacraL^ re koX Koaav(^oi<; dTrayopevovTOf; 
(ndp')(ov' TTepiecnraae Se koI peXiaacov ovk oXiya^i' 
eiT ^ArriKrjv St '^Xde koX e/c /xear]<; avrrj^ dvrjp- 
iraaev dvofiax; "Tp-rjcrcrov - opcovrcov v/xcov koI 
TOiV dXXcov (TvXXafBwv. dXXd tl Xeyco ravra; 
(deaaaXla^ fie e^e/SaXev o\.7]<; ©eTraXtav d^iovv 
Xeyeiv, kol irdaav diroKeKXeiKe /xoi ttjv ddXaaaav 
ovhe rSiv iv KrfiroL^ (f)eiad/jievov crevrXlwy, &)? to hr] 
Xeyofxevov firjBe irdaaaXov [xol KaraXnretv. 

"Oti Be dve^LKaKov el/nt ypdfxfia, fiaprvpelre fioi 
KoiavToi /jLi]8€7roTe eyKaXeaavTL tco Zf]Ta crfidpay- 
8ov dTToairdaavTC Kai irdaav dcpeXo/xeva) ^fivpvav, 
jjLrjhe T(p Ht iraaav irapa^avri avvdi]Kr}v koI rbv 
(Tuyypa(f)ea tmv toiovtcov e)(^ovTi &oukvBlB')]v 
(Tvp,fia')(^ov' tS) fiev yap yelrovi fiov 'Poi voai^aavTi 
(jvyyvdipbTi, Kol Trap avrw (f>VT€V(TavTi fiou ra? 
fjbvppiva^ Kal TralaavTi, [xe irore virb iJbeXay\d\ia<i 
eVl ic6ppTj<;. Kayoi /j.ev toiovtov. to 8e Tav tovto 
aKOTTMfiev ft)? (f)vaei ^laiov Kal irpo^i rd Xonrd. 
OTC 8e ouSe tmv dXXcov aTrea-^ero ypafx/idrcov, 
dXXd Kal TO AiXTa Kal to ®t]Ta Kal to Z^ra, fxiK- 
pov 8eh^ irdvTa i)8iKrjae Ta (XTOL^^ela, avTd /jloc 
KoXet Ta dScK-7]$evTa ypd/nfiaTa. uKoveTe, ^wvrj- 
evTa ScKacTTai, tov p-ev AeXTa Xeyovro^' d^eiXeTo 

' ypafi/naTCiiv MSS : XPVI^'^'^'^V dii Soul. 
' "tix-nffffhv Herwerden : 'TfiJirrhv MSS. 



creature, right out of my bosom, almost, and re- 
named it {KLo-cra — KiTTo) ; he took away my pheasant 
{<f)d(T(Ta — ^(xTTa) along with my ducks (vrj(r(rat — vryrrai) 
and my daws (koo-o-ik^oi — KdTTu<^ot), although Aris- 
tarchus forbade him ; he robbed me of not a few 
hees (fxeXLcrcra p-eXiTTo), and he went to Attica and 
illegally plucked Hymessus ('Y/at/o-o-os — "Y/atjttos) out 
of the very heart of her, in full view of yourselves 
and the other letters. But why mention this ? He 
has turned me out of all Thessaly, wanting it called 
Thettaly, has swept me from the sea (OdXaacra — 
^aXttTTa) and has not even spared me the beets 
(a-evrXia — revrXta) in my garden, so that, to quote the 
provei'b, he hasn't even left me a peg (jrdcrcraXo^ — 

That I am a much-enduring letter, you yourselves 
can testify, for 1 never brought Zeta to book for 
taking my emerald (o-/xapay8os — ^judpaySos) and rob- 
bing me utterly of Smyrna,^ nor Xi for overstepping 
every treaty (^awOijKr) — ^wij-qK-q) with Thucydides 
the historian (o-uyypai^evs — ivyypacfyevs) as his aUi/ 
[avtAfjiaxo<; — ^vp./xa;^os). And when my neighbour 
Rho was ill I forgave him not only for transplanting 
my myrtles (^ixvpcrLvr) — fxvppivrf) into his own garden, 
but also for cracking my crown (Kopcrrj — Kopprj) in a 
fit of insanity. That is my disposition, but this Tau — 
just see how bad-natured he is toward the others, 
too ! To show that he has not let the rest of the 
lettei's alone, but has injured Delta and Theta and 
Zeta and almost all the alphabet, please call to the 
stand the injured parties in person. Listen, Vowels 
of the jury, to Delta, who says : " He robbed me of 

' Pronounced, as it is to-day, Zmyrna, buc written usually 
with 8. 



fiov TrjV €vZeKi-)(^eiav, ivreXex^iCLV a^iouv XeyeaOai, 
irapa Travra^; toj)? v6/j.ov<;' tov €)yjTa SaKpuovro'i^ 
KoX TTj^ /ce(t)a\7]<; Ta<; Tpi')(a'i tiA.Xovto? hrl too Ka\ 
Trj<i Ko\oKvvOr]<i ecrrepPjadar tov ZrjTa, to aupL^eiv 
Kcu aa\7Ti^eiv, o)^ fn]K6T avTU> i^ecvai firjSe 'ypv- 
^eiv. Tt? av TOVTwv avda')(OLTo; rj Tt? i^apKecreie 
8lk7) 7r/3o? TO TTOvrjpoTaTOv TOVTi Tav; 

To Be apa ov to ofiocfjvXov tcov (TToix^icov p-ovov 11 
ahiKet yei'O'i, ciTOC tjEi] kuI 7rpo9 to uv9 poiireiov 
fieTa^e^rjKe toutovI tov Tpoirov ov 'yap eiri- 
TpcTrec ye avTov<i kut evOu (pepecrdai Tat9 7^.0)0'- 
aaL<i' p^aWov 8e, w hiKaaral, fxeTa^v yap pe 
iraXiv TO, Tcbv dvO pcoTrcov irpdypuTa dvep,vt]a€ irepl 
T?}? y\d)(Tar]<;, kuI "" TauTi]^ fie to p,epo<i ^ drrrfkaae 
Kal y\oiTTav Troiel ttjv yXwacrav. S) yXwcrarj^; 
d\Tj6a)^ voarjp.a Tav, dWa p.eTa^i]cropai iraXiv 
eV eKelvo Kal tol<; dvOpcoTTOi^ avvayopevaco inrep 
03V €19 avTOV<; 7r\r]p,p,€\el' Seapol'i ydp tktl 
(TTpe/SXovv Kal airapdTTeiv avTwv ttjv (f)(ioii]v 
eTTL'x^eipel. Kal 6 p.ev ti Ka\ov IScov KaXov eiTrelv 
avTO /SovXeTaL, to Se TrapeicrTreaov TaXov etir^lv 
avTOv^ dvayKd^et iv diraai irpoeSpiav ex^iv d^iovv 
rrdXtv €Tepo<i irepl K\ripaT0<; SiaXeyeTUi, to Be — 
TXPjpov ydp iaTiv dXrjdo)'^ — TXrjpa TreTroirjKe to 
KXijpa. Kai ov p^uvov ye tol'9 TVx^ovTa^ dSLKei, 
dXX^ yBr] Kal tm p,eydXw /SaaiXei, c5 Kal yrjv Kal 
OdXaaaav el^ai (fyacrt Kal t?79 avTCOv ^vcrew^ 
eKcTTrivat, TO Be Kal tovtw iTri^ovXevei Kai 
Yivpov avTov ovTa Tvpov Tiva direiprjvev. 

OvTO) fiev ovv Gcrov e? <f)covr)V di'6pco7rov<; dBiKel' ] 2 

' SaKpvovTos K. Schwartz: KpovovTos MSS. 

* Kol A.M.H. : 8tj Koi MSS. ^ ixiapov Capps. 



endelechy, wanting it to be called entelechy against 
all the laws" ; to Theta crying and pulling out the 
hair of his head because he has had even his pumpkin 
{KoXoKvvOr) — KoXoKvvTq) taken away from him, and to 
Zeta, who has lost his whistle (^a-vpiQeiv — a-vpcTTea) and 
trumpet (aaXTrt^eLv — craXiriTTeLi'), so that he can't even 
iiw/ce a sound (ypv^civ — ypvTTeiv) any longer. Who 
could put up with all this, and what punishment 
could be bad enough for this out-and-out rascal Tau ? 

Not only does he injure his own kinsfolk of the 
alphabet, but he has already attacked the human 
race also ; for he does not allow them to talk straight 
with their tongues. Indeed, jurymen — for speaking of 
men has suddenly put me in mind of the tongue — he 
has banished me from this member too, as far as in 
him lay, and makes glotta out of glossa. O Tau, thou 
very plague o' the tongue I But I shall attack him 
another time and advise men of his sins ag-ainst 
them, in trying to fetter their speech, as it were, 
and to mangle it. A man on seeing something 
pretty (KaAoV) wants to call it so, but Tau interferes 
and makes him say something else (raXov),^ wanting 
to have precedence in everything. Again, another 
is talking about a palm-branch (Kkrjfxa), but Tau, the 
very criminal (rXrjixiav), turns the palm-branch into a 
crime (rXyixa). And not only does he injure ordinary 
people, but even the Great King, in whose honour, 
they say, even land and sea give place and depart 
from their own natures — even he is plotted against 
by Tau, who instead of Ci/rus makes him out some- 
thing of a cheese (Kvpo? — rvpos). 

That is the way he injures mankind as far as their 

1 One would expect a pun here, but TaK6v is not in the 



ep'ytp he ttw?; KXdovaiv dvOpwnoL Koi rrjv avrwv 
Tvyrjv ohupovrai kcjI KaS/iw Karapcavrai, iroX- 
\dKL<;, OTL TO TaO e? to t(»)V aToi-)(^ei(ov jevo^ 
Trapijya'ye' tco yap rovrov acofxari (f)aai tou? 
TVpdvvovi dKo\ov6i]aavTa<; koi /xifX'yjaap.evov'} 
avrou TO irXua/jia eTrecra a-)(y]^cLTV toiovto) ^vka 
TCKT^vavra^ dvOpoiTTov^ dvacrKoXoTrli^eLV eV avrd' 
drro he ^ rovrov kciI rco rex^UH-ari rw rrovr-jpfp rrjv 
TTovrjpav iTTcovv/xiav crvveXOelv. rovrwv ovv drrdv- 
ra)v ev€Ka ttoctcov Oavdrcov to Tav d^iov eivat 
vo^i^ere; iyu> fiev yap olfiai hiKaLco^; rovro 
fiovov 69 TT}v rov Tav rijJbwplav VTrdXenreadai, to 
rS) cr;^///iaTi t&j avTov ttjv hcK^jv inrocr'xelv.^ 

1 Vi A.M.H. : Zh MSS. 

* MSS. add & 5); oTauphs thai v-rh rovrov niv eS-nutovpyijOT], 
virh 5e a.vdpiJoirwv ovojxai^irat, excised by Sommerbrodt. 



speech is concerned, but look at the material injury 
he has done them ! Men weep and bewail their lot 
and curse Cadmus over and over for putting Tau into 
the alphabet, for they say that their tyrants, 
following his figure and imitating his build, have 
fashioned timbers in the same shape and crucify men 
upon them ; and that it is from him that the sorry 
device gets its sorry name {stauros, cross). For all 
this do you not think that Tau deserves to die many 
times over? As for me, I hold that in all justice 
we can only punish Tau by making a T of him.^ 

' I.e., by crucifying him, Greek crof3ses being usually 
T-shaped. MSS. add "for the cross owes its existence to 
Tau, but its name to man " ; see critical note. 



The sub-title comes from the parallel that Lucian draws 
(in section 45) between this affair and the wedding breakfast 
of Peirithous, which ended in a hand-to-hand encounter 
between the Centaurs and the Lapiths. The piece is thought 
to be modelled on the Symposium of Menippus, the Cynic 


TIoiklXtjv, ft) AuKive, Starpi^tjv (fiaac jeyevPjadai 1 
uuiv %^e9 ev ^Apiaraiverov Trapa to helirvov Koi 
7tva<i \6yov<i <f)iXocr6(f>ou<; elprjcrOaL koI epiv ov 
afxiKpav avaTrjvai eir' avToi<i, el Be firj eylrevSero 
^apiPO<i, Koi (t')(^pL rpav/ndrcov 7rpo)(^CL)pT]aat to 
7rpay/xa Kal reXo^ alp^arL 8iaXvOr]vai, T-t]V avvov- 


Kat TToOev, oi ^i\wv, r]7TLcnaT0 Hapcvo<; ravra; 
ov yap cyvveheiirvei fieO^ rjfxwv. 


AiovLKov ecfyrj rov Inrpov ciKovaai. Ai6vlko<; Se 
Kal auTo?, olfiai, twp (Tvi'SeiTrvcov tjv. 


Kat fxaka' ov p,T]v i^ dp')^7]<; ye ovS' avT6<i 
airaai Trapeyevero, aXXd o^jre /xeaovarjt; cr'^^eSov 
'i]8r] T?}? fidxrj(; eiriarrj oXiyov irpo tcov rpav/naToyv. 
ojare (^avfial^o) el' Tt aa<p€^ eiTrelv ehvvaro /xtj 
7rapaKoXovd]]cra<; eKeivoi^, dcf)^ S)v dp^afievr) e? to 
alfia iTeXevT^jaev avTol<; i) ^iXoveiKia. 


Toiyapovv, (o AvKtve, Kal 6 'Kaplvo'^ avT6<;, el 2 
^ovXoLf.ieda TdXrjOf) uKOvaat Kal ottg)? eTrpd^f^dr) 
eKaara, irapa ae 7]fA,d^ rjKeiv eKeXevae. kuI rov 




They say you had all kinds of sport yesteiday, 
Lycinus, at the house of Aristaenetus, at dinner, and 
that several speeches on philosophy were made, out 
of whicli quite a quarrel arose. Unless Charinus was 
lyinjT, the affair even ended in wounds and the party 
was finally broken up by the shedding of blood. 


Now how did Charinus know that, Philo ? He did 
not dine with us. 


He said that Dionicus, the doctor, told him. 
Dionicus, I suppose, was one of the guests. 


Yes, to be sure ; but even he was not there for all 
of it, from the very beginning : it was late and the 
battle was about half over when he came on the 
scene, a little before the wounds. So I am surprised 
that he could give a clear account of any of it, as he 
did not witness what led up to the quarrel that 
ended in bloodshed. 


True, Lycinus ; and for that very reason Charinus 
told us, if we wanted to hear the truth of it and all 
the details, to come to you, saying that Dionicus 



AioviKov yap avTov elrretv o)? avTo<i fiev ov irapa- 
yevoLTO ciiracn, ere Se dicpi/3co<i elSevai. ra <yeycvT]- 
fieva Kol Tou? \6yov<; avTOu<; tiv ^ u7ro/xv7]fiov€V(Tat 
are /ij) irapepyo)^ tcov toiovtwv, dW iv (nrovSfj 
ciKpowpLevov. ware ovk av (^duvot<i eariMV r]/Jid<i 
'>)hi(TTrjv TavTrjv earlacriv, ?^9 ovk oiSa rt? ^ i^hlcov 
e/jLoiye, koI fMuXiara ocrco vi](f)0VTe(; iv elpyjvrj Kal 
civaLficorl e^co /3e\ov<; earLaaofieOa, et're yepovre^ 
eTrapcovrjcrdv rt irapd ro heliTi'ov elVe veoi, elirelv re 
oaa yKicrra ixPW ^'^^ "^^^ uKpaTOV TTpoayOevTe'i 
Kal rrpd^at,. 


l^€avtKcoT€pa rjjj,a<;, o) <$>iX(ov, d^io2<; eKc^epetv 3 
ravra Trpo? tou? ttoWou? koI eire^Levai Sirjyovpe- 
vov<i Trpdyfiara iv oivco Kal fieOr] yevojieva, heov 
X}']6i]v 'TTOLi'jcracrOaL avTcov Kal vojj,i^6LV iKelva 
TTavra deov epya tov Aiovvcrov elvai, o? ovk oiSa et 
Tiva TMV avTov opyicov drekecrrov Kal d^dK')(evTOV ' 
irepielhev. opa ovv yu,?) KaKorjOoiv rtvcov dvOpcoircov 
17 TO dKpi^oi<; rd Totavra i^erd^eiv, d Ka\u)<; e';^et 
iv Tcp avfiTTOcrUp KaTa\nrovTa<i dTraWdrTecrOai. 
" fiiacb " ydp, cf)i]al Kal 6 7roij;Tf/co9 X070?, 
" pvdpova crv/xTrorav." Kal ouSe 6 Ac6vlko<; 6p6o)<; 
iirolrjae tt/jo? tov ^aplvov ravra i^ayopevaa<i koI 
TToWijv ri-jv eoiXoKpacrtav KaraaK€Sdaa<; dvSpcbv 
(pLXoa6(f)cov. iyco Si, diraye, ovk dv n roiovrov 


SpvTrrr) ravra, & AvKive. dXX' ovrt ye irpb^ 4 

ipe ovrco iroLelv i'X^prjv, 09 dKpt/3(0'i ttoXv irXiov 

' Uv Bekker : not in MSS. 

'■' oliK oi5o ris Bekker : ovk old' &v ris MSS. 



himself had said that he was not there for all ot it, 
but that you knew exactly what had happened and 
could actually recite the speeches, being, as you are, 
an attentive and not a careless listener to such 
discussions. So do hurry and give us this most 
delightful entertainment — for none, I am sure, could 
be more delightful, at least to me, especially as we 
shall enjoy a peaceful and bloodless entertainment, 
without intemperance and out of range of missiles, 
whether it was old men or young who misconducted 
themselves at dinner, led on by strong drink to do 
and say what they should not. 


It was rather a silly affair, Philo, and yet you want 
me to publish it abroad and tell what happened when 
heads Avere turned with wine, when it all should be 
forgotten and the whole business put down to a god — 
Dionysus, I mean, who scarcely permits anyone to 
remain uninitiated in his rites and a stranger to his 
revels. Don't you think it rather bad form to 
enquire into such matters minutely ? The proper 
thing is to leave them behind you in the dining- 
room when you go away. As you know, there is a 
saying from the poets : " I hate to drink with him 
that hath a memory." ^ And Dionicus did not do 
right, either, to blab it all to Charinus and be- 
sprinkle philosophers with the copious dregs of their 
stale cups. As for me— get out with you ! I shan't 
tell you anything of the kind ! 


That is all put on, Lycinus. But you needn't have 
acted that way with me, for I know very well that 

' Author unknown : quoted also by Plutarch (/"rooemjjzm^o 
Quaest. Sympos. ). See also Index to Corpus Paroaniogr. Or. 


eTTiOv/jLouvTa ere elnrelv olha rj efxe aKovaat, Kal 
fjiot SoKei<;, el d7ropr)(j€ia<i tmv uKovaofJuevrov, kuv 
irpo'i KLovd Tiva rj 7rpo<i dvSpidvra i]8eQ)<; civ 
vpocreXOcov eK^eai Trdvra avvelpayv d/jLvaTi. et 
yovv ideXtjaco dir aWdrTeaO at vvv, ovk ida€i<; fie 
dvrjKoov direkOelv, dX>C e^ei ^ koX irapaKoXov- 
d'qaeis Kol 8e7]a€t. Kayo) dpv-^opLai iTpo<i ae iv 
TO) fiepef Kal ei ye SoKet, dTrlcofiev dXXov avra 
TTevaopLevoi, aii Se fir] Xeye. 


M.r}8€v 77/909 opyrjv Strjyrjaofiai ydp, eTretVe/j 
ovTcof Trpodvfifj, dXX"" otto)? firj 7rpo<; ttoXXou? 


Et fir) iravrdTTaaiv eyoi emXeXrja fiat, Avklvov, 
auT09 av dfieivov 7roc}]crec<i avro Kal (f)Odaei^ 
eliroiv aTTaaiv, coare ovSev ifiov herjcrei. aW' 5 
eK€iv6 fioi irpSiTov elire, tw iraihl rw Zyvcovi 6 
' ApiaTaivero<; dyofievo^ yvvalKa elcrrla vfid<;; 

OuK, dXXd rrjv Ovyarepa e^eSlSov avTo<; t>]V 
KXeavOlSa tm l^uKplrov tou haveiariKov, tw (piXo- 


UayKdXw vrj Aia fieipaKLW, diTaXw ye firjv eVt 
Kal 01) Trdvv KaO^ copav ydfxoov. 

'Aw' OVK el-)(ev dXXov iTriTrjSeioTepov, oTfxat,. 
TOVTOV ovv KocjfiLov Te elvai hoKovvia Kal irpos 

I 'iiu Fritzsche : i'^eis (Utn) MSS. 


jou are much more ea<2;er to talk than I to Hsten, and 
I have an idea that if you had nobody to hsten to 
you, you would enjoy going up to a pillar or a statue 
and pouring it all out in a stream, without a pause. 
In fact, if I should wish to go away now, you would 
not let me go untold, but would hold me and follow 
me and entreat me. And now I am going to take 
my turn at putting on. {Turns to anolher fnend.) If 
you like, let's go and find out about it from someone 
else. {To lycinus.) You may keep your story to 


Don't get angry ! I will tell you, since you 
are so anxious, but don't you tell a lot of people. 


If I have not forgotten all I know of you, Lj^cinuS; 
you will do that better than I can, and you will 
lose no time in telling everybody, so that I shan't be 
needed. But first tell me one thing — was it to 
celebrate the wedding of his son Zeno that 
Aristaenetus entertained you ? 


No, he was marrying his daughter Cleanthis to 
the son of Eucritus the banker, the lad who is 
studying philosophy. 


A very good-looking lad, to be sure ; still imma- 
turcj though, and hardly old enough to be married. 


But he could not find anyone who suited him 
better, I suppose. As this boy seemed to be 
mannerly and had taken an interest in philosophy, 



(pi\o(ro(f)iav wpfirjfievov, eVt Be fiovov ovra irXovaLW 
T& ¥iVKpira>, IT poeiXero vv/j.<f)bov i^ aTravrtov. 

Ov piLKpav \ey€i<i alnav to irXovrelv rov 
KvKpiTOv. arap ovv, m AvKive, rLV€<; ol Bei- 
7rvovvT€<; rjaav; 


Tou? fiev aX\ov<i to civ aoi Xiyoi/xt; ol Be airb Q 
(jic\oao(f)La<; Kal Xoywv, ovairep eOe\et<;, olpai, 
aKOvaai fxaKicrra, Zr}v6d€pi<i i]v 6 Trpea/BvTrjf; 6 
diro T?}? arodf Kal ^vv avrw A.i(pi\o<; o Xa^vpiv- 
do<; eTTLKXrjv, BiBdaKaXo<; ovto<; 0)v tov 'Apia- 
Taiverov vleo^ tov Z/jvcovo^;' tcov Be cltto tov 
TreptTTaTOV K.Xe6B':'}po<;, olada tov aTcopvXov, tov 
eXeyKTiKov, ^t^o? avTOV ol /jiaOrjTal Kal KOTtiBa 
KoXovaiv. dXXa Kal 6 Fj7nKO'jpeio<; "KpfX(ov 
Tcaprjv, Kal elaeXOovTa ye avTov ev6v<i virt^Xe- 
TTOVTO ol "^tcoIkoI Kal cnreaTpe^ovTO Kal BfjXoi 
rjcrav CO? Ttva iraTpaXoiav Kal evayfj fxvaaT- 
Topevoi. ovTOi fiev auTOv ApiaTaiveTov (f}iXot 
Kal avvr]Oei<; ovtc^ TrapeKeKXijvTO cttI BetTrvov Kal 
^vv auTOt? o ypap,fiaTLKo<i 'iaTtaio<; Kal 6 prjTwp 
^iovv<T6Bo)po<;. Bid Be tov vup,(f)iov tov ^aipeav 7 
"Icov 6 IlXaTQ)vi/co<i avveiaTiaTo BiBdaKaXo<; avTov 
o)V, (Tepivo^ Tt<i iSetv Kal 6eo7rpeTr7]<i Kal ttoXv to 
KoapLiov eTTtcpaivcov tS TrpoacoTTUi' Kavova yovv ol 
TToXXol ovop'i^ovaiv avTOv eh ttjv opdoTijTa t/}? 
yv(opy]<i diro^XeTTOVTe^. Kal eVel TraprjXdev, vire^- 
avicTTavTO irdvTe'i avTU) Kal eBe^iovvro w? Tiva 
Twv KpetTTovfjdv, Kal bX(o<; Oeov €inBi]pia to 
irpayfia rjv "Icov 6 Oavpbaarof; avfnrapcov. 



and also as he was the only son of Eucritus, who is 
rich, he pi'eferred him to all the rest as a husband 
for his daughter. 


You give a very good reason in saying that Eucritus 
is rich. But come, Lycinus, who were the people 
at dinner ? 


Why should I tell you all of them .'' The philoso- 
phers and literary men, whom, I suppose, you 
are most eager to hear about, were Zenothemis, the 
old man of the Porch,^ and along with him Diphilus, 
whom they call " Labyrinth," tutor of Aristaenetus' 
boy Zeno. From the Walk^ there was Cleodemus — 
you know him, the mouthy, argumentative fellow, 
whom his pupils call "Sword" and "Cleaver." 
Hermon the Epicurean was there too, and as he 
came in the Stoics at once began to glower at him 
and turn their backs on him ; it was clear that they 
loathed him as they would a parricide or a man 
under a curse. These men had been asked to 
dinner as Aristaenetus' own friends and associates, and 
also the grammarian Histiaeus and the rhetorician 
Dionysodorus. Then, too, on account of Chaereas, the 
bridegroom, Ion the Platonic philosopher, who is his 
teacher, shared the feast — a grave and reverend 
person to look at, with great dignity written on his 
features. Indeed, most people call him " Rule," out 
of regard for the straightness of his thinking. When 
he came in, they all arose in his honour and received 
him like a supernatural being; in siiort it was a regular 
divine visitation, the advent of Ion the marvellous. 

' The Porch : where Zeno the Stoic used to teach. 
^ The Walk (irepiVaToj) iu the Lyceum, where the Peripa- 
tetics had their meeting-place. 



Aeo^ Se t^Stj KaraKXlveadai aTrdvTWV (T)(^ehov 8 
irapovTCOv, ev he^ia fxev elaiovrwv ai yvvaiKe^ oXov 
Tov KkLvr?]pa eKetvov iireXa^ov, ovk oXtyac ovcrai-, 
Koi ev avTai<i rj vvfi(f})] irdvv aKpi-^oi)<i iyKeKoXvfi- 
fxevrj, VTTO rcov yvvaL/ccov Tr€pt€')(^o/jievr]' e? Be ro 
avTiOvpov 7] aWi-j 7r\7]dv<;, to? eKaaro^ a^ta9 ^^X^' 
KOT avriKpv he twv yvvaiicfav irpwro^ o KvKpiTo<;, 9 
elra 'Apicrrati^eTO?. elra eveSotd^eTO irorepov xph 
Trporepov Zrjvodeficv tov ^tco'Ckov are yepovrarj'Fip- 
p,cova TOV ^FiTTiKovpeiov, i€pev<; yap rjv rolv dvuKoiv 
Kalyevov<i rod irpcorov ev rfj iroXei. dWa o Zrjvo- 
Oe/jic^ eXvae rrjv diroplav " Ei yap pie, ' (pyjcrLV, " o) 
^ KpLtrraiveTe, Sevrepov d^ei,<; tovtovI tov dvBp6<;,^ 
"va pbt-jhev dWo kukov eiTrco, 'EiriKoupelov, aireipi 
6\ov croL TO (TvpiTrocnov KaToXiircov " Kal a/xa 
TOV iralha exdXet /cal e^tovTi ecoKei. Kai o ' E/^/xwj^, 
""E^e puev, 0) ZT]v66efXL, to, irpcoTa," ec^iy " drap 
el Kal' pbrjhev tl erepov, lepel ye ovri VTre^lcrracrOai 
KaXa)<; el^^v, el koI tov ^FiTriKovpov irdw kutu- 
7re(ppovr]Ka<;. ihyeXacra, rj o a a Zjr}vouepL<i, 

" ^ETTiKovpeiov lepea,^ koi dfia Xeycov KaTeKktveTO 
Kal ixeT avTov op^coq 6 "Epp^cov, elra K\e6ST]p,o<i 6 
IlepfTraTT/Ti/ro?, elra 6 "icov Kal vtt eKetvov 6 
vvp(f)io<i, eiT eycb Kal reap e/ne 6 At<^tX,o<r Kal vtt 
avTcp Zt'p'Oiv 6 fiaOijTrj'i, elra 6 pi'jTMp Aiovvao- 
Ficopof; Kal ypafip^ariKo^ Icrtato?. 

' Tovrovl TOV avSpis MSS. : Tovrovi, avSpos Bekker. 
^ tl Ka\ MSS. : *«' Fritzsclie : «&»'? 



By that time we had to take our places, for almost 
everyone was there. On the right as you enter, the 
women occupied the whole couch, as there were 
a good many of them, with the bride among them, 
very scrupulously veiled and hedged in by the 
wonen. Toward the back door came the rest of the 
company according to the esteem in which each was 
held. Opposite the women, the first was Eucritus, 
and then Aristaenetus. Then a question was raised 
whether Zenothemis the Stoic should have pre- 
cedence, he being an old man, or Hermon the 
Epicurean, because he was a priest of the Twin 
Brethren and a member of the leading family in the 
city. But Zenothemis solved the problem ; " Aris- 
taenetus," said he, "if you put me second to 
this man here, — an Epicurean, to say nothing worse 
of him, — I shall go away and leave you in full 
possession of your board." With that he called his 
attendant and made as if to go out. So Hermon 
said : " Take the place of honour, Zenothemis ; but 
you would have done well to yield to me because I 
am a priest, if for no other reason, however much 
you despise Epicurus." " You make me laugh," 
said Zenothemis : " an Epicurean priest ! " VV'ith 
these words he took his place, and Hermon next 
him, in spite of what had passed ; then Cleodemus 
the Peripatetic ; then Ion, and below him the bride- 
groom, then myself; beside me Diphilus, and 
below him his pupil Zeno ; and then the rhetorician 
Dionysodorus and the grammarian Histiaeus. 



Bcr/Sat, oi AvKLue, fiovcreiov ri to crv/inrocnov 10 
^''VyV o-0(}}(Ji)V avhpoyv TOiv TrXelaTU'V, Kal eycoye 
Tov ^ApicTTaiveTov iiraivoi, ore ti]V evKTaioraTqv 
eoprrjv dycov Tov'i (TOipcoTarovi ecrridv irpo rSiV 
aWcov rj^lcoaev, 6 ri rrcp to K€(})d\aiov ef e/cacrT?;? 
aipeaeco'i d7rav9iadfievo<;, ovy^l tov<; fikv, tov<; Be 
ov, dWa dvapX^ diravTa'i. 


"EcTTt ydp, M eralpe, ov)(l tmv ttoWmv tovtcov 
TrXovaicov, dWd Kal TraiSeta? /xeXei avTW teat to 
TrXelarov tov ^lov TovToa ^vvecTTiv. 

^lcrTi,co/j,60a ovv ev i)av)(^ia to TrpCorov, koX \ \ 
TTapeaKevacTTO iroiKiXa. •jrXrjv ovSev olfxai y^prj 
Kal TavTU KaTapiO [xelcrOaL, ')(yiiov<i Kal 7re/Jip,aTa 
Kal KapuKeia<i' diravTa jap d(})dova. ev tovtco 8e 
6 KA-eoS?7/xo9 e7nKv^lra<; e<? tov "loiva, " 'O/qi?," 
ecfiT], " TOV yepovTa " — Z^jvodefiiv Xeyrov, eirr^Kovov 
*{dp — "oTTft)? e/M(f)op€tTaL TO)V o-yjrcov Kal dvaTreirXr]- 
jTai ^(OfMov TO ifiaTiov Kal ocra tw iratSl KaToniv 
ecTTMTt opiyei \av6 dveiv olojxevo^ toi"? dWov<i, ov 
p.efivrjfxevo'i twv jieO' avTov; Sel^ov ovv Kal AvKiV(p 
TavTa, &)? fjbdpTVf; eh]. ' eyco Se ovhev eSeo/x?;^ 
Sei'.^ofTO? p,oi TOV "lcovo<i TToXu TTpoTepov avTO, eK 
irepLWTTrj<i ecopaK(t)<;. 

"Afxa 8e TavTa 6 K.\e6S7]fjL0<; elprjKei, Kal eTteicr- [2 
eiraicTev o KwcKof 'AA,/ciSa//.a? dK\i]TO<;, eKelvo 
TO Koivov e'in')(apievTLad[jievo<;, " tov MeviXaov 
avToiiaTov I'jKovTa." Toi<; fiev ovv 7roWol<i dvai- 




HeavenSjLycinuSjit's a learnedacademy,this dinner 
party that you are telling of ! Piiilosophers almost 
to a man. Good for Aristaenetus, I say, because 
in celebrating the greatest festival day that there is, 
he thought fit to entertain the most learned men in 
preference to the rest of the world, and culled the 
bloom, as it were, of every school, not including some 
and leaving out others, but asking all without 


Why, my dear fellow, he is not one of the coinnion 
run of rich men ; he is interested in culture and 
spends the better part of his time with these people. 

Well, we dined peacefully at first, and were served 
with all sorts of dishes, but I don't suppose there is 
any need of enumerating them — the sauces and 
pastries and ragouts. There was everything, and 
plenty of it. Meanwhile Cleodemus bent over to 
Ion and said : " Do you see the old man ? " — meaning 
Zenothemis : I was listening, you know. " How he 
stuffs himself with the dainties and has covered his 
cloak with soup, and how much food he hands to his 
attendant standing behind him ! He thinks that the 
others do not see him, but he forgets the people at 
his back. Point it out to Lycinus, so that he can 
testify to it." But I had no need of Ion to point it 
out, for I had seen it all from my coign of vantage 
some time ago. 

Just as Cleodemus said that, Alcidamas the Cynic 
romped in uninvited, getting off the commonplace 
joke about Menelaus coming of his own accord.' 
Most of them thought he had done an impudent 

1 Iliad 2, 408. 



(T')(yvTa iSoKei ireTroiriKevaL Koi vireKpovov ra 
Trpo^^eipoTara, 6 fiev to d(f)paLV€i<; Meye'Aae, 6 B 

dX)C ovK ^ArpeiSr] ^Aya/xefivovi ijvBave dufiw, 

Kol aWoc ^ aWa 7rpo<i top /caipov evcrroy^a Kat 
)(^apUvTa v-noTOv9opv^ovre<i' e? fievroi ro cpavepov 
oiiSei? iroXfia \eyeiv eSeSoiKeaav 'yap top A\kl- 
BdfiavTa, ^oi]v dyaOov dre')(yoi<i ovra koI KpaKTCKco- 
Tarov Kvvwv uirdvrwv, irap o kol djJLeivwv iBoxei 
KOL (po/SepMTaroi; rjv diraaiv. 

'O Be WpiaraLverof iiraiveaa'i avTOv eKeXeve 13 
Opovov TLvd Xa^ovra KaOc^eadai Trap larialov 
T€ Kol AiovvcroBcopov. 6 Be, ""Airaye," cf)i]ai, 
" yvvatKeiov \eyec<; Kal fxaXOaKov eVt dpovov 
Kadit^ecrdat rj aKLfX7roSo<;, (oairep vfxel<; /jLaXaKrjf; 
Tavrrj<; €uvi]<; fiiKpov Beiv vtttiol KaTaKet/ievoi 
ea-TidcrOe TTopcjivpiBaf; v7To^el3Xy]/xei'OC- iyo) Be kuv 
op6ocrTdBy]v BeiTTi'i'jcraLp-i efnrepiTraTcov d/na rw 
avfiTTOCTLq)' el Be Kal Kd/xoi/xt, ')(^ rov rpLJSwva 
vTTO^aX6p.evo<; ^ KeLcrofiai eir d'yKm'o^ olov rov 
' WpaKXea ypdcjiovcnv.^' " Out&)9," e(f>i], "ytyvecrdco" 
6 ^ Api(TTaLV6ro<;, "el croi ijBiov.^ Kal to diro tovtov 
TTepiiMV €v kvkXm 6 ^ AXKtBdfxa<; iBeLTrvet oiairep 01 
^KvOat 7Tpo<i Tyjv dcfydovcoTepav vop-i-jv peTe^avLaTd- 
p.evos Kal T0t9 7repL<f)epovai to. oyjra av/jL7repa'oaTa>v. 
Kal [jbevTOL Kal cnTovp,evo<; eVe/3709 ^ju dpeT)}^ irepc j4 
Kal KaK[a<i p,eTa^v Bie^iwv Kal e? top ■^pvaov Kal top 
dpyvpov dTTocrKcoTTTCop' t)p(t)Ta yovv top ApicrTaL- 
V6T0V, tL ^ovXovTai avT(p al ToaavTai Kal TijXt- 
KavTai KiiXiKef t(ov Kepap-eSiv taov Bvvapt,evwv. 

1 iAA.01 Bekker : not in MSS. 

^ vwofia\6/j.fvos Jacobitz : vrrofiaWS/xtyos MSS. 



thing, and they slyly retorted with the first thing 
they could think of, one growling under his breath, 
" Menelaus, thou'rt a fool ! ",i another : " But Aga- 
memnon, Atreus' son, was sorely vexed," ^ and others 
other remarks that, in the circumstances, were to the 
point and witty. But nobody dared to speak out, 
for they all feared Alcidamas, who was really " good 
at the war-cry,"^ and the noisiest of all the Cynic 
barkers, for which reason he was considered a 
superior person and was a great terror to every- 

Aristaenetus commended him and bade him take 
a chair and sit beside Histiaeus and Dionysodorus. 
■' Get out with you ! " said he. " What you tell me 
to do is womanish and weak, to sit on a chair or on 
;i stool, like yourselves on that soft bed, lying almost 
Hat on your backs while you feast, with purple cloths 
under you. I shall take my dinner on my feet as I 
walk about the dining-room, and if I get tired I'll lie 
on the floor, leaning on my elbow, with my cloak 
under me, like Heracles in the pictures they paint 
of him." " Very well," said Aristaenetus; "if you 
prefer it that way." Then Alcidamas began to 
circle about for his dinner, shifting to richer 
pasturage as the Scythians do, and following the 
orbits of the waiters. But even while he was eating 
he was not idle, for he talked of virtue and vice all 
the time, and scoffed at the gold and silver plate ; 
for example, he asked Aristaenetus what was the use 
of all those great goblets when earthenware Avould 
do just as well. But he had begun to be a bore by 

1 Iliad 7, 109. - Iliad 1, 24. 

3 Like Menelaus : Iliad 2, 408, 



aXV ii^elvov fiev i^hrj 8i€vo)(Xouvra eiravcrev if 
TO irapov \\.piaTaiV€To<; T(p TraiSl Siaveuaa^ ^ 
ev/xeyidi] aKV(f)ov avaBovvat avrw ^coporepov 
ly^eavra' koI iSoKei dpicrra eTnvevoyjKevai ovk 
ei'So)? ocrcov KaKcov ap-^i]v o (TKv(f)o^ eKelvo^ eve- 
SeSciOKei. \a/3cov Se a/j.a 6 'AX/c/Sa/xa? iaiyrjae 
fiLKpov Koi 69 rovha(^o<i KaTa/3a\a>v eavTov eKecro 
•^/jbiyvfii'o^, Mcrirep 7]7rei\t]K€c, 7n]^cj<i rov ajKcova 
opdov, e^cov cifxa top aKvcjiOv ev rfj Be^ia, olo? 
irapa too <I>6X«t) 'H/3a/cX,>}'> ^"^^ '^^^ ypa(j>e(ov 

"HS>7 Se Kol 69 TOL'9 aXXou? avve^o)^ Tvepieao- 15 
/SetTO i) kv\l^ kol (f)c\oTrj(TLai Kol ofiiXiai koi 
(f)(ora elae/ceKOfMKTTO. ev roaourco S' eyco tov 
irapecTTOira tm KXeoBrjfxro iralha olvo^oov ovra 
oypalop IScov vTrofjieiOLMvra — '^prj yap, oL/xai, Kai 
o(Ta irapepya tj;? ecrT/acr6&>9 etTrelv, Kai fxaXia-ra 
et Tt TTpo<; TO yXa(pvpa)Tepov eirpaxOrj— fiaka i']hr) 
7Tapecf)uXaTT0V 6 tl koI /jLeiSLacreie. Kai fxeTa 
fMLKpov 6 /uey TrpoarjXOev o)<i a7roX»;-v/ro/x,6t'09 irapa 
TOV K.X6oS>]fxov Tijv (f)id\7]v, 6 Be TOV T€ BaKTvXov 
a-neOXi-^ev avTOV /cal 8pa'^fia.<; Bvo, olfiai, avvave- 
B(OK€ fieTa T>}9 (j)idX7]<i' 6 7rat<i Be irpo^i /xev tov 
BaKTvXov 6Xi/3u/jLevou avOa efieLBiaa-ev, ov /nijv 
avveiBev, olfiai, to v6fj,iap.a, cocrTe firj Be^apuevov 
■\^6(^ov at Bvo Bpa-)(^p.a\ 7rapea')(ov eKireaovaaL, Kai 
r^pvdpLaaav dp-cpo) pidXa aa(p(o<;. rjiropovv Be oi 
ttXtjctlov ovTi.vo<; eirj to, vop-iapiaTa, tov fiev 7raioo9 
dpvovp.evov fii] aTTo/Se^XtjKevai, tov Be K.XeoBr]fiov, 
KaO^ ov 6 ^1^0(^09 eyeveTo, jj,)} tt pocnroiov pievov t))v 
diToppiy^LV. ■t)ixe\i']d~>i ovv Kai Trapdxpdt] tovto ov 

* Siavfvffai Fiitzsche : 5* vevffas CI. 


this time, so Aristaenetus put a quietus on him for 
the moment by directing the waiter to give him a 
big bowl and pour him out a stiffer drink. He 
thought that he liad had a good idea, Httle realising 
what woes that bowl was destined to give rise to. 
On taking it, Alcidamas kept quiet for a little while, 
throwing himself on the floor and lying there half- 
naked as he had threatened, with his elbow squared 
under him and the bowl in his right hand, just as 
Heracles in the cave of Pholus is represented by 
the painters. 

By this time the cup was going round continually 
among the rest of the party, there were toasts and 
conversations, and the lights had been brought 
in. Meanwhile, noticing that the bov in attendance 
on Cleodemus, a handsome cup-bearer, was smiling 
(I must tell all the incidents of tlie feast, I suppose, 
especially whatever happened that was rather good), 
I began to keep special watch to see what he 
was smiling about. After a little while he went up 
to Cleodemus as if to take the cup from him, and 
Cleodemus pressed his finger and gave him two 
drachmas, I think, along with the cup. The boy 
responded to the pressure of his finger with another 
smile, but no doubt did not perceive the money, so 
that, through his not taking it, the two drachmas 
fell and made a noise, and they both blushed very 
noticeably. Those near by them wondered whose 
the coins were ; for the lad said he had not dropped 
them, and Cleodemus, beside whom the noise was 
made, pretended that he had not let them fall. So 
the matter was disregarded and ignored, since not 



Trdvv ttoWmv ISovrcov ttXtjv jhovov, &)? e/xot eSo^e, 
Tov 'ApiaraLverov /xeTeaTijae yap rov iralSa 
fXLKpov varepov d(f)avco<; vTre^ayayoiv Koi rw 
KXeoZi^lxw Tiva TrapaarfjvaL hievevae twi/ i^copcov 
>]8r) Kol Kaprepcov, opewKOjxov riva t) Ittttoko/j-ov. 
Kol rovTO ixev coSe Trw? iKe-)(u)pi]Kei, fxe'ydXt]^; civ^ 
aiayyvrjii atriov t&) KA.6oS7f/x&) yevofievov, el ecpdyj 
Sta(f)ot,T7]aav et9 d.Travra'i, dWd /xt) KariajBrj 
avTLKa, Se^ccof; irdvv tov ' ApiaruLverov ti^v 
Trapotvlav eveyKavro'^. 

'O Is.vviKO'; he ^A\Ki8d/jia<;, eireTrooKeL yap i^hrj, 16 
7rv06fievo<i i]ri<i rj yafiovfievr) 7rac<; KaXolro,^ 
aLWirrjv irapayyei\a<i fieydXi] TJj cjicovf] diro^Xi-^a'i 
e? rd<i yvvaLKWi, "llpoTTivco (Joc" €(f)7]," & KXeavdl, 
'WpaKkeov<i dp'XPiyeTOv" ax; 8' iyeXaaav eVi 
rovTw cLTTavre^, " ^KyeXdaare, ' eiirev, " co KaOdp- 
fiara, el rfj vvfi(f)r} wpovinov eirl rov r^fisTepov 
Oeov TOV 'HpaicXeovi;; koX /nrjv ev elhevat ')(pr) o)? 
rjv fit) Xd^n Trap* ifiov tov aKV(f)ov, ovttotc TOLOVTO<i 
av vi6<i avTrj yevoLTO olo<; iyco, cirpeTTTO'i /xev dXKt]v, 
eXevdepof; 8e ttjv yvcofirjv, to crcojiia 8e ovtco 
KapTep6<i' " Kul dfia Trapeyv^vov eavTOV fxaXXov 
a')(^pL Trpo<i TO alcT'^LaTOv. avdi^ eVt toutoi^ 
iyeXaaav ol (xvfMTroTai, Kat 09 dyaiaKTijaa'; 
eTvavLCTTaTO Spi/jLv Kal irapd^opov ^Xeircov Kal 
8f]Xo<i rjv ovKeTC elp/jvrjv d^cov. Tct^^a 3' av Tivo<i 
KadiKero TJj ^aKTripia, el firj Kara Kaipbv elcre- 
KeKo/xKTTo 7rXaKov<; evjj,eye6ri<i, 77/909 ov dirolBXe'^a^ 
Tjfjb6p(t)T€po<; eyeveTO /cat eXrj^e tov Ov/j,ov Kal 
evecjiopeiTO crvfurepucov. Kal ol TrXetaToi ifiedvov 17 

1 tLV Bekker : not in MSS. 

'■' MSS. KaXoiTo [PI) and iKaKuro. 



very many saw it except surely Aristaenetus, tor he 
shifted the boy a httle later on, sending him out 
of the room unobtrusively, and directed one 
of the full-grown, muscular fellows, a muleteer 
or stable-boy, to wait on Cleodemus. So the affair 
turned out in that way, whereas it would have 
caused Cleodemus great shame if it had been 
speedily noised about among the whole company 
instead of being hushed up on the spot by the 
clever manner in wliich Aristaenetus treated the silly 


The Cynic Alcidamas, who was tipsy by this time, 
enquired the name of the bride, and then, after 
calling for silence in a loud voice and fixing his eyes 
on the women, he said : " Cleanthis, I pledge you 
Heracles, ray patron." Since everybody laughed at 
that, he said: "Did you laugh, you scum of the 
earth, that I gave the bride a toast to our god 
Heracles? I'd have you to know that if she doesn't 
accept the bowl from me, she will never have a son 
like me, invincible in courage, unfettered in intellect 
and as strong in body as I am," and with that 
he bared himself still more, in the most shameless 
way. Again the guests laughed at all this, and he 
got up in anger with a fierce, wild look, clearly 
not intending to keep the peace any longer. Per- 
haps he would have hit someone with his staff if just 
in the nick of time a huge cake had not been 
bi'ought in ; but when he set eyes on that, he 
became calmer, put away his wrath, and began 
to walk about and stuff himself. Most of the 



ijSrj Koi ^orjf; fiearov rjv to av/jLirocrLov' 6 fiev yap 
^lovvcroScjpo^ 6 prjTwp avTipp7jcr€L<;^ Ttva<i iv fiepei 
Bte^rjei KaX eTrTjvelro vtto rcov Karoinv ec^earoircov 
OLKeTcbv, Se laTialo<; o <YpafipaTiKo<; ippa^lrcpSet 
uaT€po<i KaTaKeipevo<i koI avvecpepev e? to avro 
TO, TlivSdpov Kol Yicriohov koX ^AvaKpeovTO<i, &)9 
e^ uTrdi'TCOv piav mBijv irayyeXoiov drroreXeiaOai, 
/xaKtcrra 8' e«et; a uicnrep 7rpop,avTev6p,€vo^ ra 

(Tvv S' e^dXov 'pivov<i' 


ev6a 8' dp* oljxwyiq le koi eu%&)X.^ ireXev dvBpcov. 

o Zr)v66€/iii<; K dveyivaxTKe Trapd tov 7raiS6^\a/3oov 
XeTTToypa^ou' ti JBl^XIov. 

AiaXiTTovTcov 8e oXiyov, coairep eloodaai, tcov 18 
irapaKopt^ovroiv rd 6\jra fxri-^avwpevo<; ^ApicrraL- 
v€To<; prjS' ifceivov drepTri] tov Kaipov elvai pi]8e 
Kevoi' eKeXevae tov yeXcoTOTroiov elaeXdovTa elirelv 
Ti ■)) irpd^ai yeXoiov, &)? eVt pdXXov at avprrorai 
hLa')(v6elev. Kul irapi'jXOev dpopcf)6<; Ti'i e^vpi~ipevo<i 
Trjv KecpaXtjv, oXiywi iirl Ty Kopvtpfj Tpt'^a<i opOd^ 
ex<^''' ovTO<i o)px,'.o'ciTO re KUTaKXwv eavTov Koi 
SiaaTpecpoyv, d)<; yeXoiOTepo^ (paveirj, Ka\ dvdiraiaTa 
(TuyKpoTMV Sie^yXOei' alyvTrnd^wv ttj (f)0)vfj, Koi 
TeXo'i iTrecTKCoTTTev e? tov<; 7rapovTa<;. oi pev ovv jg 
dXXot dyeXcov oiroTe (TKUx^Oelev, iirel he kol eh 

' avTipp-lifffts GerLz : avrov l)i}fffii'MSS. " his own speeches." 
2 ^fTrrS'ypacpSv Herwerden : \€iTT6ypafxiii.6v MSS. 



company were drunk by then, and the room was full 
of uproar. Dionvsodorus the rhetorician Avas making 
speeches, pleading first on one side and then on the 
other, and was getting applauded by the servants 
who stood behind him. Histiaeus the grammarian, 
who had the place next him, was reciting verse, 
combining the lines of Pindar and Hesiod and 
Anacreon in such a way as to make out of them a 
single poem and a very funny one, especially in the 
part where he said, as though foretelling what was 
going to happen : 

"They smote their shields together," ^ 

" Then lamentations rose, and vaunts of men." ^ 

But Zenothemis was reading aloud from a closely 
written book that he had taken from his attendant. 

When, as often happens, the service of the waiters 
was interrupted for a while, Aristaenetus planned 
to prevent even that period from being unenter- 
taining and empty, and ordered the clown to come 
in and do or say something funny, in order to 
make his guests still merrier. In came an ugly 
fellow with his head shaven except for a few hairs 
that stood up straight on his crown. First he 
danced, doubling himself up and twisting himself 
about to cut a more ridiculous figure ; then he beat 
time and recited scurrilous verses in an Egyptian 
brogue, and finally he began to poke fun at the 
guests. The rest laughed when they were made 
fun of, but when he took a fling at Alcidam£,s in 

1 Iliad 4, 447. 

^ Iliad 4, 450. Ausonius' Cento Niipfialis, an epilha- 
lamium composed of tags from Vergil, illuRtrates Liician'a 
meaning perfectly. 



Tov ^ KXKihdjJiavTa o/jlolov ti cnreppi-^e ^leKtratov 
kvvIZlov TrpoaeiTTWv avrov, dyavaKT7'ja-a<i eKelvo^ — 
Koi irakai he hrfK,o<i rjv (pBoviov aura) euSoKi/jLovvTt 
Kol Kar€X,ovTt TO crvfiTToaiov — cnroppi'^a'i tov 
rpL^wva irpovKoXelro ol irayKparid^eiv, el Be pur], 
KaroiaeLV avrov e^rj rrjv ^aiCTrjp'iav. ovrco Brj o 
KaKoha'ipwv ^aTvpiwv — rovro yap 6 yeXwToiTOiO'i 
eKaXeiTo — avard^; eTrayKparta^e. Kal to Trpdyp-a 
v7rep}]8(.(TTOV rjv, cjitXoaocfyo'i dvtjp yeXcoroTroio) 
dvraip6pevo<i Kal Tratcov Kal "Traiopevo^ ev tu> piepei. 
01 7rap6vTe<; Se ol puev tjZovvto, ol he iyeXcov, d)(pL 
dirr^yopevae 7raiop.evo<^ o AX/ctSa/xa? vtto avyKC- 
KpoTTjpevov dvOpwniaKOV Karayo)vicr6eL^. >yeX(o<i 

OVV TToXu? ^^^X^^V ^'t'"' ClVTol^. 

^Kvrai'da Alovlko^ eTreiaPjXdev o larpo^ ov ttoXv 20 
KaTOTTLv TOV dyoivo<i' i^e/SpaSvKei he, &)? €(fia(JKe, 
(jipeviTLht eaXwKora depairevuiv YloXvirpeirovTa 
TOV avXr)TT]v. Kai Ti koX yeXolov hniyi'^craTO' e(f)T) 
p,ei' yap elcreXOelv irap avTov ovk e/'Scb? e\opei'ov 
i^hrj TO) irddei, tov he Ta\e(o<; dvacrrdvTa eiriKXel- 
crai re ttjv Ovpav Kal ^Kplhtov (nraadpevov ava- 
hovra avrCo Tov<i avXov<i KeXevetv avXelv eiTa 
eVei p,r] hvvatT0,7raieiv aKVTo<; e^ovra e<; virTia^ Ta<; 
yetpa?. TeXo<; ovv ev Toaovrfp Kivhvvco eTTtvorjcrai 
Toiovhe' €9 dycova yap TrpoKaXeaaaOat, avTov iirl 
pr)T(p TrXrjycov dpiOpLfp, Kal Trpwrov piev avTOf 
avXrjcrai 7rov)]p(o<i, puerd he irapahov^^ Tov<; avXov<; 
eKelvw he^aaOai Trap avrov to ctkvto'^ Kal to 

^ irapaiohs Bekker : TrapaSSvra MSS. 


the same way, calling him a Maltese lapdog,^ Alci- 
damas got angry : indeed, for a long time it had 
been plain that he was jealous because the other 
fellow was making a hit and holding the attention 
of the room. So, throwing off his philosopher's 
cloak, he challenged him to fight, or else, he said, 
he would lay his staff on him. Then poor Satyrion, 
for that was the clown's name, stood up to him and 
fought. It was delicious to see a philosopher squaring 
off at a clown, and giving and receiving blows in 
turn. Though some of onlookers were disgusted, 
others kept laughing, until finally Alcidamas had 
enough of his punishment, well beaten by a tough 
little dwarf. So they got roundly laughed at. 

At that point Dionicus, the doctor, came in, not 
long after the fray. He had been detained, lie said, 
to attend a man who had gone crazy, Polyprepon the 
flute-player ; and he told a funny story. He said 
that he had gone into the man's room without 
knowing that he was already affected by the trouble, 
and that Polyprepon, getting out of bed quickh', had 
locked the door, drawn a knife, handed him his flutes 
and told him to begin playing ; and then, because 
he could not play, had beaten liim with a strap on 
the palms of his hands. At last in the face of so 
great a peril, the doctor devised this sclieme : he 
challenged him to a match, the loser to get a certain 
number of blows. First he himself played wretch- 
edly, and then giving up the flutes to Polyprepon, he 

* The joke here lies primarily in the play on k<''u>v (Cynic), 
but it should also be borne in mind that the Greek name 
Melite was given not only to the island of Malta, but to the 
deme in Athens in which the worship of Heracles, the patron 
of the Cynic sect, was localised. 



^i(f)L^L0V Kol aTToppcylrab TaXLcrra Bia Tr)<? (f)(OTa- 
ycojov fc"9 TO VTTaiOpcv Trj<? av\y]<;, Kai ro airo 
rovTov aa(pa\i(7T€po<; I'jSr] TrpocnraXaLwv avTcp 
iiriKaXelaOaL tov<; 'yetrvcuyvra^, u0' (ov avaaira- 
crdvTcov ro Ovptou awOrjvat avro'i} iSeuKW oe KUi 
(Tijfiela Twv 7r'\r]ycbv koI ap,vxd<; rwa^; eirl rov 


Kal 6 fi€V Ai6viK0<; ov fielov evZoKLpn^aa'^ rov 
yeXwTOTTOiov eVt rfj 8i.rij>'ja€i irXr^cnov rov Icrrt- 
aiov '7Tapa/3vaa<; kavrov eSetTTvei baa Xoirra, ovk 
dvev 6eov rivo<; i)ixiv eTrnrapdov, dXka Kai iravv 
■y^pr](yipio<i rol<i fxera ravra y€'yeP7]fi£vo<i. irapeX- 21 
Hcbv yap ek ro fieaov 0iKer7]<; Trap' 'Erot/xo/cXeof? 
rov ^rcoiKov i'jfceiv Xeycov ypafiixariSiov e;^<wy 
KeXevaal ol e(pri rov SeaTrorijv iv rco koivm 
dvayvovra el<; eir/jKoov airacnv oTnato avui<; 
uTraWdrreaOai. e<pevro<; ovv rov 'Apiaraiverov 
irpoaekdodv irpo'i rov Xv^vov dvejivcoaKev. 

'H TTcv, 0) Avk7v€, t?}<? vv/x(f)y]<i iyKcofiiov rj 
emOaXafxiov, ola iroWa rroLovaw; 

^Ap>iXei Kal rjp.€i<; roiovrov (pi]6rip,€V, aXX! ovS* 
iyyv<; tjv rovrov iveyeypairro ydp' 

"'ETOf/io/cX?'}'? <f)i\6(ro<{)o<i 'Apiaraivero). 22 

""07rft)9 fiev e)(0) Trpo? Betirva 6 TrapekriXvOda^ 
fioi /3to9 avra? jxnprvpiov av yevoiro, 09 ye ocyrj- 
ixepat rroXXwv iroyXovvrwv irapa rroXv aov 
TrXova-iwrepcDV o/x(t)<; ovde irfoirore (pepwv ep-avrov 

* avr/is IJekker : avT6v MSS. 



took the strap and the knife and threw them quickly 
out of the window into the open court. Then, 
feeling safer, lie grappled with him and called the 
neighbours^ who prised the door open and rescued 
him. And he showed the marks of the blows, and 
a few scratches on his face. 

Dionicus, who had made no less of a hit than the 
clown, thanks to his story, squeezed himself in 
beside Histiaeus and fell to dining on what was left. 
His coming was a special dispensation, for he proved 
very useful in Avhat followed. You see, a servant 
came into the midst of us, saying that he was from 
Hetoemocles the Stoic and carrying a paper which 
he said his master had told him to read in public, so 
that everybody would hear, and then to go back 
again. On getting the consent of Aristaenetus, he 
went up to the lamp and began to read. 


I suppose, Lycinus, that it was an address in 
praise of the bride, or else a wedding-song ? They 
often write such pieces. 


Of course we ourselves expected something of the 
sort, but it was far from that : its contents were : 

" Hetoemocles the philosopher to Aristaenetus. 

" How 1 feel about dining out, my whole past life 
can testify ; for although every day I am pestered 
by many men much richer than you are, nevertheless 
I am never forward about accepting, as I am familiar 

VOL. I. 



eVeScD/ca eiSoo? tou? eVi^ rot<i crvfiTroaLOi^ dopv^ov^ 
Koi irapoivia';. iirl aov Se fiovov etVorct)? a<ya- 
vuKTrjcraL fxoi SoKco, o? roaovTov "xpovov vir ifiov 
XiirapSi^ TeOepaTTeviievo^ ovk r]^LOiaa'^ ivapcd/u,i](Tai 
Kafie TOi? aWoif ^t\ot<i, aWa fj.ovo<i eyca aoi 
a/xoipo'i, Kal ravra iv 'yeLTovwv oIkwv. avicofiai 
ovv iirX aoi to irXeov ovTco<i d)(api(TT(p cfyavevTi' 
€p,ol yap Tj evhaipovLa ovk iv ua aypi'ov poipa 
/) Xaywov rj 7r\aKouvTO<;, a Trap' aX\oi<i a(f>6ov(o<i 
iiTroXavu) ra Kadi]Kovra elhocnv, iirel Kal T>']p,epov 
-rrapa tm padi^rfj Ylap/xevec BetTn'r/aat, 7ro\vTeXe<i, 
M'i (fiacri, SeiTTVov Swcifxevci ovk eirevevaa iKe- 
TevovTL, ao\ o avorjTO^ efxavrov (pvXdrrcov. cry 23 
8e rj/xdii TrapaXiTTOiv dXXov<; evoy^^^ei'i, et/coTW?* 
ouTTQ) yap Svvaaat hiaKpiveiv to ^cXtiov ovBe ti]v 
KaTaXrjTTTiKi-jv (pavTacrLav e%et<>. aXXd olSa odev 
fxoi TavTa, Trapd tmv davpacTTOiv aov (f)iXocTO(f)0)v, 
Zr]vodep,c8o<; Kal Aa^vpivdov, wv — uTrel,')] Se i) 
^ASpdcTTeia — (TvXXoyiapw ivl dirocppa^ai di> pot 
Ta'^KTTa SoKM TO, (TTopaTa. r) etTrarta rt? avTwv, 
TV ccttI ^iXoao(f)ia ; 17 tci TrpcoTa TavTa, tL Bia- 
(f)ipei crykaL^ e|^e<u9 ; "va prj twv d-TTopmv enroi ri, 
KepaTivav rj a(opeiTi]v rj depl^ovTa Xoyov. 

* iit\ MSS. : iv Fritsche, perhaps riglitly. 


with the disturbances and riotous doings at dinner- 
parties. But in your case and yours only 1 think I 
liave reason to be angry, because you, to whom I 
have so long ministered indefatigably, did not think 
fit to number me among your friends : no, I alone do 
not count with you, and that too though I live next 
door. I am indignant, therefore, and more on your 
account than on my own, because you have shown 
yourself so thankless. For me, happiness is not a 
matter of getting a wild boar, a hare or a cake — 
things M-hich I enjoy ungrudged at the tables of 
other people who know what is right. Indeed, to- 
day I might have had dinner with my pupil 
Pammeiies (and a splendid dinner, too, they say), but 
I did not accede to his entreaties, saving myself for 
vou, fool that I was. You, however, have given me 
the go-by and are entertaining others. No wonder, 
for you are even yet unable to distinguish between 
the better and the worse, and you have not the 
faculty of direct comprehension, either. But I know 
where all this comes from — those wonderful philoso- 
phers of yours, Zenothemis and the Labyrinth, whose 
mouths I could very soon stop, I know, with a single 
syllogism. Heaven forgive me for boasting ! Just 
let one of them say what philosophy is, or, to go 
back to the elements, what is the difference between 
attribute and accident.^ I shall not mention any 
of the fallacies like ' the horns,' ' the heap,' or ' the 
mower.' ^ 

^ More literally, efu means a permanent state, a-x*<yn a 
transient state. 

^ The Stoics devoted a great deal of study to the invention 
and solution of fallacies. " The horns" ran thus : "All that 
you have not lost, }'ou have ; but you have not lost horns, 
ergo, you have them." In "the heap" the philosopher 



'AWa av jjihv ovaio avTOiv. eyco Se ft>9 av fiovov 
TO KoKov dyadov t'jyou/jievo'i elvai oXaui 'pahiw<; 
ry-jv cLTL/jLLav. KauToi ottw? fxi] e? exeivyjv (^XW^ 2i 
fcaTa(f)evyecv rrjv cnroXoyiav va-repov, e7rt\a6ea6at 
Xiywv iv toctovtw OopvjBw koX irpdy^an, S/? ere 
r7]jii€pov irpoariyopevaa koI ewOev eVl rf} oiKla koI 
€v T(p dvaK€L(p dvovTa vcTTepov. Taura iyo) tol^ 
Trapovaiv diroXeXoytj/jLai. 

Ell Se heLTTVov eveKa opyL^eadai croi Boko), to 25 
KUTCL Tov Olvea ivvoijaov o-^ei yap koI ttjv 
^'AprefiLv uyavaKTOvaav, otl fiQvt]v avTi]V ou 
TrapeXa^ev eK€tvo<; eVt T?/y Ovalav tou<; dXXov<i 
Seov'i eaTiwv. (fyrjal Be irepl uvtwv "0/j,7)po<} 
o)oe 7r&)9" 

17 XdOeT 7} ovK evoTjaev, ddaaTO Bh jxeya 6vp,&* 

Kol EjVpiTTlBrj^' 

K.aXvBa)v fiev ')]Be yala, ITeXoTrta? ■)(.^ovo<i 
iv dvTLTT6p6ixoi<i, TceBC e^oua evBaifiova. 

tcai Xo(f)OKX'P]<;' 

crvo'i niyiaTOV XP^IH- ^"^^ Olv€co<; yuai<: 
dvt]K€ A7/T01)? 7rai<i €K'>]/36Xo<; Bed. 

TavTa (TOL diro ttoXXcov oXiya TrapeOe/njv, 26 
OTTO)? p.d6r]<i oiov avBpa TrapaXiiroiv AicpiXov 
iiTTid<i Kal TOV viov avT^ irapaBiBtoKa^, et/coro)?* 



"Well, much may your philosophers profit you! 
Holding as I do that only what is honourable is good, 
I shall easily stand the slight. But you need not 
think you can afterwards take refuge in the plea 
that you forgot me in all the confusion and bother, 
for I spoke to you twice to-day, not only in the morn- 
ing at your house, but later in the day, when you 
were sacrificing at the temple of Castor and Pollux. 

"I have made this statement to set myself right with 
your guests. But if you think that I am angry over 
a mere dinner, call to mind the story of Oeneus and 
you will see that Artemis herself was angry because 
she was the only one whom he had not asked to the 
sacrifice when he entertained all the rest of the 
gods. Homer puts it something like this : 

Whether he forgot or would not, greatly was his soul 

at fault. 1 
Euripides says : 

This land is Calydon, lying over seas 
From Pelops' isle ; a land of fertile plains.^ 

And Sophocles : 

A boar, a monstrous thing, on Oeneus' fields 
Turned loose Latona's lass, who kills afar.^ 

" I bring to your attention only these few points 
out of many, so that you may learn what sort of man 
vou have left out in favour of Diphilus, whom you 
entertain and have put in charge of your son. No 

proves that one grain of corn makes a heap; in "the 
mower," that a man who says he will mow a field will not 
and cannot mow it. Several other fallacies are illustrated 
in " Philosophers for Sale," 22. ^ Iliad 9, 537. 

2 From the lost Me/eager of Euripides. 

» From the lost Meleager of Sophocles. 



r)Sv<; yap iart rw ^eipaKiw kuI 7rpb<i X^P^^ avTW 
avvea-TLv. el he fxr) ala^pov rjv ifie \eyeiv ra 
TOiavra, ko.v'^ ti frpoaeOrjKa, oirep av, el 9e\ei<;, 
irapa ZcoTrvpov rov TratSaycoyov av fid6oi<s uX7]0e<; 
bv. dXA,' ov XPV TapcnreLv ev ydjuoi<i ovSe 8ia- 
^aWeiv aA,A,ou?, Kai paXicna ecf ovrax; alcrxpat'i 
al-Tvai^' Kal yap el A[(f)iXo^ ci^io^ 8vo yBy] 
/j,aOr]Td<; /j,ov 7repia7rdaa<i, ciXV e7(y7e (f)iXo(TO(f)L'a<; 
avTrj<i eveKev cncoTTtjaopat,. 

Upoaera^a Be rw olKerrj tovtw, tjv hihp^ avru> 27 
[xolpav Tiva 7) crfo? ?) e\d(pov rj (T7]aafiovi'ro^, ct)? 
e/jLol BiaKop.i'(Tei€ koI dvrl rov helirvov aTToXoyia 
yevono, /jLij Xa^elv, /jlt) kuI So^co/nev eVt tovto) 
7re7ro/M(}>evai. ' 

TovTcov, S) eralpe, dvayLvwa Kop^evoiv pera^u 28 
lBpct)<; re p.01 irepiexelro vir alSov^, Kal tovto 8rj 
TO Tov Xoyov, ;^aretj/ pot t?]V yrjv ^ju^opyji' bpwv 
Tov<; irapovTa^ yeXwvTa'^ e^' e/cdaTO) /cal pdXiaTa 
baoi ySecrav tov 'ETOipoKXea, ttoXiov dvOpwirov 
Kai (jep,vov eJvac BoxovvTa. edavpa^ov ovv olo<i 
Mv BiaXdOot avTov<i e^airaToyp^evov^ tw Troaywvi 
Kac rfj rov 7rpo(xco7rov evrdcret. 6 yap WpiaTal- 
I'ero? eBoKet poi ovk dpieXeia TrapiBeiv'- avrov, dXX 
ovTTOT dv eXTTicra? KXrjOevra einvevaai ovB"" av 
epTrapacrx^tv eavrbv tolovtw tlvl' cocTTe ovBe rrjv 
dpxvv Treipdcrdai rj^iov. cTrel S' ovv eTrava-aro 29 
TTore o otKerrj-i dvayivcoaKcov, to pev avpirocnov 
airav eh tov<; dp,cf)l rbv Zijvcova Kal Ai(piXov avre- 
/BXeire BeBoiKOTa^; Kal oi)XptMVTa<i Kal rfj aTTopia 

1 K&v Fritzsche : «ol Slv MSS. 

^ MSS. Ttapiht'iv (urged by Fritzsche) and ■7r*puiuv. 



wonder, for he is nice to tlie boy and is an indul- 
gent tutor. If it were not beneath me to say such 
things, I might have told you something more, and 
if you wished you could find out from Zopyrus, the 
boy's attendant, that it is true. But it is wrong to 
make trouble at a wedding and to defame others, 
especially with charges so unseemly. Albeit Diphilus 
deserves it for having won two pupils away from me, 
I shall hold my tongue in deference to Philosophy 

" I have directed my servant, in case you offer him 
a portion of boar's flesh or venison or sesame-cake to 
bring to me as an excuse for not asking me to dinner, 
not to take it, for fear it may seem as though I sent 
him with tliat in view." 

While all that was being read, my dear fellow, the 
sweat poured off me for shame, and to quote the 
saying, I prayed that the earth would swallow me 
when I saw the guests all laughing at every 
sentence, especially as many as knew Hctoemocles, 
a man with gray hair who looked to be high- 
minded. It was a marvel to me that such a man 
had hoodwinked them, deceiving tliem with his 
beard and the concentration expressed in his 
features. It was my notion that Aristaenetus 
had not carelessly overlooked him, but that, not 
thinking he would accept if invited, he, the philoso- 
pher, would not condescend to take part in such a 
festivity, and so thought best not to try him at all. 
When at last the slave stopped reading, the whole 
party looked at Zeno and Diphilus, who were 
frightened and pale, and by the distress in their faces 



TWi/ TrpoacoTrcov liroK.rjOevovTa'i to, inro rov 'Erof- 
/iioK\eov<; KaTr]yop7]devTa' o ^ ApiaraiveTO^ he ere- 
rdpaKTo KOI Oopv^uv /jLe(TTo<i rjv, e/ceXeue S' ofiw^ 
TTLvetv rjp.d'i Kal iireipdro ev SiaTLOeadai rb yeyo- 
vo<i vTTo/xeiSiMV d/xa, koI top olKerrjv arreTre/jL-^lrev 
eliroiv ort €7rLfieX-t](TeTai, tovtcov. fier oXijov he 
Kal 6 Zt]V(ov VTTe^avea-rrj dcpavux;, rov iraihayuiyov 
vev(Tavro<i dTraWdrrecrOat co? KeXevcravro^i rov 

'O KXeoSrjfio^ Be Kal irdXai rivo^ d(f)op/jLf}<; Seo- 30 
lievo<i — e^ovkero yap avp.7r\aKrjvaL toZ? Srwi/cot? 
Kal SieppijyvvTo ovk €)(^cov dp')(rjv evXoyov — t6t6 
ovv TO evSoaifiov 7rapa(T')(^ovai]<i t/}? eiTLaroXrji;, 
"Toiavraj' €(f)7]," e^epyd^eroi 6 /caX,09 ^pvanr7ro<t 
Kal 'Zyvcov o OavfiacTTO'^ Kal KX€dvdi]<;, pi^jxdrLa 
Suarqva Kal epcoT7](Tet<} p,6vov Kal a')(^rjp.aTa (f)tXo- 
(Tocfxov, rd S' dX\a '[Lroi/j.oK\ei^ oi irXelaToi' Kai 
at eina-TdXal Spare otto)? Trpecr/SuTtKal, kol to 
reXevTalov Oivev<i fxev KpicnaLvero'^, liTOip.OKXfjf 
Se "Apre/xi?. 'HpdK\ei<i, eixprjfia irdvTa Kal eoprfj 
TrpeTTOvra." " Nr) Ai ,' eiirev o ' Epficov virep- 31 
KaraKe'iixevo'i' " rjKyjKoec jdp, olpat, vv riva 
ecTKevdaOai 'ApiaraLverw e? to helirvov, ajare ovk 
(iKaipov iSoKet fjie/ivfjadac rod K.a\v8covLov. dXXa 
7rp6<; rr]<; 'EcTTta?, S) WpiaraLpere, Trefnre co? 
Td^icrra tmv d'jrap')(Siv, fir] Kal ^Odarj a 7rpea^uTi]<; 
VTTO Xijxov wcnrep o MeXeayyOo? aTroixapavdel^. 
KaoToi ouSev dv nrdOoL heivov dSidcpopa yap o 
X.puat7nro<i to. roiavra Tjyeiro,^^ " Kpva-iTnrov 32 



acknowledged the truth of the charges brought by 
Hetoemocles. Aristaenetus was perturbed and full 
of confusion, but he told us to go on drinking just the 
same and tried to smooth the business over, smiling 
as he did so ; the servant he sent away with the 
words : " I will see to it." After a little while Zeno 
withdrew unobservedly, for his attendant directed 
him to go, as if at the bidding of his father. 

Cleodemus had long been looking for an opportu- 
nity, as he wanted to pitcli into tlie Stoics and was 
ready to burst because he could not find a satisfactory 
opening. But at last the letter gave him his cue, 
and he said: '"'That is what your noble Chrysippus 
does, and your wonderful Zeno and Cleanthes ! 
They are nothing but miserable phrase-makers and 
question-mongers, ])hilosophers in dress, but in all 
else just like Hetoemocles, most of them. And the 
letter — look how worthy of an elder! To cap all, 
Aristaenetus is Oeneus and Hetoemocles is Artemis ! 
Good Lord ! Li excellent taste, all of it, and just the 
thing for a festive occasion ! " " Yes," said Hermon, 
from his place above Cleodemus, " 1 suppose he had 
heard that Aristaenetus had a boar ready for the 
dinner, so that he thought it not inopportune to 
mention the boar of Calydon. Come, Aristaenetus, 
in the name of Hospitality send him a portion with 
all speed, for fear you may be too late and the old 
man may waste away like Meleager from hunger I 
Yet it would be no hardship to him, for Chrysippus 
held that all such things are of no import." ^ 

^ The Stoics divided the objects of human endeavour into 
three classes — the good, which were to be sought ; the 
bad, which were to be shunned ; and the indifferent, or 
unimportant, which were neither to be sought nor shunned. 



'yap fiefivrjcrde vfieU" e<^r} 6 Zfjv6d€fjii<; eTrejeipa^ 
eavTov KOI (f^dey^afiero'i 7rafi/xe'ye6e<f, "tj acf e^o? 

ai/S/309 OVK €Vv6/jL0)<i (pl\o(TOc})OVVTO<i FjTOl/JLOK\eOV<; 

Tov yoTjToq fieTpelre top KX€dv6i]v koX 7irjva>va 
(TO(fiov<; dv8pa<;; rlva^ Be koL 6vTe<; vpeU epeire 
Tuvra; ov crv fxev tmv AioaKovpcov ■tjSr), M"Epp.(i}v, 
Toy? TrXoKupbov; TrepiKCKapKa^ ')(pvaov<i 6vTa<;; Kal 
Sftxxet? hiKi-jv irapahoOel'; tw hipuo. av Se ttjv Xw- 
(TTpdrov 'yvvaiKa tov padrjrov ipoL-)(^eve<^, m K\eo- 
8r)jjL€, Kol KaTa\y(f)6el<i rd aia^icrTa €7Ta6€<;. ov 
aicoTTijaeaOe ovv roiavra avve7riardp.€V0L eavrol^; ' 
" 'AW' ov fjba(Trpo7ro<i iyM t?}? i/xavTOv •yvvaiKo^;,^ 
rj S" o<i 6 KXeoSrjpo'?, " ooairep crv, ovSe rod ^evov 
pbaOrjTov Xa^cbv rov(f>6Siov 7rapaKara6}]Ka<; eiretra 
wfioaa Kara t»^9 HoXidSo^ fii] elXrjcfiei'ai, ovh eVi 
T€TTapai 8pa')(p,at<i havel^w, ovSe d'y)(0) rov<; 
fiadrjrd'i, rjv p-i] Kara Kaipov dTToSaxri rov<; 
picrdoiK;" "'AA-V iKeivo,^' e(f)t] 6 7ji)vo6epi<iy " ovk 
av e^apvo^ yevoic p,r) ov')(l (fidpp.aKOV dirodoadai 
KpircovL ijrl tov irarepa." Kal dfia, ervxe <yap 33 
irivwv, oTToaov eVt \017rov iv rfj kvXlki, irepl i'-jpbicrv 
ax^Bov, KarecTKeSaaev avrocv. uTreXavcre Be Kal 
6 "Icov tt}? y€iTovi']ae(i)'i, ovk avd^tci o)V. pev 
ovv"Yjpp,(jdv dire^vero e« tt}? Ke^aXrj^ rov UKparov 
7rpovevevKQ}<; Kal tov<; wapovra^ ep.apTvpeTO, ola 
iireTTovdeL. 6 K.Xe6Br]/jL0<; Be — ov yap el-^e kvXiku 
— i'7n(TTpa(f>el<i TrpocreirTvcri re tov Z')]v66epii' Kal 
Tfj dpiarepa tov 7r(oy(ovo<; Xa^6p.evo<i epeXXe 
Traiaeiv kuto, Kopprj'^, Kal direKTeivev av tov 

* Tivts Bekker : olriva MSS. 


" What, do you dare to mention the name of 
Chrysippus ? " said Zenotlieniis, rousing himself and 
shouting at the top of his voice. " Dare you judge 
Cleanthes and Zeno, who were learned men, by a 
single individual who is not a regular philosopher, by 
Hetoemocles the charlatan ? Who are you two, pray, 
to say all that? Hermon, didn't you cut off the hair 
of the Twin Brethren because it was gold?^ You'll 
suffer for it, too, when the executioner gets you ! 
And as for you, Cleodemus, you had an affair with 
the wife of your pupil Sostratus, and Avere found out 
and grossly mishandled. Have the grace to hold your 
tongues, then, with such sins on your consciences I " 
" But I don't sell the favours of my own M-ife as you 
do," said Cleodemus, "nor did I take my foreign pupil's 
allowance in trust and then swear by Athena Polias 
that I never had it, nor do I lend money at four per 
cent, a month, nor throttle my pupils if they fail to 
pay their fees in time." " But you can't deny," said 
Ze'nothemis,"that you sold Crito a dose of poison for 
his fother 1 " And with that, being in the act of 
drinking, he flung on the pair all that was left in the 
cup, and it was about half full ! Ion also got the 
benefit of his nearness to them, and he quite deserved 
it. Well, Hermon, bending forward, began wiping 
the wine from his head and calling the guests to 
witness what had been done to him. But Cleodemus, 
not having a cup, whirled about and spat on Zeno- 
themis ; then, taking him by the beard with his left 
hand, he was about to hit him in tlie face, and would 

^ Antique statues with golden (or gilded) hair are 
mentioned not infrequently. In the "Tinion" (4) Lucian 
alludes to the theft of the hair from the head of the famous 
statue of Zeus in Oiympia. 



jepovra, el /x.7; ^Api,(7raivero<i eVeV^^e Tr/v %e6/3a 

Kal v7rep,Sa<i rov Z')]v66e/jiiv es" to fxeaov avrolv 

KareKklOi^, co^ Siaaralev vtto hLaTeL-)(iaixaTi avrro 

elprjvrjv ciyovre^. 

'Ev Saw Se TavT eyiveTO, TrocKoXa, (o '^lXcoi', 34 

€70) Trpo? ipavTOP iievoouv, olov^ to Trpox^ipov 

€K€ii>o, w? ovSev 6(l)€\o^ rjv apa eiricrTaaOaL ra 

fxa6i]/j,ara, el p,ij ri<; Kal rbv /3iov pvdpt^ot tt^o? 

TO /3e\Tcov eKeivovi <yovv TrepiTTovq 6ina<i ev rot? 

Xoyoi^ ecopcov <yeX(OTa inl tmv 7rpay/J,dTQiv 6(})\i- 

(TKdvovTa<i. eireiTa elcrijei /tte, fir] apa to vtto twv 

iroWoiv Xeyopevov a\77^e? y /cal to ireiraihevadat 

aTrdyri TftJt' opOwv Xoyiapwv TOvf e? /uSva ra 

/3i/3Xia Kal Ta'i iv eKeivoi<; (f)popTiSa<; aTevef 

d(f)op(Ji)VTa<i' TOcTovTcov yovv (piXoaocjycov TrapovTCOV 

ovhe KaTCL tv)(^i]V ei>a tlvo, e^w dpapTi'jfiaTO<i rjv 

ISetv, dXX 01 pev eTrolovv ala'^^pd, 01 8' eXeyov 

ala'^iw ovSe yap e? top olvov ert dva(p€p€iv ^^(ov 

TO, ynopeva Xoyt^opero^ ola 6 'Ktoi/liokXt]^ daiTO^ 

€Ti real aTTOTO? iyeypd(pei. dveaTpaiTTo ovv to 35 

TTpdypa, Kai 01 pev tSiwTat Koapiu)<; irdvv ecTTico- 

(levoL 0VT6 irapoivovvTe^ ovTe d(T)(iipovovvTe<; 

€(f)au'ovTo, a\X eyeXwv povov Kal KaTeylvwaKov 

avTMv, olpai, 0U9 ye edavpa^op olopepol Tipaf 

elpat diro tcov a-)(i]pdTwv, ol aocjiol 8e rjaeXyaipov 

Kal eXoLhopovPTo Kal vTrepepeTrlpirXapTo koI 

CKeKpdyeaap Kal ei9 %etpa9 rjecrap. 6 6avpdaio<i 

he ^AXKiSdpwi Kal eovpei" ip tw pecro) ovk 

^ olov Fritzsche : not in MSS. 

' Kal (ovpit Buttmann : «al ivovpti MSS. : k&c io^pet 



have killed the old man if Aristaenetus had not 
stayed his hand, stepped over Zenothemis and lain 
down between them, to separate them and make 
them keep the jieace with him for a dividing-wall. 

While all this was going on, Philo, various 
thoughts were in my mind ; for example, the very 
obvious one that it is no good knowing the liberal 
arts if one doesn't improve his way of living, too. 
At any rate, the men I have mentioned, though 
clever in words, were getting laughed at, I saw, for 
their deeds. And then I could not help wondering 
whether what everyone says might not after all be 
true, that education leads men away from right 
thinking, since they persist in having no regard for 
anything but books and the thoughts in them. At 
any rate, though so many philosophers were present, 
there really was not a single one to be seen who was 
devoid of fault, but some acted disgracefully and 
some talked still more disgracefully ; and I could not 
lay what was going on to the wine, considering what 
Hetoemocles had written without having had either 
food or drink. The tables were turned, then, and 
the unlettered folk were manifestly dining in great 
decorum, without either getting maudlin or behaving 
disreputably ; they simply laughed and passed judge- 
ment, perhaps, on the others, whom they used to 
admire, thinking them men of importance because of 
the garb they wore. The learned men, on the 
contrary, were playing the rake and abusing each 
other and gorging themselves and bawling anc 
coming to blows ; and " marvellous" Alcidamas even 
made water right there in the room, without showing 



aiSov/J.evo'i ru'^ yvvaiKa<;. kuI efiol eSo/cei, ft)? av 
dpiard ri? elKdaeiev, ofioioTara eLvat ra ei> tS> 
avfiTToaiO) 069 irepl t/}? "EptSo? oi iroir^Tai Xeyovcrcv 
ov yap Kkr]6elaav avrrjv e? tov n?/\e&)9 tou ydfiop 
plylrut TO pL^]\ov el's to (TwheLirvov, acf) ov roaovrov 
TToXefMou eiT 'iXtw yejevtjadai. koI o Eroi/xo/cA,?;? 
rolvvv iSoKec fioi t)]v iiriaroXijv ip,/3aX(iov et9 to 
peaov wcTTrep ri fxfjXov ov fieloi t/}? 'iXiaSo? kuku 

Ov yap eiravaavTO ol dfK^l tov Zrjvode/xLV Kat 36 
KXeohrjpiov ^CkoveiKOvvTC^, iirel /xecro'i avTCov o 
^KpiaraiveTCi iyevero' dXXd, " Nvi^ fiev,' ec^r; o 
KX€68rjp,o^, "iKavov, el eXeyyOe'iriTe dpa9el<; 6vTe<i, 
avpiov Be dfivi'ovfjLai v/xd<; ovTiva koI XPV TpoTTov 
diroKptvat jjlol ovv, O) Zrjj'oOefii, y <tv i) o Koapuco- 
TaTO<; At0iXo9, Kad^ o tl d8id(f)opov elvai XeyovTe<i 
TOiV ypvLiaTCOV t?V KTrtaiv ovSev dXX ri tovto 
ef aTTuvToyv crKOireiTe &)? irXeio) Knjaeatfe kul oia 
tovto up,(pl TOL"? 7rXov(Tiov<i dei ey^ere KalSavet^eTe 
KOI TOKoyXvcpeiTe kuI iirl fiiaOo) iraiheveTe, irdXti/ 
T€ av Trjv rj8ovr]V p,LcrovvTe<; KoX tS)v ^RTTiKOvpetcou 
KaT7'}yopovvT€<i avTol Ta aia-)(^L(TTa ijhovfj'i eveKa 
TTOieLTe Kal Trda-yeTe, dyavaKTovvTe<; el tl<; fxij 
KaXeaeiev eVt helirvov el he Kol KX7)0eLy]T€, 
ToaavTa fiev eaOlovTe';, Toaavra he Tol'i oiKeTai<; 
eTT/SiSovTe?" — Kal dp-a Xeyoov Trjv oOovrjv irepi- 
cnrdv e7re;^etpe/, r]v 6 7raL<i eZ^e tov Zy]vo6ep.i8o<i, 
fMe(TTT]V ovcrav TravToSaTrcov Kpeo)v, Kai ep^eXXe 
Xvaa<i aTroppLTTTeiv avTU et9 to e3a^09, dXX o 



any respect for the women. It seemed to me that, 
to use the best possible simile, the events of the 
dinner were very like what the poets tell of Discord. 
They say, you know, that, not having been asked to 
the wedding of Peleus, she threw the apple into the 
company, and that from it arose the great war at 
Troy.^ Well, to my thinking Hetoemocles by 
tiirowing his letter into the midst of us like an 
Apple of Discord had brought on woes quite as great 
as those of the Iliad. 

The friends of Zenothemis and Cleodemus did not 
stop quarrelling when Aristaenetus came between 
them. "For the present," said Cleodemus, "it is 
enough if you Stoics are shown up in your ignorance, 
but to-morrow I will pay you back as I ought. Tell 
me, then, Zenothemis, or you, Diphilus, you pattern 
of propriety, why it is that although you say money- 
getting is of no import, you aim at nothing in the 
world but getting more, and for this reason always 
hang about rich people and lend money and extort 
high interest and teach for pay ; and again, why is 
it that although you hate pleasure and inveigh 
against the Epicureans, you yourselves do to others 
and suffer others to do to you all that is most 
shameful for pleasure's sake ; you get angry if a 
man does not ask you to dinner, and when you are 
actually asked, you not only eat quantities but hand 
over quantities to your servants," — and with that 
he tried to pull away the napkin that Zenothemis' 
slave was holding. It was full of meats of all kinds, 
and he intended to open it and throw its contents 

^ The golden apple, for the fairest of the goddesses, was 
awarded to Aphrodite by Paris, who was paid for his 
decision by being given the love of Helen. 



Trai? ovK avi)K€ /faprepto? avTe')(OfJievo<;. Kal 6 37 
'Kpfxcov, " E5 76," ecf)')], " S) KXeo8?;/Ae, eiTrdTuxrav 
ovTivo<; €V€Ka J/Sof/}? Kanjjopovaiv aurol rjheaOai 
vTrep TOv<; aWov<i a^touuTe<;.' " Ovk, aWa crv/ 
r) S' 09 6 Z)]v66€fii<f, " eiTre, ft) KXeoS>7ytie, /ca^' o rt 
OVK aSidcpopov ^Y/]] rov irXovTOV." " Ov fxkv ovv, 
cOCka au." Kal eVl 7ro\v rovro yv, aXP'- ^V ^ 
"Itoy TrpoKV^Jrat; e? to €p(f)aveaT€pov, " HavaaaOe," 
e(f)r)' " ijOL) Se, el EoKei, \oyuiv acf)opp.d<i vjxlv d^iwp 
T/79 7rapovaii<; eopTrj^ Karadyjaui e? to jj-iaov 
v/jbei<; Be d(pi\ov€iKO)<; ipelre Kal aKovaeaOe toairep 
dfjueXei Kal irapa tw i)p,eTep(p TWdrwvL ev \oyoi<i 
rj irXeicTTr) hiarpi^i] eyerero," TrdvTe'i iirrjveo'av 01 
iTap6vTe<;, Kal [xakicrTa ot dp.(f)l rov XpidTaiverov 
re Kal l^vKpLTOv, diraWd^eaOac t?'}9 a>;8ia? ovtco 
<yovv e\'TTiaavTe<;. Kal [xeTrfkOe re ' Xpia-Taiveroq 
eirl rov avrov rorrov elp/jvijv yeyevyaOaL eXTTi'cra?, 
Kal dfia elaeKeKOfiicrro I'jfiLV ro evreXe^ ovopa^o- 35 
p^evov helrrvov, pita opvi<; eKdarcp Kal Kpea<i v6^ 
Kol Xaycoa Kal l')(6v<i €k raj)]vov Kal cnjaap.ovvre'i 
Kal 6a a evrpayeiv, Kal e^rjv diroipepeaOai, ravra. 
rrpovKeLro he ovx, '^i' eKdarcp mvdKLOv, dW, 'Api- 
araivercp p.ev Kal ^vKplro) errl /x/a? rpa7re!^r-j<; 
Koivov, Kal rd rrap avrw eKarepov ey^prjv \a/3elv' 
Zi7]vodepiiSt Be rw 'Xro)iK(p Kal "Rpp^covt rw 'Evri- 
Kovpelfp 6pLoio)<; koivov Kal rovroi^- elra e^ri<; 
}\Xeohi)p.(p Kal "\wvl, p-aO' ov<; rw vvp.(]3lfo Kal 
epboi, Tft> Ai(bL\a) Be rd dp,<i>olv, yap Ti/jvcoi 
d'TreXyXvOei. Kal p,ep,V7}a6 p-oi rovrwv, m '^I^lXcov, 
BiOTi Btj earl ri ^ ev avrol'i ')(^py]aip.ov e? rov \oyov. 
1 T< Bekker : koI MSS. excised by Fritzsche. 



on the ground, but the slave clung to it stoutly and 
did not let him. "Bravo, Cleodemus," said Hermon; 
" let them tell why they inveigh against pleasure 
when they themselves want to have more of it than 
the rest of mankind." " No," said Zenothemis, " but 
do you, Cleodemus, say why you hold that wealth is 
important." " No, that is for you to do ! " This 
went on for a long while, until Ion, bending forward 
to make himself more conspicuous, said : " Stop, and 
if you wish I will put before you a topic for a 
discussion worthy of the present festal day, and you 
shall talk and listen without quarrelling, exactly as 
in our Plato's circle, where most of the time was 
passed in discussion." All the guests applauded, 
especially Aristaenetus and Eucritus, who hoped at 
least to do away with the unpleasantness in that 
way. Aristaenetus went back to his own place, 
trusting that peace had been made, and at the same 
time we were served with what they call the " Full 
Dinner "—a bird apiece, boar's flesh and hare's, 
broiled fish, sesame-cakes and sweetmeats ; all of 
which you had leave to carry away. They did not 
put a separate tray in front of each of us, but 
Aristaenetus and Eucritus had theirs together on a 
single table, and each was to take what was on his 
side. In like manner Zenothemis the Stoic and 
Hermon the Epicurean had theirs together, and then 
Cleodemus and Ion, who came next, and after them 
the bridegroom and myself; Diphilus, however, had 
two portions set before him, as Zeno had gone away. 
Remember all this, Philo, please, because it is of 
importance for my story. 


VOL. I. Q 




'O roLvvv "Iwv, " IlpcoTo? ovv apwoixair etbrj, 39 
ei, ooKei. KUL fiiKOov eiria'vcoi', hjypfiv aev 
icrco<i, €(pr), Totovrcoi' avopwv irapovTwv Trept loewv 
re Kai aaco/mdrcov elirelv /cal '«/^i'%'}9 adavaaia^' 
iva he fit) dvTiXiycoaC fioi ottoctol p.r} kutu ravrd ^ 
(f)i,\oa-o(f)odai, irepl yd/xoyv epco rd eiKora. to 
fiev ovv dpio-rov rjp fir) SelaOao yd/xcoi', dWd 
TreiOo/iiivov^ UXdrcovL Koi ^wKpdret TraiSepaaTeiv 
/jlovoi yovv 01 tolovtol aTroreXeaOelev dv irpb^ 
dperrjv el Be Set Koi jvvaiKeiov ydfiou, Kara to, 
IlXdTwvi SoKovvra KOLvd<j elvai eyprjv * rd^; <yvvai- 
Ka<i, w? e^co g7]\ov eurjixev. 

VeXco^ errX tovtoi<; iyevero w? ovk iv Kaipw 40 
\€yofi,evoL<i. Aiovv(T68(i)po<; 8e, " Tlauaai," e^rj, 
" ^ap^apiKa rjfuv aScov, irov yap dv evpCaKoifxev 
Tov i^rfKov irrrl tovtov koL irapd tlvc ; " " Kal crv 
yap (pdeyyj), Kddapfia ; " elirev o "Yoov,^ Kal 
Acovva68copo<i dvreXoiSopelTO rd eiKora. aXV o 
ypafifiariKOf 'la-Tialo<; 6 ^e\ri(7To<;, "HavcraaBe,^^ 
e^rj' " iyoi yap vp2v eTnOaXdfiiov dvayvcacro/xai," 
Kai dp^d/j,€vo<i dveylvcoaKev. rjv ydp ravTa, e'l ye 41 
^ifMvrj/xai, rd iXeyeta- 

n oir) TTOT ap rjy * Apicrraiverov ev 
Bia KXeavdl<; dvacra irpe^er €vBvKeco<;, 

' TouTo vulg : toCto MSS.. 
■' (XPVy du fcJoul : iKfivwv MSS. 

* 6 "loiv Schafer, Bekker : o'l^la.^ MSS. 

* &P 557 MSS. : «p' Dindorf. 




I shall remember, of coarse. 


Well, Ion said : " Then I will begin first, if you 
like"; and after a little pause: "Perhaps with men of 
such distinction here we ought to talk of 'ideas' and 
incorporeal entities and the iinmortality of the soul ; 
but in order that I may not be contradicted by all 
those who are not of the same belief in philosophy, 
I shall take the topic of marriage and say what is 
fitting. It were best not to need marriage, but to 
follow Plato and Socrates and be content with friend- 
ship : at all events only such as they can attain per- 
fection in virtue. But if we must marry, we should 
have our wives in common, as Plato held, so as to be 
devoid of envy." 

These remarks gave rise to laughter, because 
they were made out of season. But Dionysodorus 
said : " Stop your outlandish jabbering ! \\ here can 
the word envy be found in that sense, and in what 
author.''"^ "What, do you dare open your mouth, 
you scum of the earth ? " said Ion, and Dionysodorus 
began to give him back his abuse in due form. 
But the grammarian Histiaeus (simple soul !) said : 
" Stop, and I will read you a wedding-song," and 
began to read. The verses were these, if I remember 
right : 

O what a maiden in the halls 

Of Aristaenetus 
Her gentle nurture had, our queen 
Cleanthis glorious ! 

' The rhetorician ciirps at Ion for usiug ^t/Aoi iu tlie sense 
of ^r]\orviria, ' j<!alousy in love.' 



irpov)(ova uWdoiv Traaawv TrapdeviKcicov, 

/cpeacrwv t^? Kvdepr]<i tJS' ci/jia ^ r?}? 'EXevrj^. 
vv/x(pi€, Kot av he ^(^aLpe, Kparepojv KpdrLcrre 

Kpeaawv Nipfjo<i koI SeTiBo<i 7rdiBo<;. 
afi/x6^ S' avO^ v/jiiv tovtov 6a\afM7]iov Vfivov 
^vvov eV dfj,(f)OTepoi.<; 7roXkdKi<i aaofieOa. 

FeA-coTO? ovv irrl rovrot,<i, q)<; to eiKO'^, yevo- 42 
fievov avekeadai ySij rd irapaKelfxeva eSet, koI 
dvciXovTO ol irepl tov ^Kpiaraiverov koI FiVKpiTov 
rrjv TTpo avrov eKdrepo-i Kayu) Ta/xd kuI o ^aip€a<i 
ocra eKeivo) e/ceiro kol "\(ov o[xoia)<i koX 6 KXeohrj- 
fxo<;. o Be At(/)tXo? rj^lov koX rd tw Zr'jvcovc or] 
dirovTC^ irapahodevTa (pepecrdai, koI eXeye jxovw 
7rapaTe6P]vai ol avrd koI 7rpo<; Tov<i 8iaK6vov<i 
e/j,d'X,eTO, Koi dvTeaircov t?}? 6pvi.9o<i iTrecXrjfi/xevoi, 
wairep tov YlaTpoKXou ve/cpov dv0e\.KovTe^, koL 
T€\o<i ivLKijOrj Kal d<jiriKe iroXvv yeXcoTa irapa- 
(T^ojv TOt? (TvixiroTai'i, Kal fidXicrTU eVet rjya- 
vdKTei fiGTa TovTo o)? dv Tu fieyiaTa TiSiKr/fievo^. 

Oi 8e dfKJH TOV "Epficova kuI ZrjvoOefMiv djjba 43 

KUTeKeiVTO, coaTrep eXprjTat, 6 [xev vTrepdvco 6 

Zr}v66efjLi<;, 6 S' vtt' avTov TrapeKSLTO 6' avTol<i Ta 

liev dWa ttuvtu caa, koX dvelXovro €lp)]vtKco^- rj 

1 o/xo Guyet : aZ MS3. 

'■* Hopelessly corrupt : KpancTTe Ttuv irvve(p^Bcuv Dindorf. 

* airouTi Hartiuan, Herwerden : ani6vri MSS. 



Superior to other maids 

As many as there be. 
Than Aphrodite prettier 

And Helen eke is she. 
To you, O groom, a greeting too. 

Most handsome of your mates 
And handsomer than those of old 

Of whom Homer relates. 
We unto you the song you hear 

Will sing repeatedly 
To celebrate your wedding-day : 

It's made for both you see ! ^ 

That caused a laugh, as you can imagine; and 
then it was time to take what was set before us. 
Aristaenetus and Eucritus each took the portion in 
front of him : I took what was mine and Chaereas 
what was set before him, and Ion and Cleodemus 
did likewise. But Diphilus wanted to carry off not 
only his own but all that had been served for Zeno, 
who was away ; he said that it had been served 
to him alone, and fought with the servants. They 
caught hold of the bird and tried to pull it away 
from each other as if they were tugging at the body 
of Patroclus, and at last he was beaten and let go. 
He made the company laugh heartily, especially 
because he was indignant afterwards, just as if he 
had been done the greatest possible wrong. 

Hermon and Zenothemis were lying side by side, 
as I have said, Zenothemis above and Hermon below 
him. The shares served them were identical in all 
but one point, and they began to take them 

' The translator's version is perhaps better than the 
original : it could not be worse. 



Se opi'i^ T) irpo Tov "Fip/xci)vo<i irifieXecTTepa, ovtm^;, 
olfiat,, TU^of • eSet Be koI Tavra<i avatpelaOai ti]v 
eavTOu eKarepoi'. iv tovtw tolvvv o Z-rjiodefxi^ — 
KUi fxoL, Si 't'lXcov, irdvv irpocrexe tov vovv, ofxov 
yap icrfxev 7]8y] Ta> Ke(^a\al(i) tmv 'iTpa-)(9^vT0iv — 
o Se 'Lrjv66epLL<;, (f>')]fii, rrjv Trap ainu) d^ei? ttjv 
irpo TOV "Kp/j.covo'i QveiXero TTiorepav, co? e(f>J]v, 
oucrav 6 S' dvreTreXd^ero koI ovk eta ifkeoveK- 
Telv. ^or) TO irrl tovtoi^, Kal avjii7recr6vTe<; eTratov 
dX\.7]Xov'i Tal<i opvicriv avral<i e? ra irpoawTra, 
Kal TMv TToyycovcov iTreiXrjfifievoc iireKaXovvro 
^or]6elv, 6 fiev tov K.Xe68>]/j.ov 6 "Yipficov, o he 
Z7}vo6e/jbi<; *AXKi8dpavTa Kal Ai(f)LXov, Kal avvL- 
(TTavTO 01 fxev o)? tovtov, oi S" &)? eKeivov ttXtjv 
fjLovov ToO "I&)i^09" iKeivo<; Be pLecrov eavrov i(f)vXaT- 44 
Tev. 01 B' €p,('i\ovTo (Tvp,7rXaKevTe^, Kal o p.ev 
Z>)v66ep.i<i crKV(f)ov dpdfievo<i airo tj}? Tpa7re^i]<; 
Keipbevov 7rp6 tov ^AptcnatveTOV ptTrret eVt tov 
' Kpp-tova, 

KdKelvov fiev dp-apTe, rrapal Be at eTpdrreT aXXrj, 
BielXe Be tov to Kpaviov e<i Buo ■)^p-t]aT(p 
p.dXa Kal /3adel tw Tpavp^aTi. ^oi] ovv irapa Toiv 
yvvaiKcov iyevcTo Kal KaTeTnjBrjaav e? to p,eTai)(^- 
fiiov al TToXXai, Kal p,dXiaTa r) pn-jTiip tov p.eipa- 
KLOV, eVel TO alp.a etSe* Kal rj vvp,(f)T] Be dveTrijBrjae 
(fio^yjOelcTa irepl ovtov. ev ToaovTW Be 6 \Xki- 
Bdpxi'i rjpicnevae tc5 ZajvodepiBi avp-pLa-^wv, Kal 
7TaTd^a<; ttj ^aKTTjpia tov K.XeoBijp.ov p-ev to 
Kpaviov, TOV "Epp.covo<; Be ttjv aiayova eTreTpiyjre 
Kal TO)v oiKeTMi' eviovq ^oijOuv avTol<i eV/^j^et- 
povvTa<i KaTeTpwaev ov pii]v direTpdirovTO eKelvoc, 



peaceably. But the bird in front of Hermon was 
the plumper, just by chance, no doubt. In that case 
too each should have taken his own, but at this 
juncture Zenothemis — follow me closely, Philo, for 
we have now reached the crisis of events — Zeno- 
themis, I say, let the bird beside him alone and pro- 
ceeded to take the one before Hermon, which was 
fatter, as I have said. Hermon, however, seized it 
also and would not let him be greedy. Thereat 
there was a shout : they fell on and actually hit 
one another in the face with the birds, and each 
caught the other by the beard and called for help, 
Hermon to Cleodemus, and Zenothemis to Alcidamus 
and Diphilus. The philosophers took sides, some 
with one, and some with the other, except Ion alone, 
who kept himself neutral, and they pitched in 
and fought. Zenothemis picked up a bowl that was 
on the table in front of Aristaenetus and threw it at 

And him it missed and went another way ; ^ 

but it cracked the crown of the bridegroom, 
inflicting a wound that was generous and deep. Con- 
sequently there was an outcry from the women, and 
most of them sprang to the battle-field, especially 
the lad's mother when she saw the blood ; and the 
bride also sprang from her place in alarm over him. 
Meanwhile Alcidamas distinguished himself on the 
side of Zenothemis. Laying about him with his 
staff, he broke the head of Cleodemus and the jaw of 
Hermon, and he disabled several of the servants 
who were trying to rescue them. But the other 

1 Cf. Iliad 11, 2.33. 



dW fiev KXeoST/ytio? 6p6m tw SaKTvXo) top 

6(f)6a\fMov Tov Zrjvode/xiSo'i e^copvTTe Kal rr}v plua 

7rpoa(f)v<i UTrerpayev, 6 Be "Eppcov tov Ai(})i\ov 

eVt ^uppa-)(Lav yxovra rov Zi]vo6ept8o<; d(^i]Kev 

eTTi KecpaXrjv diro rov K\tVT)]po<i. eTpcoOrj Be Kal 45 

'IaTtalo<i jpappariKo^; SiaXveiv avrov'i iiri- 

■)(€Lp(aVy \d^, olpai, et? tou? 686vTa<; viro rov 

KXeoSijpov AicpiXov eliai olydevTo^;. eKeuro 

yovv ^ o ddXio<i Kara rov avTov ' OpTjpov " alp, 

epeav." irXrjV rapa-^ri<i <ye Kal BaKpvcov peard 

fjv Trdvra. Kal ai pev yvvaiKe'i eKcoKvov rw 

X.aLpea TrepLX^Otla-ai, ..." ol he dXXot, Kare- 

TTavov. puey Kirov Be rjv dirdvrwv kukcov 6 ^AXkc- 

Bdp,a<;, eirel drra^ ro KaO" avrov irpeyfraro, iralcov 

rov Trpocrrvyovra' Kal ttoXXoI dv, ev ia6c, eireaov 

el purj Karea^e r}]V ^aKrrjpiav. eyo) Be rrapd rov 

rol-)(ov 6pdo<i e<f>earcb<i ecopcov eKaara ovk dva- 

piyvv^ eavrov vrro rov lariaLov BiBa^OeL'i, to? 

eariv en'ia(})aXe<i BiaXveiv rd roiavra. Aavrt^a? 

ovv Kal l\.€vravpov<; ciTre? dv, el etSe? ^ rparrel^a<i 

dvarperropeva<; Kal atp,a eKKe-)(ypevov Kal aKv- 

(f)0V^ piTTTopevovi. 

TeXa Be 6 ^AXKiBdpa^ dvarpeyfra<i ro Xv)(ylov 46 

aK6ro<; peya erroirjae, Kal ro irpdypa, &)? ro elKO<i, 

paKp5> ^(^aXeTrdorepov eyeyevrjro' Kal yap ov pa8[Q)<; 

evTToprjcrav (fxoro^; dXXov, dXXd TroXXd eirpd^dT} 

Koi Beivd ev rw aKorto. Kal iirel Trapfjv Ti? Xv'x^vov 

» yodv A.M.H. : olv MSS. 

- Lacuna Gertz: ol 5e &\\oi olKerai Fritzsche : ol Se &.Tptgrot 
Bekker. » flirw &v, e« eI5ej Gertz : elSes &v MSS. 

458 ^ 


side did not give way, for Cleodeinus with a stiflT 
finger gouged out the eye of Zenothemis and got him 
by the nose and bit it off, while as for Herinon, when 
Diphilus was coming to the support of Zenothemis 
he threw him head first from the couch. Histiaeus 
the grammarian was. wounded, too, in trying to 
separate them — he was kicked in the teeth, I think, 
by Cleodemus, who supposed him to be Diphilus. 
At all events the poor fellow was laid low, " vomiting 
gore," as his own Homer says. The whole place, 
however, was full of noise and tears^ and the women, 
gathered about Chaereas, were wailing, while the 
rest of the men were trying to quiet things down. 
Alcidamas was the greatest nuisance in the world, 
for when he had once routed his opponents he hit 
everybody that fell in his way. Many would have 
gone down before him, you may be sure, if he had 
not broken his staff. As for me, I stood by the 
wall and watched the whole performance without 
taking part in it, for Histiaeus had taught me how 
risky it is to try to part such fights. You would 
have said they were Lapiths and Centaurs, to see 
tables going over, blood flowing and cups flying. 

At last Alcidamas knocked over the lamp-stand 
and brought on profound darkness, and as you can 
imagine, the situation became far worse, for it was 
not easy for them to provide more light, while on 
the other hand many dire deeds were done in the 
darkness. When some one finally came in with a 



TTore KOfii^cov, KaTe\'^(f)dr) ^A\KiBdfxa<i fiev Tr/v 
avXrjTplha uTroyv/j^vcov koI tt/jo? ^tav crvvevex- 
dfjvai, avrfj aTrovSd^cov, A.iovva68(opo<; Se dWo rv 
yeXotov ecpcopdOt] 7re7roi?7«c6?' (TKV(f)o<i yap i^cTreaev 
etc Tov koXttou e^avaaravro^ avrov, eiT^ diroXo- 
yovfievo<i 'Iwva ecfytj dveXo/ievov ev Trj rapa')(rj 
Sovvai avTU), 07rty<? jJirj diroXoLTO, Kal 6 "Icou KrjSe- 
fioviKCi)^ eXeye tovto TreTroirjKevat. 

KttI 70VT0t<; BieXvOrj to (rv/iTroaiov reXevrrjcrav 47 
e'/c Twi' BaKpucov aijdt<; e? yeXcora irrl tu> ^AXKiSd- 
/j-avTi Kol AiovvaoBcopq) KaVlcovi. koX o'l re rpav- 
jiaTLai (f)opdBr]v i^eKo/jii^ovro 7rovi]po}<; €)(^ovt6<;, 
Kal fidXiara 6 Trpea^vTi]^; 6 Z')]v60€fii<; ufi<po- 
Tepai<; rfj fiev t?)? pivo^, zfi he tov 6(f)daX/j.ov 
i'ireiXy]p,fievo<;, ^omv diroXXvadat vir dXyrjBovcov, 
w<7T6 fcal TOV "EpfjLMva KUiTrep ev KaKol<; ovTa — 
Svo yap 686vTa<i e^eKeKOTTTO — dvTLfiaprvpecrOaL 
XiyovTa, " M.e/J.vr](TO jxevroL, w Zrjvode/xt, tw? ovk 
dBid(^opov rjyfi tov ttovov" koI o vv/jL(f)io<i Be 
aKeaafievov to Tpavfia tov Aiovlkov dirijyeTO e? 
Tr)V oiKLav TaivLai<; KaTeiXrj/u.evo'i t)]v Ke(j)aXrjv, 
eirl TO ^€iiyo<i dvaTtde'K; i(f)' ov t)]V vv/ncfyrjv uTrd^eiv 
efxeXXe, TriKpov^; 6 dOXio^ tow ydfiovf; kopTdaa<i' 
Kal Tcbv dXXcov Be 6 AtoviKO'; eTrefieXeiTO Brj to, 
Bvvard, Kal KadevBrjaovTe^ dinqyovTO e/jiovvTe^ oi 
TToXXol ev Tal<i oBol<i. 6 fievTOi ^ AXKiBd/jLa<i avrov 
efjueivev ov yap -))Bvvi'idriaav eK^aXelv rov dvBpa, 
eirel aira^ Kara^aXoov eavrov eirl t/}<? KXivrj<i 
irXayLco^! eKdOevBe. 



lamp, Alcidamas was caught stripping the flute-girl 
and trying to ravish her, while Dionysodorus 
was found to have done something else that was 
ridiculous, for as he got up a bowl fell out of the 
folds of his cloak. Then by way of clearing himself 
he said that Ion had picked it up in the confusion 
and had given it to him, so that it might not get 
lost ; and Ion considerately said that he had done 

Thereupon the dinner-party broke up. After the 
tears, it had ended in a new burst of laughter over 
Alcidamas, Dionysodorus and Ion. The wounded 
men were carried away in sorry condition, especially 
the old man Zenothemis, who had one hand on his 
nose and the other on his eye and was shouting that 
he was dying with pain, so that Hermon, in spite of 
his own sad pliglit (for he had had two teeth 
knocked out) called attention to it and said : " Just 
rememl^er, Zenothemis, that you do consider pain of 
some consequence, after all ! " The bridegroom, after 
his wound had been dressed by Dionicus, was taken 
home with his head wrapped in bandages, in the 
carriage in which he had expected to take away his 
bride ; it was a bitter wedding that he celebrated, 
poor fellow ! As for the rest, Dionicus did the best 
he could for them and they were taken o'.Y to bed, 
most of them vomiting in the streets. But Alcidamas 
stayed right there, for they could not turn the man 
out, once he had thrown himself down crosswise on 
the couch and gone to sleep. 



ToOto a 01 TeA.09, w Ka\e ^iXwv, ijevero rou 48 
avjJLTToaiov, r) a/xeivov to TpayiKov ixeivo eireiirelv, 

TToWcLi [XOp<^aX Tcbv SaijjLOVLCOV, 

TToWa S" aeA,7rT(W9 Kpatvovcn Oeot, 
KoX TO, hoK7]6evT ovK erekeoOn)' 

awpoaBoKijTa yap co? a\r}6oi<; aTre/Sr] kol ravra. 
iK€u6 ye firjv ^ pefiddrjKa i)hr], 6)<i ovk dcr(pa\e<; 
airpaKrov ovra (jvveaTcdadai TOiovroi<i cro^ot?. 

* ye uV Bekker, Uindorf : ^V uot in MSS. : 7* not in all 
MSS. ' 



Well, Philo, that was the end of the dinner-party: 
it would be better, though, to say at the close as 
they do in the plays of Euripides : 

In many shapes appear the powers above. 
And many things the gods surprise us with. 
While those we look for do not come about. ^ 

For all of it, you know, was quite unexpected. This 
much, however, I have at last learned, that it is not 
safe for a man of peace to dine with men so 

' These lines occur at the close of the Alcestis, the 
Andromache, the Bacchae and the Hden, aad, with a slight 
change, in the Me.d&a. 




Acanthus, 15 

Achaemenidae, 183 note 

AchiUes, 35, 139 note, 181, 321 

Acrisius, father of Danae, 165 

Admetus, a hack poet, 165 

Aeacus, 11 

Aegisthua, 201 

Aeschylus, 169 note 

Aesculapius, 159 ; statue of, 41 

Aesop, 321 

Agamemnon, 35, 111, 425 

Agathabulas, 145 

Agathocles, the Peripatetic, 159 

, tyrant of Sicily, died 289 

B.C., 229 
Ajax (Locrian), 319 

, sou of Telainon, 311 

Albinus, 97 note 

Alcidamas, 423 

Alcinous, 251 

Alexander, 35, 177, 313, 379 

Amber, 73-79 

Amphion, who, with the aid of a 

lyre, tlie gift of Hermes, built 

the wall of Thebes by mailing 

the stones move of their own 

accord, 195 
Anacharsis, a Scythian and friend 

of Solon, 319 
Anacreon of Teos, 69 note 229, 243, 

319, 431 
Andromeda, 201 
Anteia, wife of Proetus : she fell 

in love with Bellerophon, but 

was rejected, 387 
Antigonus One-Eye, King of Asia, 

died 301 B.C., 231 
, BOD of Demetrius, died 239 

B.C., 231 
Antimaclius, poet, 349 
Antipater, son of lolaus, died 319 

B.C., 231 

Antiphilus, famous painter, 368 

Antiphon, 339 
Antisthenes, founder of the 

Cynic school of philosophy, 167 
Antoninus, Pius, Roman Emperoi 

138-161 A.D., 227 note 
Antoniua Ijiogenes, 251 note, 261 

Apelles, the most famous of Greek 

painters, born circa 365 B.C., 

359 note, 363 sq. 
Aphrodit*, 95, 449 note 
Apollo, 203, 257 
Apollodorus, an Athenian historian 

of the second century B.O.. 239 

Apollonius Rhodius, 161 
Aratus, 117 note 
Arcesilaus (Ursinus), 155 
Archelaus, 237 

Archimedes, famous mathemati- 
cian, born 287 B.C., 37 
Areius, 325 
Arganthonius, 229 
Ariadne, 313 

Arion, famous lyric poet, and In- 
ventor of dithyrambic verse, 319 
Aristaenetus, 413 sqq. 
Aristarchus, famous grammarian 

flourished about 156 B.C., 323 
Aristides, 313, 389 
Aristippus, 171 
, founder of Cyrenaic school 

of philosophy, ft. 370 B.C., 

Aristobulus of Cassandria, historian 

of Alexander, 239 
Aristoi)hanes, 285 note 
Aristotle, 153 
Arsacidae, 183 
Artabazus, 235 



Artaxerxea, 233 

Artemis, 439 

Asandrus, 235 

Ateas, 229 

Athena, 89, 203 

Atheiiodorus of Tarsus, 239 

Atreus, sons of, 205 

Attains, King of Pergamxis, 159-* 

138 B.C., 233 
Augustus Caesar, 235 
Ausouius, 431 note 

Bacchus, 49 
Bardylis, 229 
Bellerophon, 387 
Botticelli, 359 note 
Brauchus, 203 

Buslris, King of Egypt : he sacrificed 
strangers, 327 

Cadmus, 401 

Caesar Augustus, 239 

Calypso, 333, 341 

Cambyses, 233 

Caninascires, 235 

Caracalla, Roman Emperor 211- 
217 A.D., 227 note 

Caranus, 325 

Carneades, famous sceptic philo- 
sopher, opponent of the Stoics 
214-129 B.C., 237 

Carousal, The : or Thb Lapiths, 

Castor, 319 note 

Cedaliou, 203 

Cethegus, 161 

Chaereas, 419 SQq. 

Charinus, 413 S']q. 

Charon, 63 

Chrysippus, famous Stoic philo- 
sopher (born, 280 B.C.), 237, 243 
note, 321 

Cinyras, 329 

Circe, 219 note, 341 

Claudian, 201 7iote 

Cleanthes, Stoic philosopher of 4th 
century B.C., 237 

Oleanthis, 417 sqq. 

Cleodemus, 419 

Clisthenes, 69 note 

Clytemnestra, 201 

Consonants at Law, The, 395-409 

Crates, famous Cynic philosopher, 
ft. 320 B.O., 167 

Cratinus, died 422 B.C., 243 

Creon, 111 

Crito, 445 

Critolaus, Peripatetic philosopher, 

Croesus, King of Lydia, 35 
Ctesias of Cnidos, contemporary of 

Xenophon. 251, 255 note, 337 
Ct«sibius, famous for his mechanical 

inventions, d. 250 B.C., 239 
Curetes, 137 
Cynegirus, 169 
Cyrus, 233, 313 

Danag, 165 
Daphne, 257 
Delphi, 21 sq. 

Demetrius, Attic orator, born circa 
345 B.C., 145, 379 

of Callatia, 229 

Demochares. 229 

Democritus of Abdera, famous 
philosopher, born circa 460 B.C., 

Demodocus, 195 

Demonax, 141-173; 167 

Dexinus, 237 

Dinon, 233 

Diodorus, 229 note 

Diogenes, celebrated Cynic philo- 
sopher, born circa 412 B.C., 147 
note, 167 sqq., 321 

Laertius, 237 note 

of Seleucia, Stoic philosopher, 


Diomed of Thrace, 327 

Dionicus, 413 sqq. 

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, famous 

rhetorician, died 7 B.C., 33 
Dionysodorus, 419 sgq. 
Dionysus, 47-59; 255, 347 note, 

Diphilus, 419 
Draco, first law-giver of Athens, 

ft. 621 B.C., 369 

Electra, the, 201 note 

Empedocles, 325 

Endymion, 91, 265 sqq, 

Epeius, 37, 325 

Epicharmus, Dorian comic poet, 

born circa 540 B.C., 243 
Epictetus, Stoic philosopher, 145, 




Epicurus, foundei oJ Epicurean 

school of philosopliy (342-270 

B.C.), 321 
Eratostlieiies, oi Cyrene, born 276 

B.C. 243 
Ericthonius, 203 
Eridanus river, 75 tq. 
Eucritus, 417 sqq. 
Eumolpus, son ol Poseidon and 

Chione, 161 
Eunomuf of Locris, 319 
Eupliorbus, Trojan liero, 325 
Euripides, 201, 241, 389 note, 439, 


Favorinus, 151 
Fly, the, 81-95 

Gfiryon, 63 

Goauaus, 235 

Gorgias, of Leontlni, famous 

rhetorician, 241 
Gorgon, tlie, 203 
Gorgons, 197 
Gosithras, 233 

Hall, the, 175-207 

Hannibal, 313 

Hector, 119 

Hecuba, HI 

Helen, 187, 311, 319, 329, 449 note 

Hellanicus of Lesbos, 239 

Hephaestion, friend of Alexander, 

died 325 B.C., 379 
Hephaestus, 203 
Heracles, 61-71; 111, 255 
Hermes, 65, 95; god of oratory, 

Herminus, 169 
Hermon, 419 
Herniotimus, 131 note 

ol Clazomenoe, 89 

Herodes Atticus, Greelt rhetorician, 

circa 104-180 A.D., 157, 161 
Herodotus, 181 note, 197, 229, 255 

note, 265 note, 267 note, 277 note, 

279 noU, 293 noU, 299 note, 309, 

337, 367 note 
Hesiod, 327, 371 noU, 431 
Hetoemocles, 435 
Hiero, King of Syracuse, died 216 

B.C., 229 
Hieror.ymus of Cardla, 231, 239 

HIPPIAS, 33-45 

Hiijpoclides, 69 

Hippocrates of Cos, circa 460-357 
B.C., 311 

Hippolyta, 313 note 

Hippolytus, 389 

Hipsicrates, of Amisenum, 241 

Histiaeus, 419 sqq. 

Homer, 27, 57, 67 notes, 69, 71, 87, 
103, 105 note, 117, 119, 135, 139, 
171, 179, 181, 187, 219, 225, 251, 
261 note, 269, 299 note, 317, 323, 
325, 327, 333, 339, 341, 373, 
387 note, 391, 423 note, 425 note, 
431 note, 439 note, 449 note, 455, 

Honoratus, 155 

Hyacinthus, 319 

Hydra, 13 

Hygeia, statue of, 41 

Hylas, 319 

Hypereides, 167 

Hyspausines, King of Charax, 235 

lambuluB, 251, 255 note 
lapetus, a Titan, 63 
Ion, 419 sqq. 

loplion, son of Sophocles, 241 
Isidore the Characene, 233 
Isocrates, famous Attic orator 
436-338 B.C., 241 

Justinus, 231 note 

Labdacus, 361 

Lactantius, 261 notes 

Lais, a celebrated courtesan, 321 

Laius, 361 note 

Leogoras, 15 

Leto, 439 

Leucothea, a marine goddess, 341 

Lucian, 333 

Lucullus, L. Licinius, 235 

Lycinus, 413 sqq. 

Lycurgus, 243, 319 

Lysias, son of Cephalus, the Attic 

orator, 458-378 B.C., 181 
Lysimachus, 360-281 B.C., 231 

Massinissa, King of Numidia, 238- 

148 B.C., 235 
Medea, 205 
Medusa, 201 sq. 
Meleager, 443 



Menelaus, 57 note. 89, 311. 329, 343 
Menippus, 411 note 
Milo of Croton, *J3 note 
Miltiades, victor of Marathon, 490 

B.C., 391 
Minos, 11 

Mitliridates, King of Pontus, 233 
AToraus, god of mockery, 59, 131 
Muia (= Fly), 91, 93 

Narcissus, 319 
Native Land, My, 209-219 
Nauplius', 333 siq. 
Nestor, 225, 319 

of Tarsus, 239 

NIGRINUS, 97-139 
Nunia Pompilius, second KiDg of 
Rome, 227 

Octogenarians, 221-245 
Odysseus, 57 7iote, 119, 203 sq., 219 

note, 251, 317, 325, 341 sq., 389 

Oedipus at Colonus, 243 
Oeneus, King of Calydon, father 

of Meleager, 439 
Ogmios (Heracles), 65 
Ouesicritus, 233 
Orion, 203 

Palamedes, 205, 319, 389, 401 

Pammenes, 437 

Pan, 51 sq. 

Paris, 449 note 

Patroclus, 455 

Peirithous, 411 note 

Peleus, 449 

Pelops, house of, 361 

Penelope, 333. 343 

Perdiccas, 233 

Peregrinus Proteus, 157 

Periander, tyrant of Corinth from 

625-585 B.C., 319 
Pericles. 107 note 
Perilaus, 17 sg. 
Perseus, 201 sq. 
Petronius, 129 note 
Phaedra, daughter of Minos and 

wife of Theseus. 313, 389 
Phaedrus of Myrrhinus, 181 
Phaethon, 75, 263, 269 sqq. 
Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum, 

proverbial for his cruelty, 1-31 ; 



Phemius, famous minstrel of the 

Odyssey, 195 
Pherecydes the Syrian, early Greek 

philosopher, fi. 544 B.C., 239 
Philemon, comic poet, fl. 330 B.C., 

Philetaerus, 231 
Philip, 229 
Pliilo, 413 sqq. 
Philoxenus, 377 
Phocion, Athenian general and 

statesman, 402-317 B.C., 319 
Phocyhdes, 371 note 
Photius, 251 note 
Pindar, 43, 431 
Pittacua of Mytilcne (died 569 

B.C.), 237 
Pittheus, 371 note 
Pityocamptes, 327 
Plato, 89, 153, 161, 181 noU, 239, 

251 note, 321, 351 sqq. 
Pollux, 319 note 
Polybius, son of Lycortas, historian, 

circa 204-122 H c, 163, 241 
Polydeuces, a slave, 157, 161 
Polyprepon, 433 
Polyxena, 111 
Poseidon, 131 note 
Posidonius of Apumia, (born circa 

135 B.C.), 237 
Potamo, a rhetorician, 241 
Proetus, husband of Anteia, 387 
Ptolemy Auletes (died 61 B.C.), 

- — Soter, son of Lagus, King 

of Egypt 323-285 B.C., 37, 231 
Philadelphua, regn. 285-247 

B.C., 231 
PhUopator, regn. 222-205 B.C., 

Pylades, 201 

Pyrrhus of Epirus, 318-272 B.C., 35 
Pythagoras, fi. 525 B.C., 15, 153, 

Pytho, 153 

Quinti]lu3, 223, 245 

Eesiilla, 161 

Rhadamanthus, 11, 311 
Ruflnus, 169 

Sarpedon, 269 
Satyrion, 433 


Scintharus, 295 sjq., 347 

Scipio, P. Cora., Africanus Minor, 

185-132 B.C., i;33 
Sciron, a famous robber, slain by 

Tlieseus, 327 
Scribonius, 235 
Scythians, 137 
Selene, 91 
Seleucus Nicator, regn. 312-280 

B.C., 231 
Semele, 53 note 
Seneca, 261 note 
Serving, TuJius, 6th King of Kome, 

Silenus, 51 SQq. 
Simonides of Ceos, famous Ijtic 

poet, died 467 B.C., 243, 401 
Sinatroces, King of Parthia, 233 
Sirens, the, 197 
Slander : 0)i not being quick to 

put faith in it, 359-393 
Socrates, 469-399 B.C., 147, 169, 

171, 181, 319, 321. 389 
Solon, famous legislator, circa 650- 

550 B.C., 237, 369 
Sophocles, 201, 241, 439 
Sostratus, 445 

of Cnidus, famous architect, 


(Heracles). 143 

Stesichorus of Himera, ft. 608 B.C., 

243, 319 
Stratonice, 377 

Tacitus, 265 note 

Tarquinius Superbus, 7th and last 

King of Rome, 227 
Tarsus 239 
Telegonus, 341 
Telemachus. 179 note, 205 
Telephus, 139 
Tellu.*, 319 
Teres, 231 
Thales of Miletus, Ionic pliiloso- 

pher, circa 636-546 B.C., 35. 

Thamyris, who challenged the 

Muses and lost his sislit, 195 
Themistocles, Athenian statesman 

circa 514-449 B.C., 391 
Theodotas, 363 
Theodotus, 363 note 
Thersites, 171, 325 
Theseus, 311, 321, 389 note 
Thucydides. 265 note, 273 note, 

297 note 
Tiberius Caesar, 42 B. 0.-37 A.D., 239 
Tigranes, King of Armenia, regn. 

96-55 B.C., 235 

(name for Homer), 323 

Timaeus of Tauromenium, histor- 
ian, circa 352-250 B.C., 229, 239 
Timocrates, 15 

of Heraclia, 145 

Timon of Athens, 335 
Tyraeus, 235 
Tyro, 307 

UraiDus (Arcesilaus), 155 

Xenocrates of Chalcedon, 396-314 
B.C., 237 

Xenophanes of Colophon, ft. 520 
B.C., 237 

XenophiIu3, 237 

Xeuophon, son of Gryllus, histor- 
ian, bom circa 444 B.C.. 239 

Zamolxis, 319 

Zeuo, founder of Stoic philosophy, 

died circa 260 B.C., 153, 237, 417 


, 417 sgg. 

Zenodotus, grammarian, ft. 208 

B.C., 323 
Zenothemis 419 83. 
Zeus 53 note, 269 
Zopyrus, 441 


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Apuleius: The Golden Ass (Metamorphoses). W. Adling- 

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Caesar: Civil Wars. A. G. Peskett. 
Caesar: Gallic War. H. J. Edwards. 
Cato: De Re Rustica; Varro: De Re Rustica. H. B. Ash 

and W. D. Hooper. 
Catullus. F. W. Cornish; Tibullus. J. B. Postgate; Per- 
vigilium Veneris. J. W. JNlackail. 
Celsus: De Medicina. W.G.Spencer. 3 Vols. 
Cicero: Brutus, and Orator. G. L. Hendrickson and H. M. 

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Books I. and 11. E. W. Sutton and H. Rackham. Vol. II. 

De Oratore, Book III. De Fato; Paradoxa Stoicorum; 

De Partitione Oratoria. H. Rackham. 

Cicero : De Finibus. H. Rackham. 
Cicero: De Inventione, etc. H. M. Hubbell. 
Cicero : De Natura Deorum and Academica. H. Rackham. 
Cicero: De Officiis. Walter Miller. 

Cicero: De Republica and De Legibds; Somnium Scipionis. 
CJijJtOO W. Keyes. 

Cicero : De Senectute, De ATinciTiA, De Divinatione. 

W. A. Falconer. 
CicEBO : In Catilinam, Pro Flacco, Pro Murena, Pro Sulla. 

Louis E. Lord. 
Cicero: Letters to Atticus. E. O. Winstedt. 3 Vols. 
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Cicero: Pro Caelio, De Provinchs Consularibus, Pro 

Balbo. R. Gardner. 
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Rege Deiotaro. N. H. Watts. 
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CoMOEDO, Contra Rulldm. J. H. Freese. 
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Ovid: The Art of Love and Other Poems. J. H. Mozley. 


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Ovid : Metamorphoses. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. 

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Apollonius Rhodius. R. C. Seaton. 

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Aristotle: Athenian Constitution, Eudemian Ethics, 
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Aristotle: Generation of Animals. A. L. Peck. 

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Aristotle: Meterologica. H. D. P. Lee. 

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strong; (with Metaphysics, Vol. II.). 

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W. S. Hett. 

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Aristotle: Organon — Posterior Analytics, Topics. H. Tre- 
dennick and E. S. Foster. 

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Conybeare. U Vols. 
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Greek Authors 

Aristotle: History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Plotinus : A. H. Armstrong. 

Latin Authors 

Babrius and Phaedrus. Ben E. Perry. 







Harmon, editor .A2 

/sr^ ■'L H3 IT